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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 8 • Date Aug 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • High-frequency, high-efficiency MSM photodetectors

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1504 - 1509
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)  

    Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with submicron spaced interdigitated Schottky barrier fingers have been developed for applications in monolithic integrated optical receiver circuits capable of detecting a millimeter-wave modulation signal. Each photodetector layer, is designed for optimal absorption about a narrow linewidth centered on a specific wavelength between 700 and 800 nm. The MBE grown layers consist of an AlxGa1-xAs cap layer, to prevent any surface recombination of carriers and to minimize top surface reflections; a thin GaAs absorption layer (375 nm), to achieve a high-frequency response (>39 GHz) by minimizing the collection times of optically generated carriers; and a buried Bragg reflector stack which reflects unabsorbed light back into the GaAs absorption layer. Using this layer design, we are able to fabricate detectors that have millimeter-wave bandwidths without sacrificing quantum efficiency. The measured internal quantum efficiency of an MSM photodiode, fabricated on such a layer structure, was 82% at 5 V and close to 94% at 10 V View full abstract»

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  • Diagnostics of TM010-mode microwave cavity discharges in CO2-N2-He laser gas mixtures. II. Measurement of vibration temperature

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1533 - 1536
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    For pt. I see ibid., vol., 31, no. 8, p. 1525-32 (1995). The plasma temperatures in microwave discharged CO2-N2-He laser gas mixtures were examined using the spectroscopic and electrostatic probe methods. A vibration temperature of N2 molecules, obtained spectroscopically, was determined to be nearly 7000 K without gas circulation and to be nearly 4000 K at the mass flow rate of 4.2 kg/h. It is found that an efficiency of laser output power exceed 14% (RF to laser output power conversion ratio) below the vibration temperature of 4000 K. The values of vibration temperature obtained were higher than those reported in DC discharges View full abstract»

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  • Quantum theory of stimulated microwave emission from E×B drifting electrons

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1579 - 1583
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    The quantum theory of stimulated microwave emission from electrons drifting in crossed electric and magnetic fields inside slow wave cavities is considered. The energy and momentum of the emitted radiation quanta come from the electron electrostatic and vector potentials, respectively. The kinematic momentum and energy are invariant during the transition. This “recoilless” emission explains the gain symmetry relative to the resonant frequency. The difference in absorption and emission rates responsible for the gain is caused by the transverse gradients in the waveguide mode structure and the collective beam field. The per-pass gain formula in the low-gain (nonexponential) regime is obtained and found to agree with recent classical results View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic wavelength tuning characteristics of the 1.5-μm three-section DBR lasers: analysis and experiment

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1389 - 1400
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)  

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the static and dynamic tuning characteristics of 1.55-μm region three-section tunable DBR lasers under discrete tuning and under continuous tuning. We have analyzed the oscillating wavelength, the Bragg wavelength, and output power characteristics using the rate equation that considers the thermal effect, simultaneously analyzed the heat transfer equation, considering the heat transfer among passive waveguides, the LD chip, the submount, and the heat sink. We experimentally confirm the static and dynamic wavelength tuning characteristics using a highly accurate heterodyne measurement system. Static and dynamic characteristics simulated using the three-section DBR laser model and the thermal model agree with the experimental results presented in this paper View full abstract»

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  • Beam-propagation in magnetooptic waveguides

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1510 - 1516
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    The propagation of modes in magnetooptic waveguides distinguishes between the forward and the backward direction. This effect is applied to the realization of integrated optical isolators and circulators. The paper presents a finite-difference beam propagation simulation of such devices. Two different directions of the waveguide magnetization are considered. Finally, some consequences with respect to the practical realization of nonreciprocal integrated optical components are discussed View full abstract»

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  • On the longitudinal voltage distribution in radio-frequency-discharged CO2 lasers with large-area electrodes

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1537 - 1542
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    The reduction of the voltage variations along the electrodes of RF transversely excited CO2 lasers is of fundamental importance for the attainment of a uniform active medium pumping and for the consequent efficient laser power extraction. This problem has been studied by many authors in the case of narrow-channel waveguide lasers and methods have been found to reduce the relevant voltage variation due to the transmission line effect determined by the discharge channel structure. In this paper, we demonstrate the crucial role played by the electrode sheath's capacitance in determining the voltage distributions in the case of large area electrodes. A theoretical model for the “plasma loaded” strip-line is presented together with numerical simulations showing the voltage distributions expected in slab-type lasers of the 1-kW class. We also report experimental results confirming the predictions of the model and the fundamental role played by the sheath's capacitance View full abstract»

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  • Statistical properties of the spectrum of light pulses in fast pseudorandom word modulation of a single-mode semiconductor laser

