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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May/Jun 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Torque and reactive power control of a doubly fed induction machine by position sensorless scheme

    Page(s): 636 - 642
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  

    A novel control strategy to realize decoupled control of torque and reactive power for a doubly excited induction machine using a position sensorless scheme is proposed. The critical issues related to the torque angle estimation and control for a doubly excited induction machine are discussed. Compared to the other position sensorless schemes for a doubly fed machine, the proposed control method uses only the rotor voltages and currents as the feedback signals, which substantially reduces the costs and enhances the reliability of the position sensorless control of a doubly fed AC machine. Computer simulation and experimental results are given to verify the position sensorless control scheme View full abstract»

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  • Liquid microvortex generated around a laser focal point in an intense high-frequency electric field

    Page(s): 464 - 468
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    A microvortex was discovered in liquid films when subjected to the combined action of a focused laser beam and a high-frequency electric field. The laser beam was perpendicular to both the surface of the liquid film and the direction of the electric field. The size of this opto-electrostatic microvortex (OEMV) in various liquids (water, ethanol, acetone, nitrobenzene) varied with the experimental conditions, but stayed in the 10-μm range. The velocity of the liquid flow in the vortex could be controlled by the intensity and frequency of the electric field (5.0×104 to 0.8×106 V/m, 2×104 to 1×106 Hz), by the laser power (0.01 to 2 W) and by the laser power density in the focal point. No microvortex was observed in benzene and chloroform. As an application of this phenomenon, single DNA molecules could be transported along the OEMV View full abstract»

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  • Modern cement plant design with a view to efficiency and the environment

    Page(s): 542 - 552
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    Using today's proven technology we can design a cement plant, which not only will meet many of the emission requirements, but also uses the least possible amount of thermal and electrical energy. Today's modern cement plant design will lower initial capital investment, lower operating costs, and also reduce the burden of the cement plant on the environment. These desirable requirements are achieved either directly by reducing process emissions or indirectly by significantly reducing power and fuel consumption per ton of product produced. The author discusses the following areas of design: raw grinding system, pyro-system design, kiln design, kiln burner design, tertiary air-take-off, and clinker cooler design View full abstract»

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  • Applications of electrostatic stretch-and-positioning of DNA

    Page(s): 447 - 456
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    The authors have previously reported that the electrostatic orientation and the dielectrophoresis (DEP) of DNA occur under ≈1 MHz, >1×106 V/m field, by which DNA strands are stretched straight along field lines and positioned onto electrode edges. This paper presents some application of this stretch-and-positioning method to genetic engineering. It is shown that the DNA size distribution, as well as the activities of nuclease, can be determined by the measurement of the apparent length of stretched DNA. Several methods are developed to immobilize stretched DNA onto a substrate, including: (1) immobilization onto a conducting substrate for observations with the scanning tunneling microscopy, (2) anchoring onto a substrate only at both ends of the DNA using special electrode configuration, and/or molecular binding between avidin and biotin. The DNA can be held without contact to the substrate in the latter method, so that it does not cause steric hindrances to the DNA-binding enzymes. A novel fluid integrated circuit (FIC) device is proposed in which stretched DNA is cut by laser beam for the successive sequencing. A method to obtain unidirectionally oriented DNA is developed. The spatial resolution, and the small number of molecules required, are the advantages of the assays and measurements using electrostatic DNA manipulations over conventional biochemical methods. It is hoped that the methods may open a way to a novel category of “molecular biochemistry with spatial resolution.” View full abstract»

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  • A comprehensive design approach for a three-phase high-frequency single-switch discontinuous-mode boost power factor corrector based on analytically derived normalized converter component ratings

    Page(s): 569 - 582
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    In this paper the peak, mean, and RMS values of the component currents of a three-phase single-switch discontinuous inductor current mode boost rectifier are calculated analytically. The values are given in rated form in dependency on the output power and on the ratio of output voltage to the amplitude of the mains voltage. Furthermore, the influence of the voltage transfer ratio on the shape of the mains currents and on the power factor of the system is analyzed. The theoretical analysis is verified by digital simulation and a good consistency is achieved. Finally, the approach of the converter dimensioning based on the graphical representation of the calculation results is described and illustrated using a specific example. The correctness of the dimensioning is verified by measurements on a laboratory model View full abstract»

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  • Neural network based estimation of feedback signals for a vector controlled induction motor drive

    Page(s): 620 - 629
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB)  

