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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • 1/f noise sources

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1926 - 1935
    Cited by:  Papers (138)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)  

    This survey deals with 1/f noise in homogeneous semiconductor samples. A distinction is made between mobility noise and number noise. It is shown that there always is mobility noise with an α value with a magnitude in the order of 10-4. Damaging the crystal has a strong influence on α, α may increase by orders of magnitude. Some theoretical models are briefly discussed none of them can explain all experimental results. The α values of several semiconductors are given. These values can be used in calculations of 1/f noise in devices View full abstract»

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  • Fluctuations and noise of hot carriers in semiconductor materials and devices

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2034 - 2049
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1392 KB)  

    After recalling the definition of the noise temperature, the macroscopic expressions for noise sources are shown not to be specific to the hot carrier regime, though dependent on the electric field strength. Careful modeling allows one to obtain important information on transport parameters from noise measurements. The microscopic noise source expressions, via the transition rates, give a unified view of the noise sources. In particular, it is clarified that noise sources are intercorrelated, and that there is also space correlations over lengths of a few mean free paths. Recent developments are reviewed, concerning noise modeling using direct numerical methods for solution of the Boltzmann equation. Finally, impedance field methods for modeling noise of devices are briefly evoked View full abstract»

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  • Noise mechanisms in laser diodes

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2139 - 2150
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Noise in diode laser applications. Basics of diode lasers. Differences and similarities between optical and electronic devices. Dynamics and fundamental noise mechanisms in laser diodes; special difficulties encountered; present level of understanding. Intensity noise and frequency noise. Fundamental limits. Why can a laser diode generate an optical beam with sub-Poissonian photon statistics? Noise in traveling wave laser diode amplifiers. Mode partition noise, transients and external reflections, jitter. Optical and electrical feedback. Future developments View full abstract»

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  • Low-frequency noise spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2188 - 2197
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB)  

    Electrical noise in excess of thermal and shot noise is caused by imperfections in the device. Its control can improve the quality of the device and its measurement can give considerable information about the nature of the defects involved. For defects with discrete energy distributions spectroscopy can be used to identify the defect and measure its properties. Excess noise has large intensity at low frequencies and several mechanisms can be identified. The value of the technique for many systems is described. Comparison is made with other methods of studying such defects View full abstract»

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  • A noise model for high electron mobility transistors

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2087 - 2092
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    A model to explain the noise properties for AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT's, AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic HEMT's (P-HEMT's) and GaAs/AlGaAs inverted HEMT's (I-HEMT's) is presented. The model Is based on a self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson's equations. The influence of the drain-source current, frequency and device parameters on the minimum noise figure Fmin and minimum noise temperature Tmin, for different HEMT structures are presented. The study shows that P-HEMT's have a better noise performance than the normal and inverted HEMT's. The present model predicts that a long gate P-HEMT device will exhibit a better noise performance than a conventional HEMT. There is a range of doped epilayer thickness where minimum noise figure is a minimum for pseudomorphic HEMT's which is not observed in conventional and inverted HEMT's. The calculated noise properties are compared with experimental data and the results show excellent agreement for all devices View full abstract»

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  • Correlation between electrical and optical photocurrent noises in semiconductor laser diodes

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2151 - 2161
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The low and medium frequency (1 Hz⩽f⩽10 MHz) electrical noise characteristics of 0.98, 1.3, and 1.55 micrometer semiconductor lasers have been investigated. We show that the electrical noise is connected to the optical noise behavior. The correlation between electrical and optical noises is obtained by using the coherence function between these noise sources. This confirms the theoretical predictions issued from Haug's model that this correlation, which originates in the dipole interaction between the optical field and electron-hole pairs, can be extended to the laser diode characterization by using electrical noise measurements View full abstract»

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  • 1/f noise in MOS devices, mobility or number fluctuations?

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1936 - 1945
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)  

    Recent experimental studies on 1/f noise in MOS transistors are reviewed. Arguments are given for the two schools of thought on the origin of 1/f noise. The consequences of models based on carrier-number ΔN or mobility fluctuations Δμ on the device geometry and on the bias dependence of the 1/f noise are discussed. Circuit-simulation-oriented equations for the 1/f noise are discussed. The effects of scaling down on the 1/f noise is studied in the ohmic region as well as in saturation. In the ohmic region the contribution of the series resistance often can be ignored. However, in saturation the noise of the gate-voltage-dependent series resistance on the drain side plays a role in lightly doped drain LDD mini-MOST's. Surface and bulk p-channel devices are compared and the differences between n-and p-MOST's often observed is discussed. The relation between degradation effects by hot carriers or by γ-irradiation on the one hand and the 1/f noise on the other is considered in terms of a ΔN or Δμ. Experimental results suggest that 1/f noise in n-MOST's is dominated by ΔN while in p-MOST's the noise is due to Δμ View full abstract»

