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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7  Part 1-2 • Date July 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 50
  • Comment on "A field theoretical derivation of TLM" [with reply]

    Publication Year: 1995
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (96 KB)  

    For the original article see ibid., vol. 42, no. 9, p.1660-68 (1994). The commenter points out that contrary to what is claimed in the aforementioned paper by M. Krumpholz and P. Russer, former mathematical derivations of the TLM method directly from Maxwell's equations (meeting all requirements of rigor, but less complicated than the paper) have been given. Two examples are cited. In reply the authors clarify what they mean by "direct derivation" and explain how this differs from the cited examples. They emphasize that their derivation is solely based on Maxwell's equations and the method of moments approximation. Thus the physical basis and the mathematical treatment are clearly separated.<> View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "Coaxial probe modeling in waveguides and cavities" [with reply]

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1629 - 1630
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (106 KB)  

    For the original article see ibid., vol. 40, p.2172-80 (1992). The commenters state that in the aforementioned paper, Liang et al. presented an excellent analysis of a coaxial probe in waveguides and cavities. The compact dyadic Green's function technique was applied there to calculate the electric field. However, they point out some typographical errors of the dyadic Green's function components in the paper which will mislead further investigations. These errors are listed and corrections given. In reply the authors welcome the comments and also point out a further error for which the correct form is given.<> View full abstract»

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  • A monolithic integrated millimeter wave transmitter for automotive applications

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1654 - 1658
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    An integrated transmitter at 80 GHz is presented. This device finds many applications in civil sensor and communication systems, and is employed in automotive applications. The device consists of an IMPATT diode and a slotted patch resonator. The resonator acts simultaneously as an antenna. The resonator impedance seen by the IMPATT diode is calculated by means of a full wave analysis and the matching of the IMPATT diode is investigated using a large signal analysis. The transmitter devices have been fabricated employing a SIMMWIC (silicon millimeter wave integrated circuit) fabrication process and deliver a radiated power of up to 1 mW at 79 GHz. An excellent carrier-to-noise ratio of 81.7 dBc/Hz at an offset of 100 kHz has been achieved. The deviation of the measured values from the theoretically predicted values of frequency and power is -5.9% and -1.5 dB, respectively View full abstract»

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  • A microwave noncontact identification transponder using subharmonic interrogation

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1673 - 1679
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)  

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel microwave radio (RF/ID) transponder that has been developed for remote identification of personnel and articles, such as in “wireless key” entry systems. Based on a subharmonically pumped quasi-optical mixer, the transponder is activated by a C-band interrogation beam to upconvert and radiate a digitally modulated identification tone at two X-band frequencies. These response signals are nonharmonically related to the interrogation signal. The frequency conversion process is analyzed using a Volterra series model that includes the effects of self-bias current, coupled with a scattering metric that is directly useful in radio link calculations View full abstract»

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  • On the theory of discrete TLM Green's functions in three-dimensional TLM

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1472 - 1483
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)  

    The response to a wave pulse incident on the boundary of a certain spatial domain may be represented by discrete TLM Green's functions. On the other hand, the response to a localized electromagnetic excitation at the boundary of a certain spatial domain may be calculated directly from Maxwell's equations and be represented by analytic TLM Green's functions. For low frequencies and small wave numbers, the analytic TLM Green's functions coincide with the discrete TLM Green's functions. Applying the analytic TLM Green's functions in the absorbing boundary condition at the boundary to the open half-space reduces the computational effort considerably when compared with the application of the discrete TLM Green's functions View full abstract»

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  • Novel techniques for millimeter-wave packages

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1516 - 1523
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)  

    A new millimeter-wave package architecture with supporting electrical, mechanical and material science experiment and analysis is presented. This package is well suited for discrete devices, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) and multichip module (MCM) applications. It has low-loss wideband RF transitions which are necessary to overcome manufacturing tolerances leading to lower per unit cost. Potential applications of this new packaging architecture which go beyond the standard requirements of device protection include integration of antennas, compatibility to photonic networks and direct transitions to waveguide systems. Techniques for electromagnetic analysis, thermal control and hermetic sealing were explored. Three dimensional electromagnetic analysis was performed using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm and experimentally verified for millimeter-wave package input and output transitions. New multi-material system concepts (AlN, Cu, and diamond thin films) which allow excellent surface finishes to be achieved with enhanced thermal management have been investigated. A new approach utilizing block copolymer coatings was employed to hermetically seal packages which met MIL STD-883 View full abstract»

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  • Coplanar waveguide bandpass filter-a ribbon-of-brick-wall design