    Neural networks are showing promise for application in power electronics and motion control systems. So far, they have been applied for a few cases, mainly in the control of converters and drives, but their application in estimation is practically new. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that such a technology can be applied for estimation of feedback signals in an induction motor drive with some distinct advantages when compared to DSP based implementation. A feedforward neural network receives the machine terminal signals at the input and calculates flux, torque, and unit vectors (cos θe and sin θe) at the output which are then used in the control of a direct vector-controlled drive system. The three-layer network has been trained extensively by Neural Works Professional II/Plus program to emulate the DSP-based computational characteristics. The performance of the estimator is good and is comparable to that of DSP-based estimation. The system has been operated in the wide torque and speed regions independently with a DSP-based estimator and a neural network-based estimator, and are shown to have comparable performance. The neural network estimator has the advantages of faster execution speed, harmonic ripple immunity, and fault tolerance characteristics compared to DSP-based estimator View full abstract»

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  • A two-switch high-performance current regulated DC/AC converter module

    Page(s): 583 - 589
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    A high-performance current regulated single-phase DC/AC converter module is proposed in this paper. Its novel features include: a two-switch topology with no “shoot-through” paths, high input to-output voltage gain, low and constant switching frequencies, and practically instantaneous recovery from input or output transients. Moreover, by utilizing an inner filter capacitor current control loop the proposed module can maintain nearly perfect sinusoidal output voltages even with highly nonlinear loads. Furthermore, three-phase operation can be obtained easily by using three of these modules. Finally, the paper includes the analysis and design of the converter power and control circuits and the experimental evaluation of key predicted results View full abstract»

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  • Detailed design of a 30-kW switched reluctance starter/generator system for a gas turbine engine application

    Page(s): 553 - 561
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    A new switched reluctance starter/generator (SR S/G) system has been developed for an aircraft engine application. The system is rated at 30 kW, 270 Vdc, 52 k r/min maximum operating speed. The system also provides 17 hp to start the 1400-hp engine. The system consists of an SR machine directly coupled to the gas turbine engine, an inverter converter unit (ICU), and an electronic controller. The system is designed to meet requirements such as power quality per MIL-STD-704E, 30% (9 kW) step loads, 75% constant power loads, operation over a wide speed range, and a -51°C to +125°C environment. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of the system. The SR S/G system is currently undergoing design assurance tests. Test results are given to validate the system design and performance. System efficiency is about 80% when generating 30 kW View full abstract»

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  • Observation of the electrorheological effect of silicone oil/polymer particles suspension

    Page(s): 457 - 463
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    A liquid insulator that suspends small particles is one of the electrorheological fluids (ERF) whose apparent viscosity becomes larger under an electric field because of the formation of particle chains. Since many possible applications of ERF are expected, the development of a more practical ERF is required. We have investigated the ER effect of silicone oil in which small particles are suspended. Silica particles, silica particles coated by conductive polymer film, and polymer particles (microcrystalline cellulose), with a diameter between 5~100 μm, are investigated in order to clarify the difference between suspending materials. To measure the ER effect, a rotational viscometer was constructed. It became clear that the shear stress for cellulose particles is much stronger than that for other particles because of its peculiar particle chain formation due to the particle shape View full abstract»

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  • Gate drive considerations for IGBT modules

    Page(s): 603 - 611
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    The switching performance of an IGBT module depends upon the drive circuit characteristics and external DC loop inductance. This paper discusses the influence of these parameters on switching losses, diode recovery, switching voltage transients, short circuit operation, and dv/dt induced current. The paper is a tutorial and identifies trends. It is intended as an aid to the circuit designer, to help him apply the IGBT module to best advantage View full abstract»

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  • Control method for a combined active filter system employing a current source converter and a high pass filter

    Page(s): 590 - 597
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    This paper describes a control method with a combined filter system which senses load current, source current, and line voltage to create reference signals for an active filter. The transfer function of the active filter is identified and is used for the control system design. It is shown that the source current feedback is most effective in suppressing the harmonic-enlarging effects due to parallel resonance and the harmonic current generated by source harmonic voltages. A small setup controlled by a DSP was built, and the validity of the proposed method was demonstrated by experimental results View full abstract»

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  • A finite-element analysis of bipolar ionized field

    Page(s): 477 - 483
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    This paper describes a new iterative method for the analysis of the bipolar ionized field in HVDC transmission lines without resorting to Deutsch's assumption. The finite-element technique (FET) is used to solve Poisson's equation where the constancy of the conductors' surface field at the corona inception value is directly implemented in the finite-element formulation. The proposed method has been tested on laboratory and full-scale models. The calculated V-I characteristics agreed well with those calculated and measured previously. The dependence of the corona current as well as its monopolar and bipolar components on the conductor height is discussed. The simplicity in computer programming in addition to the low number of iterations required to achieve convergence characterize the proposed method of analysis View full abstract»

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  • Fault analysis of multi-phase unbalanced nonradial power distribution systems

    Page(s): 528 - 534
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    Algorithms are presented in this paper for the accurate determination of voltages, currents, and power flows in faulted three-phase unbalanced nonradial power distribution systems. The calculation of steady-state fault currents begins from a converged power flow solution and uses generalized models for all power system components. These component models are formulated using a linear graph theory approach to network modeling. The linear graph modeling techniques are extended to form an admittance matrix system model. The three-phase source and load models that are used are based on an extension of the traditional models used to represent these elements in fault studies using symmetrical components. The distribution system model consisting of sources, loads, lines, transformers, and other components is modified to account for the fault and solved to yield the line-to-neutral voltages at each bus in the faulted distribution system. The faulted system current and power flows are determined using these voltages. The results obtained using the proposed modeling approach on a system provided by a local industry are compared with the results obtained from an existing classical three-phase fault analysis algorithm, and conclusions are drawn based on these comparisons View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid inverter/cycloconverter-based variable-speed three-phase induction motor drive for single-phase inputs

    Page(s): 630 - 635
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    This paper presents a simple converter topology for driving a three-phase induction motor with a single-phase AC supply. Using only two active switches and a triac, the converter can start the motor with high starting torque and low input current, and can bring the motor up to full speed using a very cost-effective, single-phase field-oriented control strategy. The converter supplies balanced output voltages at rated frequency with virtually no output distortion and with very high input power factor. In this paper, the capability contours for different speed ranges and various operating modes are addressed; the trade-offs between output torque, torque ripple, input current distortion, and inverter rating are also explained, and the proposed control approaches are supported by simulation and test results View full abstract»

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  • Gas cleaning with semi-wet type plasma reactor

    Page(s): 500 - 506
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    An experimental study on the removal of NH3, NO, NOx in concentration of 10-40 ppm in air has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a streamer corona discharge. The results of the performance of dry type and semi-wet type reactors are compared. The effects of different type of applied voltages such as rectangular pulse, 60-Hz sinusoidal, and 18-kHz alternating voltages are investigated. During NO removal, O3 and NO2 are produced. NO2 can, partially, be removed with higher power input into the discharge. Another undesirable pollutant, namely N2 O, is also produced, especially, in case of dry reactors having long residence time (~2.4 s). N2O production decreases, essentially, to zero at 0.6-s residence time while using a semi-wet reactor. In general, higher removal efficiency has been obtained with pulse voltage in a semi-wet reactor. NH3 in air appears to produce ozone and ammonium nitrate in a discharge. The performance of semi-wet reactors an the removal of submicron dust particles has also been investigated and very high removal efficiency (~93% at 0.6-s residence time) has been obtained View full abstract»

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  • Identification and control of induction machines using artificial neural networks

    Page(s): 612 - 619
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    This paper proposes the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify and control an induction machine. Two systems are presented: a system to adaptively control the stator currents via identification of the electrical dynamics; and a system to adaptively control the rotor speed via identification of the mechanical and current-fed system dynamics. Various advantages of these control schemes over other conventional schemes are cited and the performance of the combined speed and current control scheme is compared with that of the standard vector control scheme View full abstract»

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  • Third-harmonic modulated power electronics interface with three-phase utility to provide a regulated DC output and to minimize line-current harmonics

    Page(s): 598 - 602
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    A novel approach to achieve nearly sinusoidal line current rectification of three-phase utility voltages is presented. The scheme incorporates two step-up DC-DC power converters to modulate the DC-link currents at the third-harmonic frequency. The modulated currents are then circulated through the AC-side of the diode-bridge rectifier, using a zigzag autotransformer, Simulation results for a three-phase, 208 V (line-to-line), 1 kW system are presented. Results from experimental investigations on a laboratory model are included, supporting the concept View full abstract»

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  • Transient performance of substation structures and associated grounding systems

    Page(s): 520 - 527
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    When lightning strikes an electric substation, large currents generated by the stroke flow in the above ground structures and grounding system and dissipate in the soil. The electromagnetic fields generated by such high currents may cause damage to equipment and may be dangerous to personnel working nearby. In this paper, the frequency and time domain performance of a substation subjected to a lightning strike is described and discussed. The computed scalar potentials, electric fields, and magnetic fields are presented graphically as a function of spatial coordinates. As a function of time and as a function of both. Two cases are considered. The first case examines the substation grounding system only, while the second case includes an above-ground structure as well. It is believed that the results of the second case have not been published before. A double exponential lightning surge current is injected at one corner of the substation. The response of the grounding system to the frequency domain electromagnetic spectrum of this signal is computed by a frequency domain electromagnetic field analysis software package. The temporal and spatial distributions of the electromagnetic fields inside and near the substation are obtained by an inverse Fourier transformation of all these responses. The presence of a soil with an arbitrary resistivity and permittivity is accurately taken into account. The analysis sheds some new light on the understanding of the effects which take place at the higher frequencies View full abstract»

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  • Charge equalization for series connected battery strings

    Page(s): 562 - 568
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    A simple technique that provides charge equalization for a series string of battery cells is presented. The advantages of accurate charge equalization are very substantial and include reduced damage to battery cells in the stack, and a dramatic increase in battery life. The basic technique utilizes a simple isolated DC/DC converter with a capacitive output filter along with a multi-winding coaxial winding transformer (CWT). The coaxial winding transformer is known for its low and controlled leakage inductance. The transformer leakage inductance is used as the main driving impedance to control the total charging current for the individual cells. The use of one low-power converter to obtain charge equalization for the entire battery string is very attractive and leads to a low cost implementation View full abstract»

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  • Modification of surface energy, dry etching, and organic film removal using atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona plasma

    Page(s): 494 - 499
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    A laboratory-scale atmospheric-pressure plasma reactor, using a nanosecond pulsed corona, was constructed to demonstrate potential applications ranging from modification of surface energy to removal of surface organic films. For surface modification studies, three different substrates were selected to evaluate the surface energies: bare aluminum, polyurethane, and silicon coated with photoresist. The critical surface energy for all materials studied significantly increased after the plasma treatment. The effects of gas composition and plasma treatment time were also investigated. Photoresist, ethylene glycol, and Micro surfactant were used as test organic films. The etching rate of a photoresist coating on silicon was 9 nm/min. Organic film removal using atmospheric pressure plasma technology was shown to be feasible View full abstract»

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  • Power distribution system design for operation under nonsinusoidal load conditions

    Page(s): 513 - 519
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    This paper explores the effects of power system harmonics induced by nonsinusoidal loads on power distribution systems. The first portion examines the harmonic phenomenon to more fully understand harmonic current behavior from an intuitive point of view. The second portion outlines the hazardous effect harmonic currents have on power system components and provides guidance for nonsinusoidal load power distribution system design View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of monopolar ionized field as influenced by ion diffusion

    Page(s): 484 - 493
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    This paper aims at the analysis of the monopolar ionized field in conductor-to-plane configurations without resorting to Deutsch's assumption. A new iterative finite-element technique is proposed to solve Poisson's equation. Satisfying the current continuity condition and updating the space-charge density are based on the application of Kirchoff's current-balance law at each node of the finite-element grid and take the ion diffusion into account. The proposed method of solution has been applied for laboratory and full-scale models of a monopolar transmission line. The calculated V-I characteristics, the current-density, and electric field profiles at the ground plane agreed well with those measured experimentally in comparison with previous calculations. Fast convergence and simplicity in programming characterize the proposed method View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of pulse voltage generators

    Page(s): 507 - 512
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    In this paper, the electrical characteristics of the positive pulsed corona in a wire-cylinder type reactor are investigated. The injected energy and charge into the discharging volume per pulse and per unit length of corona emitting wire are adopted to evaluate the power source, electric circuits, and the corona wire. The discharging current lasts from several hundred nanoseconds to a few microseconds. The current, power peak values, and the injected energy and charge per pulse per unit length of emitting wire can reach up to 60 A/m, 5 MW/m, 480 mJ/m, and 8 μC/m, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency related to the output energy from the pulse forming capacitor and the energy delivered to the discharging volume can reach up to 90%. All results are obtained at room temperature and in air View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical analysis of ion-drag pumping

    Page(s): 469 - 476
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    An improved one-dimensional theoretical model for ion-drag pumping is developed. All three components of the current density are considered, and the distributions of the charge density and electrical field under various conditions are provided. The solutions presented are in nondimensional form, while the combined effects of the controlling fluid properties and operating conditions are incorporated into three nondimensional numbers. The efficiency plots given in terms of the three nondimensional numbers play a vital role in the selection of the working fluid and design of an efficient ion-drag pump View full abstract»

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  • The gray market trojan horse [used electrical equipment]

    Page(s): 535 - 541
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    Surplus, used, and reconditioned electrical equipment being misrepresented and sold as new has created a “gray market” within the electrical industry. This misrepresentation raises serious issues for the petrochemical industry. Practical methods for controlling, minimizing, and guarding against the “gray market” are presented View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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