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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • Microscopic simulation of electronic noise in semiconductor materials and devices

    Page(s): 1916 - 1925
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    We present a microscopic interpretation of electronic noise in semiconductor materials and two-terminal devices. The theory is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the carrier motion self-consistently coupled with a Poisson solver. Current and voltage noise operations are applied and their respective representations discussed. As application we consider the cases of homogeneous materials, resistors, n+nn + structures, and Schottky-barrier diodes. Phenomena associated with coupling between fluctuations in carrier velocity and self-consistent electric field are quantitatively investigated for the first time. At increasing applied fields hot-carrier effects are found to be of relevant importance in all the cases considered here. As a general result, noise spectroscopy is found to be a source of valuable information to investigate and characterize transport properties of semiconductor materials and devices View full abstract»

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  • Approaching fundamental limits on signal detection

    Page(s): 2133 - 2138
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    Progress in the design of high performance photodetectors has been reviewed. On the basis of a general fluctuation theory, seemingly disjoint activities in this area are demonstrated to be of common origin. The conventional wisdom of designing low-noise photodetectors by using single species multiplication processes is compared with new approaches. Also, the noninstantaneous nature of the response to a photon is demonstrated to be not only useful but leading to near ideal amplification. The interplay between the evolution of new concepts, material limitations and performance requirements is elucidated View full abstract»

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  • Device parameter changes caused by manufacturing fluctuations of deep submicron MOSFET's

    Page(s): 2210 - 2215
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    The effects of typical manufacturing fluctuations upon four electrical device parameters: threshold voltage, transconductance, substrate current and off current have been studied for deep submicron MOSFET's (0.1 μm). The analysis reveals that the electrical parameter sensitivity in deep submicron devices differs from micron size devices, making a revision of the validity of conventional semiconductor manufacturing heuristics for future technology mandatory View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Al content x on hot electron noise in AlxGa 1-xAs n+nn+ devices: comparison with GaAs

    Page(s): 2082 - 2086
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    Hot electron noise measurements are performed in Si doped Alx Ga1-xAs n+nn+ devices, for three different Al concentrations: x=0.15, 0.2, 0.25. Noise temperatures are obtained using a pulsed measurement technique as functions of electric field and frequency. Longitudinal diffusion coefficients D(E) are deduced at 4 GHz. Results are analyzed through the scattering mechanisms which greatly affect the electron velocity properties of AlxGa1-xAs materials. Comparisons with n+ nn+ GaAs devices are made View full abstract»

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  • 1/f noise sources

    Page(s): 1926 - 1935
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    This survey deals with 1/f noise in homogeneous semiconductor samples. A distinction is made between mobility noise and number noise. It is shown that there always is mobility noise with an α value with a magnitude in the order of 10-4. Damaging the crystal has a strong influence on α, α may increase by orders of magnitude. Some theoretical models are briefly discussed none of them can explain all experimental results. The α values of several semiconductors are given. These values can be used in calculations of 1/f noise in devices View full abstract»

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  • Thermal fluctuations in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films near the transition temperature

    Page(s): 2123 - 2127
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    Detailed studies on the properties of low frequency noise in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films in the transition region were conducted. Our experimental results showed that the low frequency excess noise exhibited a lower cutoff frequency of about 5 Hz, below which the noise power spectra were independent of frequency. At T close to TC and at small current biases the voltage noise power spectra were proportional to I2, (∂R/∂T)2 and inversely proportional to the volume of the device, Ω. In addition, low frequency noise measured from two segments separated by a distance of 300 μm was found to be correlated. The lower cutoff frequencies computed for both the noise power spectra and the frequency dependent correlation function, according to the thermal fluctuation model, were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values. The experimental results provide strong evidence that the low frequency excess noise in the device originates from equilibrium temperature fluctuations for small T and T≃TC View full abstract»

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  • Fluctuations and noise of hot carriers in semiconductor materials and devices

    Page(s): 2034 - 2049
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    After recalling the definition of the noise temperature, the macroscopic expressions for noise sources are shown not to be specific to the hot carrier regime, though dependent on the electric field strength. Careful modeling allows one to obtain important information on transport parameters from noise measurements. The microscopic noise source expressions, via the transition rates, give a unified view of the noise sources. In particular, it is clarified that noise sources are intercorrelated, and that there is also space correlations over lengths of a few mean free paths. Recent developments are reviewed, concerning noise modeling using direct numerical methods for solution of the Boltzmann equation. Finally, impedance field methods for modeling noise of devices are briefly evoked View full abstract»