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1589 - 1596
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    This paper proposes a novel ribbon-of-brick-wall design of the coplanar waveguide bandpass filter which is built from cascading several sections of quarter wavelength open-end series stubs. The design originates from modeling the series stub as a system of two asymmetrically coupled transmission lines, which is then made equivalent to a basic filter element of admittance inverter. The relationship between the parameters of the coupled transmission lines and the admittance inverter is derived and the design charts are provided for the convenience of the designers. Systematic procedure is established to design the Chebyshev filter, which is also fabricated and measured. In addition, the quasistatic equivalent lumped circuit models of the discontinuities formed between two sections are evaluated and incorporated into the circuit simulation to get better prediction for the filter performance. The good agreement between simulation results and experimental data justifies the design procedure and validates the present analysis approach View full abstract»

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  • Accurate study of Q-factor of resonator by a finite-difference time-domain method

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1524 - 1529
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    This paper describes the application of the finite-difference time-domain method to find the resonators' Q-factors. There are some techniques which can be used to reach it. One way is to directly compute the power loss using the surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC). The other is to incorporate the perturbation techniques to calculate the Q-value. The rectangular and cylindrical cavities have been studied by these methods. A number of superconductor-sapphire microwave resonators with extra high Q-values have been studied. The results are very good in accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Modulation/microwave integrated digital wireless developments

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1715 - 1732
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1340 KB)  

    Simultaneous study and joint optimization of digital modulation techniques and of microwave components, presented in this paper, lead to spectrally efficient, high capacity, fast transmission, and throughput rate wireless systems. The choice of a particular modulation/demodulation (modem) technique has a major impact on the overall microwave system design, transceiver architecture and on the choice of all intermediate frequency (IF) as well as radio frequency (RF) component specifications. The performances of the most frequently used digital modulation techniques, including π/4-DQPSK, conventional BPSK, DQPSK, GMSK, GFSK, 4FSK, and FQPSK systems are compared. Study of crosscorrelated quadrature modulated GMSK systems used in GSM, PCS-1900, and other standards indicate that the subject technologies applied to GMSK improve the performance of these systems. We demonstrate that with the patented family of digitally modulated Feher's FQPSK systems, the power efficiency of conventional QPSK systems, which require linear microwave amplifiers, can be increased by about 300%, and the spectral efficiency of standardized nonlinearly amplified microwave integrated circuit GMSK systems can be increased by 60-200%. Similar advantages are obtained with our new FBPSK over BPSK modulated systems View full abstract»

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  • Miniature microwave filters for communication systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1751 - 1757
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    This paper presents new developments in miniature integrated microwave filters suitable for application in mobile communication handsets, wireless LAN's and microwave fixed links. Recent measured results for active microwave filters are presented with emphasis on their nonlinear behavior. The use of high permittivity ceramic substrates in parallel plate TEM mode stripline filters is described and recent measured results are presented for a prototype 2-GHz filter occupying a volume of 0.5-cubic centimeters. E-Plane filters for millimeter wave applications are discussed and measured results are presented for a novel E-Plane filter with asymmetric frequency response which was realized in a planar structure. Finally, a new type of ceramic loaded E-Plane filter is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric resonator-microstrip interactive circuit analysis and design using integral equation techniques

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1446 - 1452
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)  

    Dielectric resonators (DR's) are widely used in microwave/millimeter-wave technologies. In this paper, the coupling between a dielectric resonator and a microstrip circuit is studied. To analyze this problem, an integral equation is developed for the current distribution on the microstrip circuit. The Green's function used in this integral equation is the Green's function of the field in a layered medium modified by adding a term corresponding to the DR-scattered field. This field is produced by equivalent electric and magnetic sources assumed to be on the DR's surface. An efficient numerical method is applied which gives an approximation of the field near the resonant frequency of the DR. The results clearly show the effect of the DR on the microstrip circuit's current distribution and provides a thorough insight into the coupling mechanism. The coupling parameters can be estimated from the current distribution. The efficiency of the method as well as its flexibility in dealing with a general configuration of the DR and microstrip circuit makes it promising for CAD applications View full abstract»

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  • Combined differential and common-mode scattering parameters: theory and simulation

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1530 - 1539
    Cited by:  Papers (232)  |  Patents (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)  

    A theory for combined differential and common-mode normalized power waves is developed in terms of even and odd mode impedances and propagation constants for a microwave coupled line system. These are related to even and odd-mode terminal currents and voltages. Generalized s-parameters of a two-port are developed for waves propagating in several coupled modes. The two-port s-parameters form a 4-by-4 matrix containing differential-mode, common-mode, and cross-mode s-parameters. A special case of the theory allows the use of uncoupled transmission lines to measure the coupled-mode waves. Simulations verify the concept of these mixed-mode s-parameters, and demonstrate conversion from mode to mode for asymmetric microwave structures View full abstract»