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1401 - 1408
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    The spectrum of single-mode laser pulses generated by fast pseudorandom word modulation is studied numerically for return-to-zero and nonreturn-to-zero control signals. We analyze both statistics and the worst cases for the frequency chirp during each optical pulse, and we study the connection between these frequency chirps and the turn-on times. We show that patterns in the modulation signal sequences contribute to chirp noise. The worst case values of the turn-on time and the chirp range are very similar in the two modulation schemes, hence, the optimum choice depends mainly on the characteristics of the decision circuit and on the driver and detector bandwidths View full abstract»

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  • On the intersubband optical bistability in semiconductor quantum wells: the influence of the permanent dipole moment

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1517 - 1524
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    Some interesting features of the intrinsic optical bistability, based on intersubband transitions in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells, are analyzed within the two-level model. In particular, the excitation-induced levels shifting, on which the bistability relies, is found to be significantly influenced by the exchange-correlation potential, thus requiring self-consistent modeling-the simple charge separation dipole model is not accurate enough. The optical influence of the permanent dipole moment, characterizing bound states in asymmetric quantum wells, is also analyzed. This is found to have some beneficial and some adverse consequences on bistability, both of which may be quite important in realistic structures View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study of walk-off attenuation for type II second-harmonic-generation in KTP

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1569 - 1571
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    We present an experimental study of walk-off attenuation for Type II SHG, concerning both weak and strong focusing. In particular, we study 1.064 μm SHG in KTiOPO4 (KTP). The optimum focusing conditions and saturation length are well described by the Gaussian model contrary to the plane waves approximation. The saturation of the associated angular acceptance is clearly put in evidence for the strong focusing cases View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1484 - 1493
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)  

    We have designed, fabricated, and characterized GaAs-AlGaAs (λ=864 nm) asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators with ≈37 GHz modulation frequency response, comparable to the fastest waveguide modulators. The modulation response saturates at high optical powers due to saturation of the excitonic absorption and heating effects, but the frequency response is independent of the incident optical intensity, since it depends only on the RC time constant, and not on the carrier transit time. The device design takes advantage of the fact that the quantum-confined Stark effect is more pronounced at some distance from the absorption edge to achieve a modulator with ⩾20 dB contrast and ≈3 dB insertion loss for ±2 V operating voltage, but only 21 fF capacitance. The DC bias used to move the operating point off the absorption edge has the additional benefits of improving the linearity and chirp of the device, as well as the saturation intensity. Here we present measurements of the modulation and photocurrent responses of the modulators, calculate the RC and transit times for the device, analyze the saturation mechanisms, and discuss the linearity and chirp of the device from the perspective of a high-speed digital optical communications system View full abstract»

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  • On the quantum limit of laser amplifier detectors

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1474 - 1476
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    The quantum limit of a laser amplifier used as a detector is calculated. It is shown that the amplified output can be quantum correlated to the detector readout. However, as an information tap, the amplifying detector is no better than a lossless linear beamsplitter due to the added spontaneous emission noise View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical studies of GaInP-AlGaInP strained quantum-well lasers including spin-orbit split-off band effect

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1409 - 1417
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)  

    We studied the GaInP-AlGaInP strained quantum-well laser characteristics, taking into account the spin-orbit split-off bands. When the well width is kept constant at 85 Å, the threshold current of the unstrained quantum-well structure is most degraded by the effect of the spin orbit split-off subbands, due to the larger hole density of states near the band-edge. While the linear gain of the compressive-strained quantum well is slightly changed by the effect, it has the lowest threshold current with the lower threshold gain. In the tensile-strained quantum-well structure, the spin-orbit split-off bands improve the differential gain because they increase the density of states at the valence band-edge. When the lasing wavelength is fixed at 630 nm, the threshold current of the compressive-strained quantum well is the lowest as well. The tensile-strained quantum well has lower threshold current than the unstrained quantum well, and this phenomena is not observed in the analysis without the spin-orbit split-off bands. However, the reduction of threshold current of the tensile-strained quantum well is smaller than that of compressive-strained quantum well, The tensile strain is more preferable for high speed modulation because of its large differential gain, due to the mixing between the light hole and the spin-orbit split-off subbands View full abstract»

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  • The tandem FEL dynamic behavior

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1584 - 1590
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    A tandem FEL consists of two conventional FEL oscillators separated by a drift section. The same e-beam drives both oscillators, and since the first oscillator, where conventional evolution occurs, pilots the behavior of the second, an interesting dynamic behavior arises. We discuss the dynamic aspects of the problem from low signal to saturation, analyze the efficiency of the device, and present preliminary design considerations View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics and stability of complex-coupled DFB lasers with absorptive gratings

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1432 - 1442
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)  