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  • Dispersion of MOS capacitance-voltage characteristics resulting from the random channel dopant ion distribution

    Page(s): 2222 - 2232
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    The random nature of the channel dopant ion distribution in silicon MOS devices is shown to cause a stretch-out of the capacitance-voltage characteristics. This nonideal behavior is caused by surface potential fluctuations which can be accurately modeled by assuming that the threshold voltage varies laterally over the area of the device with a normal distribution. The standard deviation of the threshold voltage distribution extracted from n- and p-channel MOS devices is presented for a wide range of substrate doping levels at both room and liquid-nitrogen temperature. The observed standard deviation of the threshold voltage is accurately predicted by a three-dimensional model based on the method of images which includes only the contribution from a random distribution of dopant ions in the depletion region. The contribution to the surface potential fluctuations from other sources is shown to be insignificant at high channel doping levels View full abstract»

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  • Noise mechanisms in laser diodes

    Page(s): 2139 - 2150
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    Noise in diode laser applications. Basics of diode lasers. Differences and similarities between optical and electronic devices. Dynamics and fundamental noise mechanisms in laser diodes; special difficulties encountered; present level of understanding. Intensity noise and frequency noise. Fundamental limits. Why can a laser diode generate an optical beam with sub-Poissonian photon statistics? Noise in traveling wave laser diode amplifiers. Mode partition noise, transients and external reflections, jitter. Optical and electrical feedback. Future developments View full abstract»

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  • Low-frequency noise spectroscopy

    Page(s): 2188 - 2197
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    Electrical noise in excess of thermal and shot noise is caused by imperfections in the device. Its control can improve the quality of the device and its measurement can give considerable information about the nature of the defects involved. For defects with discrete energy distributions spectroscopy can be used to identify the defect and measure its properties. Excess noise has large intensity at low frequencies and several mechanisms can be identified. The value of the technique for many systems is described. Comparison is made with other methods of studying such defects View full abstract»

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  • A noise model for high electron mobility transistors

    Page(s): 2087 - 2092
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    A model to explain the noise properties for AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT's, AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic HEMT's (P-HEMT's) and GaAs/AlGaAs inverted HEMT's (I-HEMT's) is presented. The model Is based on a self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson's equations. The influence of the drain-source current, frequency and device parameters on the minimum noise figure Fmin and minimum noise temperature Tmin, for different HEMT structures are presented. The study shows that P-HEMT's have a better noise performance than the normal and inverted HEMT's. The present model predicts that a long gate P-HEMT device will exhibit a better noise performance than a conventional HEMT. There is a range of doped epilayer thickness where minimum noise figure is a minimum for pseudomorphic HEMT's which is not observed in conventional and inverted HEMT's. The calculated noise properties are compared with experimental data and the results show excellent agreement for all devices View full abstract»

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  • Electrical noise and VLSI interconnect reliability

    Page(s): 2165 - 2172
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    This paper discusses the characteristics of noise sources in Al-based thin films and their relationships to VLSI reliability. Techniques of applying noise measurements in detecting existing defects/damages in the films, determining electromigration activation energy, and predicting the time to failure of VLSI interconnects are presented. The noise measurement technique can be applied to wafer-level reliability testing because it is much faster than the conventional MTF method and is nondestructive in nature. Some important considerations for wafer-level reliability testing via noise measurements are also presented in this paper View full abstract»

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  • Experiments on hot electron noise in semiconductor materials for high-speed devices

    Page(s): 2050 - 2060
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    Experimental results on noise temperature and spectral density of current fluctuations (electron diffusion) at high electric fields in silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphide are presented. The dominant noise sources are discussed in their relation to electron scattering mechanisms. Physical backgrounds of high speed-low noise performance (noise-speed tradeoff) are considered. Suppression in short samples of the fluctuations having long correlation time constant and (or) high threshold energy is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Correlation between electrical and optical photocurrent noises in semiconductor laser diodes