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  • A study of quantum interference fluctuations in deep sub-μm MOSFET's under cryogenic conditions

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2107 - 2111
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    We investigated the phase coherence length, lφ, in large Si-MOSFET's fabricated using current process technology, with a particular emphasis on highly doped silicon substrates, and then studied the effects of quantum conductance fluctuations in deep sub-μm MOSFET's, with channel length comparable to lφ. We identified, in a 0.2 μm MOSFET, universal conductance fluctuations in the strong inversion regime and conductance fluctuations due to variable range hopping in the weak inversion regime. The drain bias dependence of these fluctuations indicates clearly that they become a serious concern only at drain voltages lower than 10 mV. Therefore, even if the wave nature of electrons results in quantum conductance fluctuations, it will not lead to a limitation on device miniaturization in future Si-ULSI's View full abstract»

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  • Noise as a diagnostic tool for quality and reliability of electronic devices

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2176 - 2187
    Cited by:  Papers (135)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB)  

    Experimental facts about noise are presented which help us to understand the correlation between noise in a device and its reliability. The main advantages of noise measurements are that the tests are less destructive, faster and more sensitive than DC measurements after accelerated life tests. The following topics are addressed: 1) the kind of noise spectra in view of reliability diagnostics such as thermal noise, shot noise, the typical poor-device indicators like burst noise and generation-recombination noise and the 1/f2 and 1/f noise; 2) why conduction noise is a quality indicator; 3) the quality of electrical contacts and vias; 4) electromigration damage; 5) the reliability in diode type devices like solar cells, laser diodes, and bipolar transistors; and 6) the series resistance in modern short channel MESFET, MODFET, and MOST devices View full abstract»

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  • Spectral and random telegraph noise characterizations of low-frequency fluctuations in GaAs/Al0.4Ga0.6As resonant tunneling diodes

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2016 - 2022
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    The origin of low-frequency noise in resonant-tunneling diodes is investigated through spectral and time-domain characterizations over a wide range of temperatures and biasing conditions. The experiments were conducted on devices fabricated on GaAs/Al0.4Ga0.6As material system. Detailed analyses on the temperature and bias dependences of the random telegraph noise and Lorentzian structures in the noise power spectral densities showed that the low-frequency excess noise arises from hopping conduction of electrons from the emitter to the quasi-bound states in the quantum well. The capture of an electron by a trap in the energy barrier causes fluctuations in the transmission coefficient of the electron due to the modulation of the barrier potential View full abstract»

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  • Excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors and associated TLM test structures

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2000 - 2005
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    Noise measurements both on transmission line model (TLM) test structures and on associated HBT's are presented. Contact noise is proved to be negligible in the TLM's related to the base structure of transistors. A Hooge parameter for p++ doped GaAs is extracted. Activation energies are calculated from results versus temperature. Considering the TLM related to the structure of the emitter, it is shown that the g-r levels observed originate from the AlGaAs layer. Noise measurements on HBT's also exhibit excess noise. A value of the cutoff frequency between the equivalent input current white noise and the 1/f component is given. The base current dependencies associated with different measurement configurations suggest the 1/f noise to come from the base or the emitter-base junction. The g-r components are studied as a function of temperature. Activation energies are deduced. Finally a comparison of the TLM and HBT noise results is presented. The presence of the complex DX center and of g-r levels in the base region are proposed as possible origins for the g-r noise in HBT's View full abstract»

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  • Correlation measurement of carrier multiplication noise sources in MOS transistors at low frequencies

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2076 - 2081
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    Low frequency techniques of cross spectrum and correlation coefficient measurements are presented and applied to investigate drain and substrate noises of MOS transistors when multiplication occurs in the channel. For low substrate currents it is shown that the experimental data agree with theoretical expectations: the correlation coefficient is maximum at low frequencies and reaches its minimum value which is only dependent of the multiplication factor in the upper frequency range. For high substrate currents uncorrelated 1/f noise appears in bulk conductance View full abstract»

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  • Extracting 1/f noise coefficients for BJT's

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1992 - 1999
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    We present a method for extracting the BJT SPICE noise model parameters AF and KF based on a general analysis of the small-signal equivalent circuit and the role of the internal BJT noise sources. The analysis is valid even for transistors with poor current gain and large base-collector conductance, for which the output noise characteristics may not be dominated by base flicker and shot noise. The method consists of interpreting the measured 1/f corner frequency versus DC current data in terms of the BJT's internal noisy small signal equivalent circuit. Measured data is presented for an implanted-emitter and two polysilicon-emitter bipolar technologies View full abstract»