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  • MMIC transmitter for a commercial search and rescue radar transponder

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1699 - 1702
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    This paper reports the design and use of MMIC's in the transmitter of a commercial Search and Rescue Transponder (SART). The SART is a maritime unit operating in the frequency band 9.2-9.5 GHz. The microwave unit is integrated on a single thick film hybrid, using an optimum combination of MMIC's and discrete components. This has resulted in a highly reliable, cost effective product. There are two MMIC's, namely the VCO and the power amplifier. The VCO MMIC has a typical linearity of better than 5-MHz deviation over a 300-MHz sweep. The power amplifier MMIC has a minimum power output of 27-dBm over the band View full abstract»

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  • A uniplanar 90-GHz Schottky-diode millimeter-wave receiver

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1669 - 1672
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    A 90 GHz Schottky-diode receiver based on a double slot antenna fed by a coplanar-waveguide (CPW) transmission line is presented. The double slot antenna is placed on an extended hemispherical high-resistivity silicon substrate lens. The uniplanar receiver results in a 9.3±0.3 dB measured SSB conversion loss at 88-90 GHz including antenna and IF circuit losses and a 1-dB loss due to the use of a nonoptimal matching cap layer at the silicon lens-air interface. The calculated conversion loss agrees very well with the RF measurements. The uniplanar double-slot antenna receiver is very small, less than 1.1×4 mm including the RF/IF filter, and is compatible with monolithic two- and three-terminal devices on GaAs substrates. The application areas are in millimeter-wave receivers for automotive systems, communication systems, and radiometric linear imaging arrays View full abstract»

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  • Source-type integral equation analysis of circularly curved channel waveguides in a multilayered background

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1597 - 1604
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    The source-type integral equation method has proven to be a powerful modeling tool for straight ridge waveguides. This method is full-vectorial and mathematically rigorous. In a previous publication the source-type integral equation method has also been successfully applied to circularly curved channel waveguides in a homogeneous background. In the present paper this approach is extended to circularly curved channel waveguides embedded in a multilayered background. These are the type of waveguide structures that are usually encountered in integrated-optical and optoelectronic devices View full abstract»

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  • FDTD analysis of the radiometric temperature measurement of a bilayered biological tissue using a body-contacting waveguide probe

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1576 - 1583
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB)  

    Radiometric signal received by an open-ended rectangular waveguide probe in direct contact with a bilayered biological tissue is analyzed by the FDTD method. A two-layer tissue model consists of an outer thin skin layer over a semi-infinite fat layer is analyzed for a X-band total power radiometer. A spherical tumor with same permittivity as, but slightly higher temperature than, the surrounding normal fat tissue is assumed to exist inside the fat tissue. Active probe characteristics are analyzed first using the FDTD method for a propagating, sinusoidally time-varying, TE10 type of excitation source. For the same waveguide probe operated as the radiometer antenna, radiometric weighting factors associated with individual tissue cells are then derived from the FDTD calculated field values. Near field radiating characteristics of the probe and radiometric signals determined for tumors of various size and depth are discussed. The presence of the skin is found to result in a lower power transmission coefficient across the probe aperture and significantly lower absorbed powers by fat; both of these contribute to the much lower radiometric signals observed View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of complementary unilateral slot and strip resonators printed on anisotropic substrates

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1605 - 1607
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    A systematic method, based on the two-dimensional spectral domain method, for analyzing complementary unilateral slot and strip resonators is presented. The resonators are printed on anisotropic substrates with tensor permittivity and permeability, including the off-diagonal terms and ferrite properties. Numerical data are presented to illustrate the response of resonators to changes in material properties of the substrate View full abstract»

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  • FET model taking into account wave characteristics of the active region and input circuits

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1453 - 1460
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    A new wave model for the field effect transistor (FET) is suggested. Each element of FET layout, including input circuits, is associated with the element of an equivalent circuit. FET input region includes two parts: variable cross-section microstrip and coplanar lines and a T-junction. Detailed investigation of the influence of input circuits on FET characteristics has been performed. Approximation of transfer characteristics of the input region by those of an idealized T-junction results in substantial distortion of FET transfer coefficient |(SN)21|. Feedback region between gate input line and FET output is responsible for noticeable decrease in maximum available gain (MAG) value for gate width W<60 μm and for appearance of a gentle maximum in dependence MAG(W) for the W/2 values of about several dozens of microns. It has been shown that dependencies of MAG on gate width and frequency change qualitatively when the gate resistance per unit length passes a certain value. This value is estimated. The loads at the ends of gate and drain electrodes can affect resonantly the value of MAG for a submicrometer gate FET View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous quasi-TEM analysis of multiconductor transmission lines in bi-isotropic media. Part I. Theoretical analysis for general inhomogeneous media and generalization to bianisotropic media