    Page(s): 2151 - 2161
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    The low and medium frequency (1 Hz⩽f⩽10 MHz) electrical noise characteristics of 0.98, 1.3, and 1.55 micrometer semiconductor lasers have been investigated. We show that the electrical noise is connected to the optical noise behavior. The correlation between electrical and optical noises is obtained by using the coherence function between these noise sources. This confirms the theoretical predictions issued from Haug's model that this correlation, which originates in the dipole interaction between the optical field and electron-hole pairs, can be extended to the laser diode characterization by using electrical noise measurements View full abstract»

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  • Dependence of electromigration noise on geometrical and structural characteristics in aluminum-based resistors

    Page(s): 2173 - 2175
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    Low frequency noise measurements have been performed on Al-Si resistors, subjected to high current density (j=2×106 A/cm2), in order to investigate the dependence of the electromigration noise on the structural and geometrical parameters. To this end five groups of samples have been used, each characterized by a different value of the average grain size D. The power spectral density Sv of the voltage fluctuations across the samples has been measured using test patterns with different widths ω and lengths l. It has been found that Sv shows an exponential dependence on the grain dimension and a linear dependence on the shape factor F=l/ω. The model previously proposed for noise generation has been integrated to take into account the observed dependence of Sv on D and F View full abstract»

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  • Random telegraph signal currents and low-frequency noise in junction field effect transistors

    Page(s): 2006 - 2015
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    The detailed study of random telegraph signal (RTS) currents and low-frequency (LF) noise in semiconductor devices in recent years has confirmed their cause and effect relationship. In this paper we describe the physical mechanisms responsible for RTS currents in any device. The methods for calculating the amplitudes and characteristic times of the RTS currents produced by traps with known electrical characteristics and locations are described. The noise spectra in junction field effect transistors (JFET's) resulting from traps in the silicon or the oxide are derived as a function of basic device parameters, operating conditions and temperature. Experimental results verifying the predictions of the models are presented View full abstract»

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  • Analytical and experimental studies of thermal noise in MOSFET's

    Page(s): 2069 - 2075
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    An analysis of the channel thermal noise in MOSFET's based on the one-dimensional charge sheet model, is presented. The analytical expression is valid in the strong, moderate, and weak inversion regions. The body effect on the device parameters relevant to the thermal noise is discussed. A measurement technique as well as experimental results of P- and N-MOSFET's of a 1.2 μm radiation hard CMOS process are presented. The calculated channel thermal noise coefficient γ as in id2/Δf=4kT γ gdo, agrees well with experimental data for effective device channel length as short as 1.7 μm View full abstract»

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  • Low-frequency noise in modern bipolar transistors: impact of intrinsic transistor and parasitic series resistances

    Page(s): 1981 - 1991
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    In modern submicrometer transistors, the influence of the internal base and emitter series resistances, on both the I-V characteristics and the LF noise at higher bias currents, becomes important. In this paper expressions are presented for the LF noise in transistors, where the influence of the series resistances has been taken into account. The expressions have been compared with recent experimental results from the literature obtained from modern submicrometer (heterojunction) bipolar transistors. At low forward currents the LF noise in such transistors is determined by spontaneous fluctuations in the base and collector currents. In most transistors at higher forward currents, the parasitic series resistances and their noise become important View full abstract»

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  • Noise in high Tc superconductors

    Page(s): 2112 - 2122
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    Very recently, significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of the excessive strength and behavior of the conductance noise in the conductor-superconductor transition region of high Tc superconductors. For the high temperature part of the conductor-superconductor transition region, the model incorporates number and mobility noises of charge carriers: while in the low temperature part of the transition, classical and novel percolation noise effects (including possible effects due to flux motion) determine the behavior of the measured noise. In present high-quality (in situ annealed) films, the novel percolation noise effect (“p-noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 71, p. 2817, 1993) seems to be the most important. Some other important topics will also be briefly examined in this review: magnetic noise, noise in devices, and practical problems of measurements (e.g., comparison of the noise of different materials, temperature fluctuations) View full abstract»

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  • Conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic conductors at low temperatures

    Page(s): 2093 - 2106
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    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the subject of conductance fluctuations observed in mesoscopic conductors at low temperatures, and the universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) theory proposed to explain them. The discovery of the fluctuations less than a decade ago has been followed by an intensive flurry of research activity, published almost entirely in the journals of solid-state physics. This paper surveys the subject from the viewpoint of a practising electron device engineer, with bias in favor of intuitive appeal rather than rigor, and should be helpful in understanding the primary literature on the subject. The nature of fluctuations and mesoscopic conduction are briefly introduced. Both theoretical and experimental results from the sizable literature on the subject are summarized here, emphasizing the characteristics of the fluctuations, the conditions under which they are observed, the mechanism of fluctuations, and the range of applicability of the UCF theory View full abstract»

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  • 1/f noise in MOS devices, mobility or number fluctuations?