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  • Macroscopic and microscopic methods for noise in devices

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1902 - 1915
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    After an introduction and preamble concerning the motivation and nature of this article, we proceed to the two main divisions, Part I containing a compendium of macroscopic methods used for noise computation, and Part II comprising the underlying microscopic description. In each part there are subdivisions, dealing with particular methods like the Master-Equation approach, the Langevin approach, the impedance field and transfer impedance approach, etc. Then there are sub-sub divisions dealing with particular noise manifestations, like g-r noise, velocity-fluctuation and Brownian motion noise, transport noise, etc. Illustrative examples are included, but in-depth specific device noise computations are outside the scope of this review View full abstract»

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  • Reconciliation of different gate-voltage dependencies of 1/f noise in n-MOS and p-MOS transistors

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1946 - 1952
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)  

    We have examined the 1/f noise of 3 μm×16 μm, n- and p-MOS transistors as a function of frequency (f), gate-voltage (Vg ) and temperature (T). Measurements were performed for 3 Hz⩽f⩽50 kHz, 100 mV⩽|Vg-Vth|⩽4 V, and 77 K⩽T⩽300 K, where Vth is the threshold voltage. Devices were operated in strong inversion in their linear regimes. At room temperature we find that, for n-MOS transistors, S(Vd)∝Vd2/(Vg-Vth )2, and for p-MOS transistors, we generally find that S(Vd)∝Vd2/(Vg-Vth , consistent with trends reported by others. At lower temperatures, however, the results can be very different. In fact, we find that the temperature dependence of the noise and the gate-voltage dependence of the noise show similar features, consistent with the idea that the noise at a given T and Vg is determined by the trap density, Dt(E), at trap energies E=E(T,Vg). Both the T- and Vg-dependencies of the noise imply that Dt (E) tends to be constant near the silicon conduction band edge, but increases as E approaches the valence band edge. It is evidently these differences in Dt(E) that lead to differences in the gate-voltage dependence of the noise commonly observed at room temperature for n- and p-MOS transistors View full abstract»

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  • The impact of device scaling on the current fluctuations in MOSFET's

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2061 - 2068
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    The impact of device scaling on modern MOS technology is discussed in terms of the random telegraph signals and 1/f noise in MOSFET's. In addition to the more obvious effects of enhanced current fluctuations as the device is scaled down, we will show the influence of nonuniform distribution of threshold voltages along the channel in the context of device scaling. The role of fast interface states on the drain current fluctuations is also discussed. It will be shown that, compared to the oxide traps, fast interface states give rise to higher frequency RTS and 1/f noise, and that they become more important for devices operating in weak inversion View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study of threshold voltage fluctuation due to statistical variation of channel dopant number in MOSFET's

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2216 - 2221
    Cited by:  Papers (159)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    Threshold voltage fluctuation has been experimentally studied, using a newly developed test structure utilizing an 8 k-NMOSFET array. It has been experimentally shown that both Vth and the channel dopant number na distributions are given as the Gaussian function, and verified that the standard deviation of na , can be expressed as the square root of the average of na , which is consistent with statistics. In this study, it has been shown that Vth fluctuation (δVth) is mainly caused by the statistical fluctuation of the channel dopant number which explains about 60% of the experimental results. Moreover, we discuss briefly a new scaling scenario, based on the experimental results of the channel length, the gate oxide thickness, and the channel dopant dependence of δVth. Finally, we discuss Vth fluctuation caused by the independent statistical-variations of two different dopant atoms in the counter ion implantation process View full abstract»

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  • Fundamental quantum 1/f noise in semiconductor devices

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2023 - 2033
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1060 KB)  

    The quantum 1/f noise theory has been developed in the last two decades and has been applied to 1/f noise suppression in various electronic devices. This theory derives fundamental quantum fluctuations present in the elementary processes of physics at the level of the quantum mechanical cross sections and process rates. This paper demonstrates the basic simplicity of the theory with an elementary physical derivation followed by a short derivation of the conventional quantum 1/f effect in second quantization, for an arbitrary number of particles N defining the scattered current in the final state. A new derivation of the coherent quantum 1/f effect is also included. No adjustable parameters are present in the quantum 1/f theory. Practical applications to semiconductor materials, p-n junctions, SQUID's and quartz resonators are presented. Optimal design principles based on the quantum 1/f theory are described and explained View full abstract»

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  • Microscopic simulation of electronic noise in semiconductor materials and devices