    The basic influence of the saturable nature of absorptive gratings in complex-coupled DFB lasers are investigated, using a simplified model with an extended set of rate equations. It is demonstrated that the coupling coefficient depends on the bias condition and affects all essential laser properties like the static frequency shift, the P-I characteristic and modulation response. In addition, stability problems, like bistable behavior or pulsations, may occur in these devices. Therefore, design rules and approximate criteria for stable laser operation are derived View full abstract»

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  • Uniform linear arrays of strained-layer InGaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide diode lasers fabricated by ECR-IBAE

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1357 - 1363
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    Uniform linear arrays of strained-layer multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-AlGaAs ridge-waveguide diode lasers have been fabricated that operate near 980 nm and have low threshold currents Ith and high differential quantum efficiencies ηd. Uniformity was achieved by a combination of uniform ion-beam-assisted etching with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and uniform organometallic vapor-phase epitaxial (OMVPE) growth. We investigated the effects of device geometry, namely, ridge width, cavity length, and remaining cladding thickness outside the ridge t, on Ith and ηd. For uncoated lasers with 500-μm-long cavities, 2- to 3-μm-wide ridges, and t=165±75 nm fabricated in double-quantum-well OMVPE material, Ith was typically in the range 6-7 mA and ηd was >40% per facet. A 24-element array of 2-μm-wide, 200-μm-long ridge-waveguide lasers with a high reflection coating on the back facet exhibited excellent uniformity, with threshold currents and single-ended differential quantum efficiencies that averaged 3.4 mA and 72%, respectively. Similar arrays with high-reflectivity coatings on both facets exhibited threshold currents as low as 2 mA View full abstract»

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  • Diagnostics of TM010-mode microwave cavity discharges in CO2-N2-He laser gas mixtures. I. Measurement of dielectric constant

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1525 - 1532
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    Plasma parameters in the microwave discharged CO2 laser gas mixtures of CO2-N2-He=0.9/2.5/20 at 25 Torr obtained using the perturbation method for a TM010-mode cylindrical resonant cavity were examined. From the changes in resonant frequencies and Q values of the cavity, dielectric constant of the discharged plasma under the condition of RF to laser output power conversion ratio of 14% at mass flow rate of 4.2 kg/h was determined to be nearly 0.96-0.01j. It was also obtained from the dielectric constants of the plasma that electron number density, the electron temperature, and discharge parameters (E/n) were (0.3-3)×1015m-3, 0.5-2.7 eV, and (0.5-2)×10-15 Vcm2, respectively View full abstract»

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  • Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1572 - 1578
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)  

    The transient states of a laser beam propagating through a plane-parallel cavity with a Gaussian graded reflectivity mirror are numerically and experimentally investigated in the far-field, i.e., in the region around the focal plane of a positive lens, where variations in the beam are enhanced. The evolution of significant parameters (quality factor M2, spot-size and focusing distance), from which all the others can be deduced, is studied from transit to transit. It is found that the type of evolution in the first cavity round-trips depends strongly on the initial values of beam parameters at the first emission from the active medium. It is also found that the laser system used in the experiment does not reach equilibrium during the pulse time. A satisfactory accordance between experimental and numerical data has been found View full abstract»

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  • Serpentine superlattice nanowire-array lasers

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1380 - 1388
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (860 KB)  

    We report characterization and modeling of serpentine superlattice nanowire-array lasers. These samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (100) n+-GaAs vicinal substrates. In-plane ridge-waveguide lasers with ridge stripes either parallel or perpendicular to the nanowire arrays have been characterized at low temperatures. The measured net gain spectra at 1.4 K showed strong optical gain anisotropy such that the TM mode gain became greater than the TE mode gain when the optical cavity was placed along the nanowire direction. This provides strong evidence that the lateral quantum confinement in the serpentine superlattice is stronger than the vertical quantum confinement. Optical gain spectra in the serpentine superlattice are calculated with consideration of coupling between wires and homogeneous line broadening. A good fit to the measured polarization-dependent gain spectra is achieved when the lateral Al segregation and the homogeneous line broadening are chosen to be 8% and 7 meV, respectively. This small but finite Al segregation in the serpentine superlattice provides lateral quantum confinement for holes, which results in significant anisotropy in the relation between net gain and injection current density, View full abstract»

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  • High-power semiconductor edge-emitting light-emitting diodes for optical low coherence reflectometry

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1494 - 1503
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)  

    A new semiconductor source was designed for optical low coherence reflectometry, increasing the sidelobe-free dynamic range by three to five orders of magnitude compared to conventional EELED's. Reflectivities internal to an optical fiber circuit separated by as much as eight orders of magnitude can now be detected at wavelengths of 1.3 and 1.55 μm, using compact semiconductor sources. For applications not requiring sidelobe-free operation, the same devices can be operated at high current (200 mA) and low temperatures (near 0°C) to produce nearly 1 mW of 1.5 μm emission coupled into single-mode fiber. The resulting wavelength spectrum is smooth, enabling fiber-based absorption spectral measurements View full abstract»