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1409 - 1415
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    The quasi-TEM approximation for multiconductor lines embedded in inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media is developed. It is shown that in the quasi-TEM limit a multiconductor line in bi-isotropic media can be represented by a coupled set of nonreciprocal and nonsymmetric circuit transmission lines. The effect on the circuit parameters of absence of losses, reciprocity and symmetry properties of the geometry and of the equations is investigated. Finally, the generalization to full bianisotropic materials is studied View full abstract»

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  • What's behind DBS services: MMIC technology and MPEG digital video compression

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1680 - 1685
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    This paper discusses recent developments in Direct-Broadcast Satellite (DBS) television systems, and specifically how these developments are implemented using today's MMIC technology. A brief review of Raytheon's experience in supplying low cost GaAs devices to the commercial DBS market place is included. A description of a dual-channel downconverter is provided as an example of applying GaAs MMIC technology to the advanced technical needs of the DBS market. A discussion of the MPEG-2 digital compression standard and its relationship to DBS is also included View full abstract»

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  • New explicit expressions for the coupling matrix elements related to scattering from a planar periodic single-strip grating

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1540 - 1544
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    This paper presents an alternative approach for finding elements of the coupling matrix in the multimode equivalent network that describes plane-wave scattering from a planar periodic single-strip grating at a dielectric interface. After solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel has a logarithmic singularity, the coupling matrix elements are obtained in an explicit analytical form, thus avoiding numerical integration. Numerical computations are carried out and the results are compared to some of the existing ones View full abstract»

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  • Toward standard figures-of-merit for spatial and quasi-optical power-combined arrays

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1614 - 1617
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    A consistent set of figures-of-merit is proposed for the standard characterization of spatial and quasioptical power-combined arrays. A new figure-of-merit, the effective transmitter power, is presented along with slightly modified definitions of standard figures-of-merit. The definitions of these figures-of-merit have been chosen to more directly compare the performance of spatial and quasioptical power-combined arrays with one another and with conventional circuit power-combined transmitters and amplifiers View full abstract»

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  • High yield X-band GaAs power MMIC insertion into the 160-W MODAR wind shear detection/weather system

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1703 - 1709
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    This paper describes the successful insertion of a high yield 4-W GaAs X-band power MMIC into the solid-state transmitter of the MODular Avionics Radar (MODAR) weather system, To date, over 15000 4-W MMIC's have been delivered with a combined DC/RF test yield averaging 39%. The design and fabrication of the MMIC's are presented along with statistical test data on over 46000 MMIC's. The integration of the MMIC's into a higher level 12-W hybrid assembly and an 85-W power module are also discussed, five 85-W modules are combined in the transmitter to achieve a nominal power output of 160 W. Statistical test data on these higher level assemblies is presented. This work demonstrates the viability of inserting GaAs power MMIC's into commercial systems View full abstract»

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  • Eigenvalue matrix analysis of segmented stripline junction disk circulator

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1484 - 1493
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    An accurate and numerically efficient analysis technique for tightly coupled three-port stripline circulators is discussed. By using the three-way symmetry of the network, the port-only segmentation analysis is reduced to generating and solving three smaller “eigenvalue matrices.” In addition, accuracy enhancement is shown by weighting the subport characteristic impedances and subport angles to more accurately reflect the current distribution of the ports View full abstract»

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  • The role of baseband noise and its upconversion in HBT oscillator phase noise

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1461 - 1471
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)  

    The phase noise spectral density (£(fm)) of an 11.02-GHz heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) has been investigated in terms of the HBT's low frequency noise and the oscillator's upconversion coefficient. Experimental studies have been used for this purpose and the measured £(fm) ranged from -89 dBc/Hz to -101 dBc/Hz at a 10-kHz offset frequency (best phase noise spectral density performance was -124 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz). It was shown that, in most test cases, £(fm) can be described by the upconversion of the HBT's baseband noise. As a result the frequency dependence, of £(fm ), is dictated by the low frequency noise spectrum rather than the upconversion itself. Deviation from pure 1/f frequency dependence found for the HBT's baseband noise at frequencies above 100 Hz resulted in d£(fm)/d(fm) deviating from about -30-dB/decade rate. Reduced oscillator phase noise at high collector current is attributed to reduced upconversion in the oscillator View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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