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1916 - 1925
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
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    We present a microscopic interpretation of electronic noise in semiconductor materials and two-terminal devices. The theory is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the carrier motion self-consistently coupled with a Poisson solver. Current and voltage noise operations are applied and their respective representations discussed. As application we consider the cases of homogeneous materials, resistors, n+nn + structures, and Schottky-barrier diodes. Phenomena associated with coupling between fluctuations in carrier velocity and self-consistent electric field are quantitatively investigated for the first time. At increasing applied fields hot-carrier effects are found to be of relevant importance in all the cases considered here. As a general result, noise spectroscopy is found to be a source of valuable information to investigate and characterize transport properties of semiconductor materials and devices View full abstract»

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  • Approaching fundamental limits on signal detection

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2133 - 2138
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    Progress in the design of high performance photodetectors has been reviewed. On the basis of a general fluctuation theory, seemingly disjoint activities in this area are demonstrated to be of common origin. The conventional wisdom of designing low-noise photodetectors by using single species multiplication processes is compared with new approaches. Also, the noninstantaneous nature of the response to a photon is demonstrated to be not only useful but leading to near ideal amplification. The interplay between the evolution of new concepts, material limitations and performance requirements is elucidated View full abstract»

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  • Device parameter changes caused by manufacturing fluctuations of deep submicron MOSFET's

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2210 - 2215
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    The effects of typical manufacturing fluctuations upon four electrical device parameters: threshold voltage, transconductance, substrate current and off current have been studied for deep submicron MOSFET's (0.1 μm). The analysis reveals that the electrical parameter sensitivity in deep submicron devices differs from micron size devices, making a revision of the validity of conventional semiconductor manufacturing heuristics for future technology mandatory View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Al content x on hot electron noise in AlxGa 1-xAs n+nn+ devices: comparison with GaAs

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2082 - 2086
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    Hot electron noise measurements are performed in Si doped Alx Ga1-xAs n+nn+ devices, for three different Al concentrations: x=0.15, 0.2, 0.25. Noise temperatures are obtained using a pulsed measurement technique as functions of electric field and frequency. Longitudinal diffusion coefficients D(E) are deduced at 4 GHz. Results are analyzed through the scattering mechanisms which greatly affect the electron velocity properties of AlxGa1-xAs materials. Comparisons with n+ nn+ GaAs devices are made View full abstract»

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  • Thermal fluctuations in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films near the transition temperature

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2123 - 2127
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    Detailed studies on the properties of low frequency noise in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films in the transition region were conducted. Our experimental results showed that the low frequency excess noise exhibited a lower cutoff frequency of about 5 Hz, below which the noise power spectra were independent of frequency. At T close to TC and at small current biases the voltage noise power spectra were proportional to I2, (∂R/∂T)2 and inversely proportional to the volume of the device, Ω. In addition, low frequency noise measured from two segments separated by a distance of 300 μm was found to be correlated. The lower cutoff frequencies computed for both the noise power spectra and the frequency dependent correlation function, according to the thermal fluctuation model, were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values. The experimental results provide strong evidence that the low frequency excess noise in the device originates from equilibrium temperature fluctuations for small T and T≃TC View full abstract»

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  • Dispersion of MOS capacitance-voltage characteristics resulting from the random channel dopant ion distribution

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2222 - 2232
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1044 KB)  

    The random nature of the channel dopant ion distribution in silicon MOS devices is shown to cause a stretch-out of the capacitance-voltage characteristics. This nonideal behavior is caused by surface potential fluctuations which can be accurately modeled by assuming that the threshold voltage varies laterally over the area of the device with a normal distribution. The standard deviation of the threshold voltage distribution extracted from n- and p-channel MOS devices is presented for a wide range of substrate doping levels at both room and liquid-nitrogen temperature. The observed standard deviation of the threshold voltage is accurately predicted by a three-dimensional model based on the method of images which includes only the contribution from a random distribution of dopant ions in the depletion region. The contribution to the surface potential fluctuations from other sources is shown to be insignificant at high channel doping levels View full abstract»

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  • Electrical noise and VLSI interconnect reliability

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 2165 - 2172
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    This paper discusses the characteristics of noise sources in Al-based thin films and their relationships to VLSI reliability. Techniques of applying noise measurements in detecting existing defects/damages in the films, determining electromigration activation energy, and predicting the time to failure of VLSI interconnects are presented. The noise measurement technique can be applied to wafer-level reliability testing because it is much faster than the conventional MTF method and is nondestructive in nature. Some important considerations for wafer-level reliability testing via noise measurements are also presented in this paper View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Acting Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Paul K.-L. Yu

Dept. ECE
University of California San Diego