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Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Issue 3 • Date Jul 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • Multi-path arrival estimates using simulated annealing: application to crosshole tomography experiment

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 157 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    In the analysis of crosshole tomography data, the first step is to estimate the arrival time and amplitude of the multi-path arrivals which comprise the received signal. Normally algorithms such as matched filter are used to determine the arrival times. However, when the bandwidth of the signal is small, this method cannot resolve closely spaced arrivals. We, therefore, investigate the performance of a simulated annealing algorithm in estimating the amplitude scaling factors and delay times of the separate arrivals in a signal composed of closely spaced arrivals with added noise. The algorithm is applied to field data collected during a crosshole tomography experiment conducted in sea ice View full abstract»

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  • Control synthesis and adaptation for an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 211 - 220
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)  

    The motion of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is controllable even with reduced control authority such as in the event of an actuator failure. In this paper we describe a technique for synthesizing controls for underactuated AUV's and show how to use this technique to provide adaptation to changes in control authority. Our framework is a motion control system architecture which includes both feed-forward control as well as feedback control. We confine ourselves to kinematic models and exploit model nonlinearities to synthesize controls. Our results are illustrated for two examples, the first a yaw maneuver of an AUV using only roll and pitch actuation, and the second a “parking maneuver” for an AUV. Experimental results for the yaw maneuver example are described View full abstract»

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  • High resolution polarimetric radar scattering measurements of low grazing angle sea clutter

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 166 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1116 KB)  

    This paper presents fully polarimetric radar scattering measurements of low grazing angle sea clutter. The measurements were obtained at a three degree grazing angle using a high range resolution (1.5 m) X-Band polarimetric radar operated from a shore site overlooking the Chesapeake Bay. The radar employs pulse-to-pulse switching between orthogonal transmitted polarizations and simultaneously measures two orthogonally polarized components of the backscattered wave to obtain full polarimetric information about the scattering process. The complete Stokes matrix, computed by averaging successive realizations of the polarization scattering matrix, is used to obtain polarization signatures and to determine the polarization dependence of the clutter. Sea spike echoes are shown to be weakly polarized and to exhibit polarization signatures indicative of multiple independent scattering mechanisms. Clutter echoes in the absence of sea spikes are shown to be highly polarized and to exhibit polarization signatures indicative of a single dominant scattering mechanism View full abstract»

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  • Real-time video mosaicking of the ocean floor

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 229 - 241
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB)  

    An approach was developed for real-time creation of video mosaics of the ocean floor. The approach uses visual correspondence during both image acquisition and consolidation to insure that there are no gaps in the mosaic. The use of visual information for mosaic creation offers an accuracy previously unachievable in real time. A complete mosaicking approach was developed, including a technique for image registration and several strategies for image acquisition control. The approach was implemented and tested experimentally. Ocean-floor mosaics were created in real time using a remotely-operated vehicle. In addition, extensive mosaicking experiments were conducted in a test-tank environment using a semiautonomous underwater robot View full abstract»

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  • An on-line adaptation method in a neural network based control system for AUVs

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 221 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    A neural network based control system “Self-Organizing Neural-Net-Controller System: SONCS” has been developed as an adaptive control system for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). In this paper, an on-line adaptation method “Imaginary Training” is proposed to improve the time-consuming adaptation process of the original SONCS. The Imaginary Training can be realized by a parallel structure which enables the SONCS to adjust the controller network independently of actual operation of the controlled object. The SONCS is divided into two separate parts: the Real-World Part where the controlled object is operated according to the objective, and the Imaginary-World Part where the Imaginary Training is carried out. In order to adjust the controller network by the Imaginary Training, it is necessary to introduce a forward model network which can generate simulated state variables without involving actual data. A neural network “Identification Network” which has a specific structure to simulate the behavior of dynamical systems is proposed as the forward model network. The effectiveness of the Imaginary Training is demonstrated by applying to the heading keeping control of an AUV “Twin-Burger”. It is shown that the SONCS adjusts the controller network-through on-line processes in parallel with the actual operation View full abstract»