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  • Optimized band-structure design of InGaAsP BRAQWET structures

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1477 - 1483
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    We developed InGaAsP BRAQWET (barrier, reservoir, and quantum-well electron transfer) structures using numerical modeling to optimize the band structure. The main improvement was achieved by including i,n,i,p-doped layers in the barrier, thus decoupling the quantum-well (QW) from the electric field in the barrier. The optimized structures show increased QW movement with applied bias, QW level close to the Fermi level at zero bias, low leakage current and low sensitivity to fabrication tolerances, such as layer thickness and doping levels. The new structures should show improved performance and be easier to manufacture due to their higher tolerances, BRAQWET structures were grown according to the new design by CBE and show low leakage current (10 mA/cm2) and typical band-filling effects at λ=1.5 μm, making them potentially suitable for high-performance modulators View full abstract»

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  • Optical intensity modulators using diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1451 - 1460
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    The electrooptic (EO) modulation of 1.32 μm laser light is measured in Mach-Zehnder channel waveguides fabricated with diazo-dye-substituted polymers with coplanar-waveguide (CPW) or microstrip (MS) electrodes. Two types of channel waveguide fabricated by photobleaching or O2 reactive-ion etching (RIE) exhibit the same EO coefficients r33 under the same poling condition. However, the photobleached waveguides show a lower half-wave voltage than the RIE-fabricated ones because of both the optical power concentration in a core layer and the existence of an EO active cladding layer. These tendencies are well explained by considering “effective” overlap integrals between the optical and electric fields, including the distribution of EO-active regions. The maximum r33 value (26 pm/V) of the poled diazo-dye-substituted polymer is obtained with an RIE-fabricated MS-modulator View full abstract»

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  • Optoelectronic integrated tristable device with optically controlled set and reset functions

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1465 - 1473
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    An optical tristable device with optically controlled set and reset functions is developed. The device structure is a vertical and direct integration of four heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) and a laser diode (LD). Two HPTS (HPT-A and HPT-B) integrated just above the LD stripe are utilized to achieve the set operation. The internal optical feedback from the LD to the HPTs takes an important role in the operation. On the other hand, another HPT (HPT-C or HPT-D) integrated slightly away from the position for the set operation is used to achieve the reset operation. The optical feedback from the LD to the HPT-A and HPT-B is suppressed by the current bypass through the HPT-C connected to both ends of the LD. Theoretical calculations are also made to explain these operations View full abstract»

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  • Experimental investigation of nonlinear frequency conversion in pure SiO2-core monomode optical fibers pumped at 1.319 μm: single pass and oscillators

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1561 - 1568
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    Generation of intense visible picosecond pulses in the spectral region of 580-610 nm through efficient nonlinear frequency conversion of 1.319 μm Nd:YAG Q-switched and mode-locked laser pulses in pure SiO 2-core single mode optical fibers was experimentally investigated. Peak powers of ten's of watts in single-pass arrangement and over 100 W in synchronously pumped amplifier/oscillators were obtained. The LP02 mode signal light generated exhibits threshold power, critical fiber length, and an asymmetrical spectrum of a few nanometers. A phase-matched four-wave mixing process involving two photons around 800 nm and one photon around 1.4 μm was responsible for the visible light generation. Varying the test fiber minimum dispersion wavelength, the four-wave mixing signal wavelength is shifted within the region of 580-610 nm View full abstract»

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  • Generalized BV diagrams for higher order transverse modes in planar vertical-cavity laser diodes

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1371 - 1379
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    We use a new class of complex dispersion characteristics to analyze threshold properties of gain-guided vertical-cavity lasers. The analysis gives a fundamental gain limit for single transverse mode oscillation. The general behavior of higher order transverse modes is described by rather universal diagrams that are useful as a guideline for practical device design. A comparison between gain- and index-guided devices shows differences in effective modal gains and wavelength separations between fundamental and neighboring higher order modes. For near threshold operation of gain-guided lasers, the suppression of higher transverse modes is generally improved for large mirror reflectivities. The discussion of real devices considers the important influence of the current induced parasitic temperature profile View full abstract»

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  • Numerical modeling of the Xe Auger laser kinetics

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1543 - 1548
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)  

    A numerical model has been developed to describe various fundamental kinetics of an inner-shell excited Xe Auger laser emitted at 109 nm. We have found that the laser output characteristics strongly depend on the electron deexcitation of the upper laser level. This model also predicts the increase of the laser output energy by controlling a soft X-ray flux spectrum emitted from a laser-produced plasma View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University