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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan/Feb 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Use of reduced emissions wire in switchgear equipments

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 193 - 200
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1620 KB)  

    Emphasis on safety in the workplace and reduction of damage due to fires has led to the introduction of new types of wire and cable which are insulated with materials that contain no halogens and produce less smoke and/or toxic emissions when burned. These wires and cables have been available for general building wire for several years, but not as Type SIS wire, which is required by ANSI/IEEE standards for use in switchgear equipment. Now Type SIS wire insulated with low smoke, low emission, halogen-free material is available. To investigate the performance of this wire under fire conditions, two identical equipments were built, one wired with standard SIS wire and one with low-emissions SIS wire. Wires were deliberately ignited in each cubicle and the results recorded. Measurements of the effects of emissions on the contact resistance of control devices were made, and the relative ease of cleaning was checked. A comparison of the results shows that the low-emissions wire did reduce the effects of the fire on both internal appearance of the equipment and on the contact resistance of control devices View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation and testing of turn insulation of large AC motors

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 190 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    This paper reviews the results of tests performed on the stator windings of a 13.8 kV, 15000 HP variable speed slipring induction motor in order to assess its insulation condition and quantify the impulse strength of the motor winding. A surge voltage distribution test showed severe nonlinearity of turn voltage where up to 120% of the applied voltage was achieved across the first coil with 0.1-μs risetime. The effect of a surge capacitor was also demonstrated when a substantial reduction of the first coil voltage could be obtained at low risetime of 0.1 μs. Measurements of breakdown voltage (BDV) of coils at different locations gave indirect evidence that turn insulation degradation was most likely surge related. Finally, the paper contains a proposal of an alternative testing criteria to quantify impulse strength of turn insulation of large AC machines View full abstract»

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  • Force commutated three level boost type rectifier

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 155 - 161
    Cited by:  Papers (63)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)  

    A new force commutated three level boost type rectifier is proposed in this paper. The rectifier has the characteristics of drawing nearly sinusoidal current from the utility with unity fundamental power factor. High reliability is possible due to its shoot-through free structure. A doubled DC bus voltage compared to a normal two-level rectifier is also possible because of the neutral point clamping. The operating principle, steady state analysis, input current and neutral point voltage control schemes, as well as detailed experimental results are presented in this paper View full abstract»

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  • Introduction of the harmonic distortion determining factor and its application to evaluating real time PWM inverters

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 149 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    Frequency spectra of inverter output currents are one of the important factors in order to evaluate PWM methods. These spectra are, however, influenced not only by the PWM method itself but by the operating conditions of the inverter such as the switching frequency or load parameters. The harmonic distortion determining factor (HDDF) is considered to be a common quality index that represents the intrinsic spectral property of individual PWM methods. As it has a close relation to RMS values of the harmonic current or torque ripples of driven motors and, further, it is almost independent of the operating conditions, HDDF is quite useful for evaluating PWM methods. In this paper three typical analog PWM methods and four digital PWM methods are compared and evaluated based on HDDF values View full abstract»

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  • High efficiency quasi-resonant DC link three-phase power inverter for full-range PWM

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 141 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    A quasi-resonant DC link soft switching inverter is presented, capable of PWM operation. It requires only two additional switches, and allows loss limitation in the resonant circuit. The modulation method adopted is able to perform true PWM operation at any modulation index. Simulated and experimental results are reported, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed solution View full abstract»

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  • An expert system for computer generation of cable, conduit, and tray schedules for industrial power and control systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 222 - 228
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    Integrated Design Systems (IDS) are the wave of the future in the engineering and construction industry. These systems use powerful relational database programs to allow the data from a single entry point to be the source information for several forms of data output. The high costs of relational database software, network hardware and development of the expert system programming which links the system together, limits those who can take advantage of IDS. For those who desire the increased productivity and higher quality control of a single entry point system, but do not require the full functionality of a complete IDS package, this paper discusses the development of a system, based on common dBase commands, which automatically generates electrical cable, conduit and tray schedules from information within an existing electrical load list database View full abstract»

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  • Transformer life extension through proper reinhibiting and preservation of the oil insulation

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 55 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    In this paper, the authors discuss the preservation of insulating systems in transformers, oil, as well as in solid insulation. In presenting this topic they focus on life extension of a power transformer by recognizing the degradation of the insulating system and detailing the methods used to measure aging and then the processes to accomplish preservation. These techniques apply to both new transformers and in-service units. They present data from literature as well as some of their own studies View full abstract»

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  • Control techniques for multiple current source GTO converters

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 134 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    This paper presents the control techniques for a multiple current source GTO power converter in a high-power environment. The output current space vector diagram for the multiple power converter is presented. The important issue of DC current sharing between the two bridges is discussed, and a novel current sharing control scheme based on the use of redundant switch combinations is presented. Harmonic issues are discussed. The ranges of independent control of real and reactive power for different DC power sources are presented View full abstract»

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  • Applying adjustable frequency controllers to high-starting-torque loads

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 68 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    Effectively applying adjustable frequency controllers (AFCs) to high-starting-torque loads, such as positive displacement pumps, extruders, and conveyors, can present unique challenges to the application engineer. A detailed understanding of AFC operation, motor performance, load characteristics, and potential application and installation problems is essential to project success. The authors use recent experience to review the essential system concepts and outline a practical method to minimize potential “pitfalls” and facilitate installation and start-up View full abstract»

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  • An improved full-bridge zero-voltage switching PWM converter using a two-inductor rectifier

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 119 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    An improved full-bridge ZVS PWM power convertor using a two-inductor rectifier DC/DC power converter is presented in this paper. For this improved topology, the main devices are switched under zero-voltage (ZVS) conditions using the energy stored in the secondary filter inductors. In addition, it utilizes the low leakage inductance of a coaxial winding transformer to reset the currents in the rectifier diodes and eliminate the secondary voltage spike. The two-inductor rectifier has only one diode conduction drop in addition to frequency doubling in the output capacitor. The secondary filter size in the proposed topology is rather small. The advantages of the new topology include a wide load range with ZVS, no lost duty cycle due to diode recovery, no secondary voltage spikes, in addition to high power density and high efficiency View full abstract»

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  • Lightning, grounding and protection for control systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 45 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (980 KB)  

    Protection for installations that have been modernized or retrofitted presents a unique mix of problems that require a different perspective from a new installation. The paper addresses lightning, transients, and radiation that cause problems to programmable logic controllers, distributed control systems, and remote electronic transducers. While complex grounding grids and networks were not required for analog systems, newer digital equipment requires a very effective means of maintaining equal potential throughout the facility. Methods of protecting circuits include a variety of sophisticated and not-so-elegant techniques. Special consideration must be given to the impact that towers have on a protection system. The investigation ranges from no air terminals to lightning arrays. The protection problem is compounded when different soils such as clay and rock are encountered. Methods of calculating the grounding circuit resistance are identified. Although the paper is based on a retrofit, the techniques are appropriate for any industrial installation using distributed control View full abstract»

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  • Contactless power delivery system for mining applications

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 27 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (60)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    The ability to transfer large amounts of electrical power (up to 1 MW) to a moving load has traditionally used means that are unreliable, inefficient, and potentially unsafe. These include sliding or rolling metal contacts, sliding carbon brushes, and trailing cables. More recently, flat inductively coupled coils have been used to help mitigate these problems. Except for inductively coupled coils, these techniques have not been developed with the capabilities of power electronics in mind. This paper presents the first conceptual description of a power delivery system design unifying power electronics and a coaxial-winding transformer for devices that require a contactless connection and/or relative motion while delivering large amounts of power. The transformer's unique characteristics and how they might be used to advantage in combination with power electronics are emphasized. Potential applications are flexible power distribution, material handling, electric vehicle boost, and battery opportunity recharge. Test results of a small scale prototype are presented and verify these initial concepts View full abstract»

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  • Microprocessor based wide bandwidth fast active power transducer

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 201 - 205
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    Fast and accurate measurement of real power is indispensable for power system monitoring and control, protective relay systems and fault recording systems. Taking advantage of the accuracy and simplicity of the Hall effect based sensor and powerful data processing and logic control functions of a microprocessor, a microprocessor based fast real power measurement device has been developed. A series of tests were conducted in a physical simulation laboratory to demonstrate its capability in measuring active power in balanced and various unbalanced conditions View full abstract»

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  • Comments on “lightning and surge protection of subststions”

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 171 - 173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    The author comments on the paper by R. B. Carpenter and R.A Auer (see ibid., vol.31, no.1, 1995). The author congratulates the original authors for producing a short tutorial on application of surge protection for substations. He points out that they have outlined the problems and briefly discussed the reasons for selecting surge protection and the installation of series hybrid surge arresters. He suggests that the balance of the paper is pure commercialism, lacking experimental evidence to support conclusions and lacking the ability to duplicate and confirm the work as suggested in the IAS' Author's Guide. The author argues that the paper has questionable objectives and is of dubious technical merit. The author's discussion focuses on the technical aspect of the Multipoint Discharge System (MPDS), a noncommercial term, and the misuse of IAS to meet NFPA suggestions to legitimize the method View full abstract»

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  • Earth ground resistance testing for low-voltage power systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 206 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)  

    A quality connection to earth through the grounding electrode system for a commercial or industrial facility's power system is necessary for: (1) providing a low impedance path for lightning stroke current dissipation, (2) the reduction of “Step” and “Touch” potentials under line-to-earth fault conditions, and (3) the dissipation of electrostatic charges. Previously accepted test methods for resistance measurements of a grounding electrode system may indicate incorrectly that high or low resistance connections have been established. Testing of several grounding electrode systems was conducted by the author. This paper presents results of these tests to illustrate deficiencies in grounding electrode resistance test methods that have been accepted previously. Inaccuracies of various test instrument principles are also discussed. The author found that close attention to the test procedure must be given to ensure that an accurate measurement is achieved. This paper provides recommendations on measurement techniques to minimize errors and ensure valid test results View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to calculate the decaying AC contributions to short circuit: the “characteristic” currents method

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 214 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    For the near to generator short-circuit analysis, it is well known that a rigorous calculation procedure requires the use of complex dynamic models of power system components. In most practical cases, however, it is sufficient to adopt simplified and standard based calculation methods. For these cases the paper suggests a new approach of the short-circuit models of power system components based on the “characteristic” currents method. The paper, at first, presents a short overview of the IEC Standard 909, assumed as reference for the proposed approach. The calculation assumptions and the simplifications of the IEC Standard are pointed out in order to evidence how the new approach proposed allows one to obtain conservative, but more accurate results. The “characteristic” currents procedure is successively applied to a sample network with external feeder and internal generation and with motor load. The same network is analyzed by means of the IEC procedure and by means of a computer program able to consider dynamic models of electrical equipment. A comparison among these approaches is carried out in order to validate the “characteristic” currents method View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and reduction of vibration and acoustic noise in the switched reluctance drive

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 91 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    This paper describes the results of an extensive study into the production and reduction of acoustic noise and vibration in the switched reluctance motor drive. Time domain analysis has been used to draw conclusions about the effects of changing the operating parameters of the power electronic controller on the vibration and acoustic noise. Experimental results have been taken from a four-phase switched reluctance motor drive with one-, two-, or four-phase excitation. The results of this time domain study reveal important information about the stator vibration which would not be apparent from frequency spectra. The results have been used to derive operational concepts for the power electronic controller to reduce the acoustic noise and vibration produced by the drive. A new control technique has been developed to cancel the stator vibration. Using this novel control method, experimental results show that the vibration and acoustic noise produced by a switched reluctance drive can be reduced dramatically without affecting the performance of the drive View full abstract»

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  • The effects of nonlinear loads on EMI/RFI filters

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 184 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    Power feeder electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) filters are widely used in the Army and industry for filtering unwanted signals on power lines supplying sensitive loads such as computers and communication equipment. Typically, these low pass filters are passive circuits designed to attenuate frequencies above 10 kHz. Under 60-Hz sinusoidal conditions, the filters dissipate little power, but when nonlinear loads are present (such as those associated with computers, adjustable speed drives, electronic power supplies, and communication equipment), significant power dissipation can occur within the filters. This can shorten filter lifetime or even lead to complete filter failure. Laboratory testing and mathematical analyses were performed on a selected EMI/RFI filter to: (1) determine its frequency response in the 60 Hz-3 kHz range, (2) identify the filter components that dissipate the most power when subjected to harmonic currents, and (3) measure filter component temperature rises when harmonic line currents are present. It is shown that power line harmonics, not considered by EMI/RFI filter manufacturers, interact with filter component parasites and cause considerable power dissipation in the filters View full abstract»

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  • Lightning and surge protection of substations

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 162 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)  

    Lightning and switching transients along with ground faults create significant voltage anomalies on transmission and some distribution circuits. Not only direct strikes, but nearby strikes, create significant voltage anomalies and subsequent line outages. Developments have made it possible to provide a solution to lightning and surge problems, and also reduce the overall cost of substation designs. It is now possible to prevent lightning strikes to any substation component (including the protection system), and to limit incoming transient voltages to as little as 10% over their normal sine wave peaks. This paper defines the problem confronting protection systems engineers, reviews the protection systems conventionally used and defines two new protective systems: the Dissipation Array System (DAS) and the series hybrid forms of surge protection. The DAS has been in use for over twenty years as a strike preventer. The series hybrid protection concept is new to substation applications, but has been in use at secondary levels of up to 2500 V for approximately sixteen years. As a result, lightning or other forms of transient phenomena does not need to be a threat to substations or drive up the overall costs View full abstract»

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  • A doubly salient doubly excited variable reluctance motor

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 99 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    A new variable reluctance motor is introduced to help solve the energy circulation problems which exist during commutation in conventional variable reluctance motors (VRM). The new motor design enables the energy stored in the magnetic field to be retained and utilized within the motor, instead of being returned to the source. The operating principles of the motor and associated power converters are presented. The analysis shows that by employing both short pitch and full pitch windings, this new motor can eliminate the two problems without extra conductors in the slots. As a result, the new motor has the following important performance advantages over conventional VRM: (1) it allows a significant improvement in the turn-off process and therefore allows higher speed capacity; (2) it has higher output with the same or higher efficiency with the same output because of the improvement on the turn-off performance and due to the utilization of the trapped energy; and (3) the machine can have a higher output with the same power converter because of the improvement of the energy conversion ratio View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of no-load characteristics of a bearingless induction motor

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 77 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)  

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a bearingless squirrel cage induction motor. There are two sets of stator windings. The main winding is a four-pole arrangement, while the control winding is a two-pole type. The latter is utilized to produce radial forces on the rotor shaft. The two-pole winding currents are regulated by radial position sensors and control strategies in order to maintain the rotor shaft position near the air gap center. The voltage and current relationships of the two-pole windings were derived from the machine inductance model and equivalent circuits. The influences of the secondary rotor circuits were also taken into account. The theoretical values of current, voltage, and radial force were compared with experimental results. It was found that the two-pole windings need only about 2 percent of the voltampere (VA) requirements of the main motor windings View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a novel stator winding structure minimizing harmonic current and torque ripple for dual six-step converter-fed high power AC machines

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 84 - 90
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    Many attempts have been made to expand the application of AC motor drives to high-power levels. One way to use AC motor drives at high-power levels is to use multiple power converters together to supply power to a large machine. For a multiple converter combination scheme, the six-step power converter is competitive due to its robust structure and simplicity of control. In a previous study, an AC motor drive with dual stator windings fed by dual six-step converters was proposed. Two sets of electrically isolated windings are placed in the stator slots, and one set is shifted from the other by 30° in space. Two converters are used to power the dual windings, and the phase voltages from the two converters are also shifted 30° from each other in time. The 5th and 7th harmonics of the airgap flux and rotor currents are reduced dramatically, and the output torque from the drive is superior to that of the drive which is singly fed from a six-step converter. However, for each individual six-step converter, the 5th and 7th harmonic currents are found to be substantial and the functioning of the power converter evidently is deteriorated. In this paper, the authors propose a novel stator winding structure and control strategy to solve the power converter problem. Principles associated with the new stator winding are discussed and a practical implementation presented View full abstract»

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  • Cement kiln NOX control

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 36 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    Control of NOX emissions from combustion sources has become an important issue in recent years, particularly in the ozone nonattainment areas of California. Cement kilns represent an important source of NOX emissions, and they either have already been regulated or are being considered for future regulations. This paper presents the results of a critical analysis of the state-of-the-art in cement kiln NOX control. A survey of current and anticipated cement kiln NOX regulations, NOX formation mechanisms, and common NOX control technologies (as applied to boilers) is presented. Cement kiln features relating to NOX control, such as a combustion characteristics and temperature and residence time profiles, are outlined. A comparison is made of NOX control technologies applicable to cement kilns; these include combustion modifications, low NOX burners, staged combustion, selective noncatalytic reduction, and selective catalytic reduction. The criteria for comparing these NOX control technologies include the principle of operation, technical feasibility, potential NOX reduction, relative cost, and, most importantly, the potential effects on clinker quality. Finally, conclusions and future directions in cement kiln NOX control are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Multiturn high-frequency coaxial winding power transformers

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 112 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)  

    Previous papers on coaxial winding transformers have focused on designs that use a copper tube to form a single-turn outer winding, and litz wire for a multiple-turn inner winding. In high-power applications, the increased resistance of a solid outer winding due to skin effects can be a limiting factor in achieving good performance, especially at frequencies above several hundred kilohertz. A single-turn outer winding leads to large core cross section areas at lower frequencies and the turns ratio is limited to a ratio of n:1, where n is an integer. This paper demonstrates several methods for achieving multiturn outer windings to improve design flexibility for the coaxial winding power transformer. Experimental measurements on transformers that have multiturn outer windings are included to confirm analytical results and demonstrate the modified designs View full abstract»

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  • Authors' reply [Lightning and surge protection of substations]

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 173 - 174
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB)  

    The authors reply to comments on their paper (see ibid., vol.31, no.1, 1995) by D.W. Zipse. They point out that it is true that the Dissipation Array System (DAS) is a controversial subject, but that it is not difficult to obtain factual information, as it is readily available in both the technical and historical areas. The authors discuss the DAS concept, its investigation/testing, and references to other work View full abstract»

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The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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