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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • A frequency domain analysis of spatial organization of epicardial maps

    Page(s): 718 - 727
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1401 KB)  

    Mapping of organized rhythms like sinus rhythm uses activation times from individual electrograms, and often assumes that the map for a single activation is similar to maps for subsequent activations. However, during fibrillation, activation times and electrograms are not easy to define, and maps change from activation to activation. Volume and complexity of data make analysis of more than a few seconds of fibrillation difficult. Magnitude squared coherence (MSC), a frequency domain measure of the phase consistency between two signals, can be used to help interpret longer data segments without defining activation times or electrograms. Sinus rhythm, flutter, and fibrillation in humans and swine were mapped with an array of unipolar electrodes (2.5 mm apart) at 240 sites on the atrial or ventricular epicardium. Four-second data segments were analyzed. One site near the center of the array was chosen ad hoc as a reference. MSC maps were made by measuring mean MSC from 0-50 Hz between every point in the array relative to the reference. Isocoherence contours were drawn. The effects of bias in the coherence estimate due to misalignment were investigated. Average MSC versus distance from the reference was measured for all rhythms. Results indicate that in a 4-s segment of fibrillation, there can exist some phase consistency between one site and the reference and little or none between a second site and the reference even when both sites are equidistant from the reference. In fibrillation, isocoherence contours are elongated and irregularly shaped, reflecting long-term, but nonuniform, spatial organization. That is, activation during fibrillation cannot be considered as random over a 4-s interval, Bias in the coherence estimate due to misalignment is significant for sinus rhythm and flutter, but can be corrected by manual realignment. Average MSC drops with distance for all rhythms, being most pronounced for fibrillation, MSC maps may provide insights into long-term spatia- - l organization of rhythms that would otherwise be cumbersome and difficult to interpret with standard time domain analysis. View full abstract»

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  • An equivalent body surface charge model representing three-dimensional bioelectrical activity

    Page(s): 637 - 646
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    A new surface-source model has been developed to account for the bioelectrical potential on the body surface. A single-layer surface-charge model on the body surface has been developed to equivalently represent bioelectrical sources inside the body. The boundary conditions on the body surface are discussed in relation to the surface-charge in a half-space conductive medium. The equivalent body surface charge is shown to be proportional to the normal component of the electric field on the body surface just outside the body. The spatial resolution of the equivalent surface-charge distribution appears intermediate between those of the body surface potential distribution and the body surface Laplacian distribution. An analytic relationship between the equivalent surface-charge and the surface Laplacian of the potential was found for a half-space conductive medium. The effects of finite spatial sampling and noise on the reconstruction of the equivalent surface-charge were evaluated by computer simulations. It was found through computer simulations that the reconstruction of the equivalent body surface-charge from the body surface Laplacian distribution is very stable against noise and finite spatial sampling. The present results suggest that the equivalent body surface-charge model may provide an additional insight to one's understanding of bioelectric phenomena. View full abstract»

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  • A model of gastric electrical activity in health and disease

    Page(s): 647 - 657
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    The idea of diagnosing gastric dysfunction from noninvasive measurements of gastric electrical activity (GEA) is intuitively appealing, but the predictive accuracy of the cutaneous signal, especially that of its amplitude, is still in question. Mathematical modeling provides a means of investigating, analyzing, and predicting GEA measured percutaneously. In this study, a model of GEA applicable both in health and disease was developed and simulated for a cylindrical body surface. Body-surface maps of the simulated electrogastrogram (EGG) were generated at a 20 by 20 array of sites on the model's surface, and the accuracy of the percutaneous method in detecting simulated gastric electrical abnormalities was determined. The relationship between the amplitude of the simulated surface EGG and the velocity of propagation of the myogenic activity was also investigated. This was compared to a similar investigation of the fluctuations in the amplitude of the surface EGG with the velocity of propagation of the serosal activity measured in humans. The diagnostic accuracy of the measured cutaneous EGG in humans was also determined. The results obtained from the mathematical model show that the amplitude of the electrogastrogram increases with the propagation velocity of GEA. Similar results were obtained from the experimental measurements. The amplitude of the simulated and measured cutaneous signal correlated well (p<0.05) with the phase shift of the simulated and measured activities, (-0.85, -0.54), respectively, Serosal normal activity, tachygastria, and uncoupling mere detected 67%, 90%, and 0% of the time, respectively, at the cutaneous electrode in humans, In simulations, normal activity and tachygastria were accurately detected at all 100 sites on the surface, Uncoupling simulated with 50% of the myogenic sources "diseased" was detected at only 20 of the 400 sites. The results confirm that the amplitude of the cutaneous signal is a function of the velocity of propagati- - on of the myogenic signal. It also confirms that while GEA in health may be accurately predicted from percutaneous recordings, frequency and phase/coupling abnormalities are poorly detected from single-channel electrogastrograms. This suggests the use of multiple-channel surface recordings in clinical electrogastrography. View full abstract»

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  • Segmentation of brain electrical activity into microstates: model estimation and validation

    Page(s): 658 - 665
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    A brain microstate is defined as a functional/physiological state of the brain during which specific neural computations are performed. It is characterized uniquely by a fixed spatial distribution of active neuronal generators with time varying intensity. Brain electrical activity is modeled as being composed of a time sequence of nonoverlapping microstates with variable duration. A precise mathematical formulation of the model for evoked potential recordings is presented, where the microstates are represented as normalized vectors constituted by scalp electric potentials due to the underlying generators. An algorithm is developed for estimating the microstates, based on a modified version of the classical k-means clustering method, in which cluster orientations are estimated, Consequently, each instantaneous multichannel evoked potential measurement is classified as belonging to some microstate, thus producing a natural segmentation of brain activity. Use is made of statistical image segmentation techniques for obtaining smooth continuous segments. Time varying intensities are estimated by projecting the measurements onto their corresponding microstates. A goodness of fit statistic for the model is presented. Finally, a method is introduced for estimating the number of microstates, based on nonparametric data-driven statistical resampling techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Open loop control of multiple drug effects in anesthesia

    Page(s): 666 - 677
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    Current open-loop computer-controlled infusion pumps do not explicitly control the transient adverse side effects of intravenous drugs during anesthesia. The authors used optimal control principles to synthesize a single-input multiple-output controller that regulates concentrations at the site of desirable drug effect while penalizing excessive side-effect drug concentrations. The cost function incorporates model-based predictions of future effect-site concentrations, and the capability of the anesthesiologist to anticipate upcoming surgical events. The controller was evaluated and then compared with alternative control strategies through computer simulation of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for the intravenous drug alfentanil. Multiple-effect control offers an analytic approach to limit the overshoot in adverse side-effect concentrations at the consequence of increasing the time to achieve the desired drug effect. View full abstract»

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  • Deconvolution of infrequently sampled data for the estimation of growth hormone secretion

    Page(s): 678 - 687
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    The deconvolution of infrequently and nonuniformly sampled data is addressed. A nonparametric technique is worked out that provides a smooth estimate of the unknown input signal and takes into account nonnegativity constraints. In spite of the size of the problem, efficient algorithms for solving the constrained optimization problem and computing confidence intervals are proposed. The new technique is used to estimate growth hormone (GH) secretion after repeated GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) administration from samples of blood concentration. View full abstract»

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  • Simulator for laser photocoagulation in ophthalmology

    Page(s): 688 - 693
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    The practice of laser photocoagulation plays a major role in ocular therapy, but the persistence of many postoperative complications denotes genuine difficulty in mastering the technique. The authors present a device which, thanks to the use of simulation, enables actual practice to be dissociated from apprenticeship. While complying with the constraints of realism with regard to habitual conditions of laser use, the device offers access to a wide variety of clinical situations. The apparatus is built around the traditional instrument. A virtual image of the fundus is produced in real time from the sensors which detect the actual gestures used. The calculations make use of textured geometrical models. Digitized color photographs are organized to form a database which reflects the diversity of pigmentations and pathologies. A software interface has been developed to facilitate the use of the device. The prototype is operated using a PC-compatible computer; it displays the images at the rate of at least seven per second on a miniature CGA screen incorporated in the slit-lamp. It is currently being validated for clinical applications. Above and beyond apprenticeship in laser photocoagulation, its potential applications extend to the entire field of ophthalmological symptomatology and, more broadly, to the simulation of any examination conducted with the help of binocular or endoscopic optics. View full abstract»

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  • The use of a current sheet applicator array for superficial hyperthermia: incoherent versus coherent operation

    Page(s): 694 - 698
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    There are a number of potential advantages to be gained by using an array of applicators in hyperthermia treatments compared with single applicator systems, These advantages include the possibility of greater spatial control of power deposition and conformability to nonplanar sites. Arrays of applicators can be driven either coherently or incoherently. In the case of coherent operation, an added advantage is the ability to steer power deposition by varying the phases of the antennas. In this study, the authors investigated the relative merits of the two modes of operation when a 2×2 planar array of current sheet applicators is used. The effective field size (EFS) of the array was calculated using a Gaussian beam representation of the applicators on a layered model in which the fat layer had its thickness varied. Good agreement was obtained between the square of the electric field distribution (E 2) and quantitative experimental results. It is shown that when the planar array is used with a fat layer greater than about 2 mm present, it should be driven incoherently as this results in a significantly larger EFS than that obtained when the array is driven coherently. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial neural network control of FES in paraplegics for patient responsive ambulation

    Page(s): 699 - 707
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    Describes a binary adaptive resonance theory (ART-1)-based artificial neural network (ANN) adapted for controlling functional electrical stimulation (FES) to facilitate patient-responsive ambulation by paralyzed patients with spinal cord injures. This network is to serve as a controller in an FES system developed by the first author which is presently in use by 300 patients worldwide (still without ANN control) and which was the first and the only FES system approved by the FDA. The proposed neural network discriminates above-lesion upper-trunk electromyographic (EMG) time series to activate standing and walking functions under FES and controls FES stimuli levels using response-EMG signals. For this particular application, the authors introduce several modifications of the ART-1 for pattern recognition and classification. First, a modified on-line learning rule is proposed. The new rule assures bidirectorial modification of the stored patterns and prevents noise interference. Second, a new reset rule is proposed which prevents "exact matching" when the input is a subset of the chosen pattern. The authors show the applicability of a single ART-1-based structure to solving two problems, namely, 1) signal pattern recognition and classification, and 2) control. This also facilitates ambulation of paraplegics under FES, with adequate patient interaction in initial system training, retraining the network when needed, and in allowing patient's manual override in the ease of error, where any manual override serves as a retraining input to the neural network. Thus, the practical control problems (arising in actual independent patient ambulation via FES) were all satisfied by a relatively simple ANN design. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral patterns and frequency response characteristics of arterial pressure in heart paced dogs

    Page(s): 708 - 717
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    The role of heart rate in buffering and/or generating aortic pressure (AP) oscillations that occur at rest and in response to oscillatory blood volume shifts was studied. Six supine dogs with chronic AV blockade were used to examine: 1) resting HR and AP spectra when the ventricular rate was controlled by atrial depolarization (natural sinus rhythm); 2) resting AP and stroke volume (SV) spectra when the heart was AV sequentially paced at 60, 120, and 180 bpm before and after ganglionic blockade; and 3) the frequency response characteristics of AP and SV to whole-body sinusoidal acceleration (±2g 2, 0.008-0.23 Hz) at each heart rate before and after ganglionic blockade. During atrial regulation of HR, the spectra of both AP and HR had dominant peaks located at the breathing frequency (0.2-0.4 Hz) and relatively smaller peaks centered at ∼0.05 Hz. During constant heart rate pacing, the spectra of AP had a dominant component at ∼0.05 Hz. The power of this component was: 1) larger than during atrial regulation, 2) increased with increasing pacing rate, and 3) abolished by ganglionic blockade. There was no effect of pacing rate or ganglionic blockade on SV spectra. During oscillatory acceleration, AP regulation in the heart paced dogs was frequency dependent. Regions of good regulation occurred below 0.016 Hz and above 0.1 Hz, and poor regulation between 0.035 and 0.075 Hz centered at ∼0.05 Hz. The oscillations in the poor regulation region were enhanced by increased pacing rate. After ganglionic blockade, the frequency response of AP was primarily hydraulic (low-pass). The frequency response of SV had a neural component. It is concluded that: 1) resting AP fluctuations at respiratory frequencies resulted from respiration-linked HR variation; 2) the 0.05-Hz fluctuations in AP during rest and the poor regulation of AP at 0.05 Hz during acceleration resulted from a peripheral vascular response that lagged disturbances by ∼10 - - s; 3) HR regulation was important in minimizing AP variation in the 0.05-Hz region both at rest and during oscillatory acceleration; and 4) inotropic control of SV was an important component of AP regulation during low-frequency acceleration. View full abstract»

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  • Application of a multivariate technique to Raman spectra for quantification of body chemicals

    Page(s): 728 - 731
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    Raman spectroscopy is a highly specific technique for the identification of molecules by way of the associated characteristic spectra. The aim of this feasibility study is to assess the combination of the multivariate calibration technique of partial least-squares with Raman spectroscopy for the estimation of glucose, lactic acid, and urea concentrations in the presence of each other in a water substrate. The instrument is a CCD-based Raman spectrometer utilizing the 514.5 nm argon laser line. The estimates for the analyte concentrations yielded a standard deviation of concentration residuals of 20.71 mg/dL for glucose, 12.92 mg/dL for lactic acid, and 19.97 mg/dL for urea. View full abstract»

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  • Removal of power line interference in signal-averaged electrocardiography systems

    Page(s): 731 - 735
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    A method for line interference reduction to be used in signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) systems is proposed and its performance is analyzed. This new method is an adaptation of a previously reported technique for removal of line interference from conventional electrocardiograms. It involves the recording of a line reference signal simultaneous with the lead signals, so that a shifted and sealed version of it can be used to subtract line interference from the leads. It is shown that this line interference subtraction method can reduce line interference effectively and without introducing any additional noise into the ECG signal. It is also shown that Late Potential diagnostic decisions are not altered when this filter is applied. It is recommended that this technique be used in SAECG when line interference is unavoidable. View full abstract»

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  • On the detection of QRS variations in the ECG

    Page(s): 736 - 741
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    Detection of subtle beat-to-beat variations in the morphology of the ECG is complicated by the effects of alignment errors and respiration. A method of directly estimating the alignment error (trigger jitter) from an ECG is derived by relating the variance to the squared slope of the averaged QRS complex. Results based on recordings obtained from 12 normal subjects and alignment performed by the cross-correlation method showed that the alignment errors were dependent upon the choice of the alignment channel, with the best distribution of the errors occurring when alignment was based on the vector magnitude of the three orthogonal leads. The estimated average alignment errors ranged from 0.33-0.42 ms, which were near the optimal value of 0.29 ms based on the sampling rate of 1000 samples/s. It was shown that the effects of respiration could be reduced by normalizing the amplitude of the QRS complexes. It was also estimated that a significant proportion of the variation (0.54-0.67) in the normalized ECG's could be attributed to alignment errors and noise. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering