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Computer

Issue 7 • Date Jul 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Sole source for science funding: yea or nay?

    Page(s): 76 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB)  

    Government research funding in the USA is unusual, compared with other countries, because it's fragmented. Research programs are scattered throughout literally dozens of agencies. Since World War II, each agency has concentrated its funding in different areas and tailored its research style to meet its unique program needs. These programs could-and often did-support very long-term research in university laboratories, but at some level, the research had to correlate with the agencies' needs. The National Science Foundation has complemented the sharply focused support of individual agencies through broad support of fundamental research efforts across the board. This complementary structure has largely succeeded, and the pattern has always been supported by most folks in the science establishment. However, not everyone has been pleased. A few critics have always regarded US government science as chaotic and nearly unmanageable. As a result, some science policy experts and politicians have periodically suggested creating a larger, cabinet-level Department of Science to uniformly control research funding View full abstract»

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  • Virtual environments for treating the fear of heights

    Page(s): 27 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    Can virtual environments help elicit fearful feelings so they can be treated? This article shows how therapists and computer experts used them to do just that. We describe a pilot study that used virtual reality graded exposure techniques to treat acrophobia-the fear of heights. We specifically address two issues: the extent to which we were able to make subjects feel that they were actually present in height situations, and the efficacy of the treatment conducted using virtual height situations View full abstract»

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  • A large-scale complex virtual environment for team training

    Page(s): 49 - 56
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    Virtual environments that allow multiple participants to cooperatively interact present complex design problems. In this article, we describe the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a joint US Army-Loral project, which is the first fully distributed interactive simulation (DIS)-compliant training system development effort. This Army program's approach relies successfully on concurrent engineering, spiral development and usability engineering View full abstract»

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  • Scientific visualization and technology transfer: an EPA case study

    Page(s): 94 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    The transfer of high-performance computing and scientific visualization technologies from specific research efforts to major policy-setting and regulatory activities is an important component of the US Environmental Protection Agency's High-Performance Computing and Communications Program. This requires providing EPA regional and program offices, as well as state environmental protection agencies, with desktop scientific visualization capabilities. With these visual display tools, environmental scientists, policy analysts and decision-makers will be able to collaborate via the Internet to examine and control complex ecosystem problems that span multiple state boundaries and international borders View full abstract»

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  • Applications drive VR interface selection

    Page(s): 72 - 75
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    Physical interfaces to virtual environments fall into two broad categories: devices for navigation and physical interaction (such as deskbound and flying “mice”, gestural devices and navigation controls built into viewing devices); and viewing devices (such as head-mounted displays, counterbalanced displays, shutter glasses and a new class of immersive “desktop” viewers). The visual image is critical to creating an effective virtual experience. Beginning with immersive displays, this survey describes the range of available devices and discusses how application considerations affect the selection of components when configuring a virtual reality (VR) system View full abstract»

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  • Two-handed spatial interface tools for neurosurgical planning

    Page(s): 20 - 26
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    A computer-based neurosurgical planning system lets neurosurgeons easily manipulate 3D data using their everyday skills from handling tools with two hands. It has been tested in actual surgical procedures View full abstract»

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  • Automating the construction of large-scale virtual worlds

    Page(s): 57 - 65
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    Databases for large-scale virtual worlds have several critical applications. Automating their construction can improve fidelity and save considerable time. In this article, we focus on: (1) automated cartographic feature extraction (derivation of man-made objects from aerial imagery); (2) triangulated irregular network (TIN) generation (automated techniques for terrain skin generation); and (3) road correction (automated integration of complex transportation networks). The product of these components forms a major part of the input to the final database compilation via computer image generator-specific tools such as the S1000 or the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) database formatter View full abstract»

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  • The Responsive Workbench: a virtual work environment

    Page(s): 42 - 48
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    In this virtual environment, customized scientific visualization tools offer specialists new ways to work cooperatively, which opens the door to more comprehensive analysis and, perhaps, reduced costs. Implementing the Responsive Workbench required close attention to several important elements: its components, a typical setup, the user interface, feedback speed and real-time rendering View full abstract»

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  • National productivity and computers

    Page(s): 66 - 72
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    We are the first generation of Americans who think that our children will not live substantially better than we do. This article takes a hard look at US productivity, education, technology, and the prospects of improving national output. The problem of national productivity is not well understood, yet it matters enormously. It may be that the answer cannot be obtained from those who look on from a great distance. Perhaps the causes of productivity are too detail-sensitive for that. Computer professionals more than any other group are contributing to the improvement of productivity. Perhaps they can also contribute to its understanding View full abstract»

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  • Intellectual property protection for multimedia applications. 1. So many flavors, so little time

    Page(s): 92 - 93
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    Discusses four types of intellectual property protection: trade secrets, copyright, trademarks and patents View full abstract»

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  • CD-ROM technology takes off

    Page(s): 11 - 12
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    As businesses demand more low-cost storage and more PCs infiltrate the home market, sales of CD-ROM drives are rising. Worldwide sales of CD-ROM readers are expected to reach $50 million by the end of 1995, according to Infotech, a multimedia research firm. Infotech reports that sales last year were $27 million. Worldwide unit shipments of CD-ROM drives grew from nearly 7 million units in 1993 to 17.6 million in 1994, according to market researcher Dataquest in San Jose´, California. To ensure that CD-ROM better competes with other forms of storage, several initiatives are underway. Manufacturers are preparing to deliver six-speed drives and higher-density products to support the continued merging of audio, video, and other multimedia technologies View full abstract»

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  • The Iowa Driving Simulator: an immersive research environment

    Page(s): 35 - 41
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    This simulator's rich, fully interactive environment provides varied scenarios for meeting experimental needs-for example, engineering evaluation of automated highway systems View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes highly acclaimed peer-reviewed articles written for and by professionals representing the full spectrum of computing technology from hardware to software and from current research to new applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ron Vetter
University of North Carolina
Wilmington