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  • Joint perturbation scattering characterization of a littoral ocean bottom reverberation: theory, scattering strength predictions, and data comparisons

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 198 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)  

    A joint surface roughness/volumetric perturbation scattering theory is utilized to characterize the reverberation from a littoral ocean bottom. The result is a reflected field spectrum that consists of specular and off-specular components. The predicted scattering strength from the off-specular component is shown to be comprised of interface roughness scattering, sediment inhomogeneity volumetric scattering, and interface roughness/sediment inhomogeneity correlation scattering. The sediment inhomogeneity volumetric scattering is shown to contain two contributions that are due to fractional variations in sediment densities and sound velocities. Both contributions are shown to be affected by the interface effect by a round-trip transmission coefficient factor. These two fractional variations are shown to contribute differently to scattering strength but similarly to backscattering strength. Inversely predicted roughness spectra from various sets of backscattering strength data are shown to be consistent with a generally known roughness spectrum. Both inversely predicted roughness and volumetric scattering physical property spectra are found to be self-consistent. However, the use of only ocean bottom backscattering strength data is found to be insufficient to judge whether the roughness or the volumetric scattering dominates. Reverberation characterizations using bistatic scattering strength data and signal spread data are planned for future studies View full abstract»

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  • Passive sonar detection and localization by matched velocity filtering

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 179 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)  

    This paper presents a new bearings-only method of detecting and tracking low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) wideband targets on a constant course and velocity trajectory. A track-before-detect strategy based on matched velocity filtering is adopted using spatial images constructed from a sequence of power bearing map (PBM) estimates accumulated during a track. To lower the threshold SNR for detection, a discrete bank of matched velocity filters integrates the PBM images over a range of hypothesized trajectories, such an approach eliminates the need to estimate the number of targets since signal detection is determined by comparing the output of each matched filter (MF) to a decision threshold. The distribution of the MF output is derived based on a single point target in diffuse noise assumption. Receiver operating characteristic curves show a definite detection gain under low SNR conditions for matched velocity filtering (track-before-detect) over detection from a single PBM View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy logic for depth control of Unmanned Undersea Vehicles

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 242 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    Fuzzy logic is a viable control strategy for depth control of undersea vehicles. It has been applied to the low speed ballast control problem for ARPA's Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV), designed and built by Draper Laboratory. A fuzzy logic controller has been designed and tested in simulation that issues pump commands to effect changes in the UUV depth, while also regulating the pitch angle of the vehicle. The fuzzy logic controller performs comparably to the current ballast control design. The controller is also less sensitive to variations in the vehicle configuration and dynamics. The benefits of the fuzzy logic approach for this problem are: 1) simplicity, by not requiring a dynamic model, thus allowing for rapid development of a working design and less sensitivity to plant variations; 2) better matching of the control strategy and complexity with performance objectives and limitations; 3) the insight provided and easy modification of the controller, through the use of linguistic rules View full abstract»

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  • Application of neural and statistical classifiers to the problem of seafloor characterization

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 190 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    In this paper neural and statistical classifiers are applied to the problem of seafloor classification. The feature vectors used consist of acoustic backscatter as a function of angle of incidence. Simulated seafloor backscatter is obtained by employing the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff approximation and the statistical properties of bottom reverberation. These synthetic data are used initially to train multilayer perceptrons and then to test them for their ability to discriminate among signal returns produced by seafloors with different roughness parameters. The same data are also processed with optimum Bayesian classifiers. A comparison of the results indicates a suboptimum performance for the perceptrons. The same procedures are applied to real data collected by the Sea Beam bathymetric system over two Central North Pacific seamounts. In this case, the perceptron performance is similar to that of the statistical classifier, which is no longer optimum, since no prior knowledge of the probability distribution parameters is available. In addition, Self Organizing Maps are applied to both synthetic and real data and are shown to result in a successful separation of the output space into distinct regions corresponding to different seafloor classes View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is published quarterly by the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca