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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
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  • Computational methods for electromagnetics and microwaves [Book Review]

    Page(s): 123 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Engineering applications of correlation and spectral analysis [Book Review]

    Page(s): 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Frederick E. Terman [Scanning the Past]

    Page(s): 125 - 126
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    Sixty-five years ago this month, the Proceedings of the Institue of Radio Engineers (IRE) included a paper by Frederick E. Terman of Stanford University concerning the information-handling capacity of the radio spectrum. At the time, he was in the early stages of a career which would gain him recognition as one of the most influential electrical engineering educators of the 20th century. He was to play a key role in the emergence of Stanford as a center of graduate education and research and as a seedbed for firms such as Hewlett-Packard and Varian Associates. This article recounts the life and professional achievements of Mr. Terman. He served as Chairman of the IEEE History Committee during the early 1970's and helped lay the groundwork for the creation of the IEEE Center for the History of Electrical Engineering. He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1976. He died in December 1982 at age 82. View full abstract»

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  • Performance trends in high-end processors

    Page(s): 20 - 36
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    Based on a first order cycle time model performance trends and limits are projected for both bipolar and CMOS processors. The key in identifying trends is the understanding of the pivotal factors at any given stage of technology progression. One such parameter is the physical area of the processor. In coming technologies there will be opposite demands placed on the system's area stemming from a need to reduce the proportion of interconnection capacitance and to send signals across the processor. Contrary to the usual perception, delays resulting from wiring capacitance decrease if processor area increases, while the minimization of signal travel times favors reducing area. The system size tradeoff in the case of bipolar processors is primarily determined by power density, while CMOS processor sizes are determined by wirability requirements. To achieve the full potential of CMOS, interconnections will have to be carefully planned. The performance limits of bipolar and room temperature CMOS uniprocessors are shown to be very similar. The highest performance technology on the horizon is liquid nitrogen temperature CMOS. Alternate technologies, based on III-V compound devices, or more exotic quantum structures, are not expected to play a role in future general-purpose high-end systems View full abstract»

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  • Detection of signals in chaos

    Page(s): 95 - 122
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    In this paper, we present a new method for the detection of signals in “noise”, which is based on the premise that the “noise” is chaotic with at least one positive Lyapunov exponent. The method is naturally rooted in nonlinear dynamical systems and relies on neural networks for its implementation. We first present an introductory review of chaos. The subject matter selected for this part of the paper is written with emphasis on experimental studies of chaos using a time series. Specifically, we discuss the issues involved in the reconstruction of chaotic dynamics, attractor dimensions, and Lyapunov exponents. We describe procedures for the estimation of the correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent. The need for an adequate data length is stressed. In the second part of the paper we apply the chaos-based method to a difficult task: the radar detection of a small target in sea clutter View full abstract»

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  • EM interaction of handset antennas and a human in personal communications

    Page(s): 7 - 17
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    In personal communications, the electromagnetic interaction between handset-mounted antennas and the nearby biological tissue is a key consideration. This paper presents a thorough investigation of this antenna-tissue interaction using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulation approach with detailed models of real-life antennas on a transceiver handset. The monopole, side-mounted planar inverted F, top-mounted bent inverted F, and back-mounted planar inverted F antennas are selected as representative examples of external and internal configurations. Detailed models of the human head and hand are implemented to investigate the effects of the tissue location and physical model on the antenna performance. Experimental results are provided which support the computationally obtained conclusions. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in the tissue is examined for several different antenna/handset configurations. It is found that for a head-handset separation of 2 cm, the SAR in the head has a peak value between 0.9 and 3.8 mW/g and an average value between 0.06 and 0.10 mW/g for 1 W of power delivered to the antenna. Additionally, the head and hand absorb between 48 and 68% of the power delivered to the antenna View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and identification of parallel nonlinear systems: structural classification and parameter estimation methods

    Page(s): 39 - 66
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    Structural classification and parameter estimation (SCPE) methods are used for studying single-input single-output (SISO) parallel linear-nonlinear-linear (LNL), linear-nonlinear (LN), and nonlinear-linear (NL) system models from input-output (I-O) measurements. The uniqueness of the I-O mappings of some model structures is discussed. The uniqueness of I-O mappings of different models tells us in what conditions given model structures can be differentiated from one another. Parameter uniqueness of the I-O mapping of a given structural model is also discussed, which tells us in what conditions a given model's parameters can be uniquely estimated from I-O measurements. These methods are then generalized so that they can be used to study single-input multi-output (SIMO), multi-input single-output (MISO), as well as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear system models. Parameter estimation of the two-input single-output nonlinear system model, which was left unsolved previously, can now be obtained using the newly derived algorithms. Applications of SCPE methods for modeling visual cortical neurons, system fault detection, modeling and identification of communication networks, biological systems, and natural and artificial neural networks are also discussed. The feasibility of these methods is demonstrated using simulated examples. SCPE methods presented in this paper can be further developed to study more complicated block-structured models, and will therefore have future potential for modeling and identifying highly complex multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems View full abstract»

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  • Asynchronous design methodologies: an overview

    Page(s): 69 - 93
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    Asynchronous design has been an active area of research since at least the mid 1950's, but has yet to achieve widespread use. We examine the benefits and problems inherent in asynchronous computations, and in some of the more notable design methodologies. These include Huffman asynchronous circuits, burst-mode circuits, micropipelines, template-based and trace theory-based delay-insensitive circuits, signal transition graphs, change diagrams, and complication-based quasi-delay-insensitive circuits View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University