    Page(s): 1936 - 1945
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    Recent experimental studies on 1/f noise in MOS transistors are reviewed. Arguments are given for the two schools of thought on the origin of 1/f noise. The consequences of models based on carrier-number ΔN or mobility fluctuations Δμ on the device geometry and on the bias dependence of the 1/f noise are discussed. Circuit-simulation-oriented equations for the 1/f noise are discussed. The effects of scaling down on the 1/f noise is studied in the ohmic region as well as in saturation. In the ohmic region the contribution of the series resistance often can be ignored. However, in saturation the noise of the gate-voltage-dependent series resistance on the drain side plays a role in lightly doped drain LDD mini-MOST's. Surface and bulk p-channel devices are compared and the differences between n-and p-MOST's often observed is discussed. The relation between degradation effects by hot carriers or by γ-irradiation on the one hand and the 1/f noise on the other is considered in terms of a ΔN or Δμ. Experimental results suggest that 1/f noise in n-MOST's is dominated by ΔN while in p-MOST's the noise is due to Δμ View full abstract»

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  • Flicker noise in CMOS transistors from subthreshold to strong inversion at various temperatures

    Page(s): 1965 - 1971
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    Flicker noise is the dominant noise source in silicon MOSFET's. Even though considerable amount of work has been done in investigating the noise mechanism, controversy still exists as to the noise origin. In this paper, a systematic study of flicker noise in CMOS transistors from twelve different fabricators is reported under various bias conditions corresponding to the gate voltage changing from subthreshold to strong inversion, and the drain voltage changing from linear to saturation regions of operation. The measurement temperature was varied from room temperature down to 5 K. Experimental results consistently suggest that 1/f noise in n-channel devices is dominated by carrier-density fluctuation while in p-channel devices the noise is mainly due to mobility fluctuation View full abstract»

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  • A study of quantum interference fluctuations in deep sub-μm MOSFET's under cryogenic conditions

    Page(s): 2107 - 2111
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    We investigated the phase coherence length, lφ, in large Si-MOSFET's fabricated using current process technology, with a particular emphasis on highly doped silicon substrates, and then studied the effects of quantum conductance fluctuations in deep sub-μm MOSFET's, with channel length comparable to lφ. We identified, in a 0.2 μm MOSFET, universal conductance fluctuations in the strong inversion regime and conductance fluctuations due to variable range hopping in the weak inversion regime. The drain bias dependence of these fluctuations indicates clearly that they become a serious concern only at drain voltages lower than 10 mV. Therefore, even if the wave nature of electrons results in quantum conductance fluctuations, it will not lead to a limitation on device miniaturization in future Si-ULSI's View full abstract»

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  • Electrical noise in YBaCuO superconducting thin-films with differing axes of orientation

    Page(s): 2128 - 2132
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    In this paper we present a comparison of dc and electrical noise characteristics of high-temperature superconductor thin-films with differing preferred axes of orientation. Four thin-film samples were studied, two of c-axis and two of a-axis orientation. All films were YBaCuO superconducting material on SrTiO3 substrates. The R-T, I-V, and electrical noise properties were measured for each of the films and comparisons were made between them. The experimental data was compared with current hypotheses on conduction and crystal structure. Our results show that from the dc and electrical noise measurements that the c-axis films are much better than a-axis films in applications where sensitivity and sharp transition are important factors. These results also show that preliminary results fit a p-noise model for a 2-D normal conductor-superconductor percolation network View full abstract»

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  • Noise as a diagnostic tool for quality and reliability of electronic devices

    Page(s): 2176 - 2187
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    Experimental facts about noise are presented which help us to understand the correlation between noise in a device and its reliability. The main advantages of noise measurements are that the tests are less destructive, faster and more sensitive than DC measurements after accelerated life tests. The following topics are addressed: 1) the kind of noise spectra in view of reliability diagnostics such as thermal noise, shot noise, the typical poor-device indicators like burst noise and generation-recombination noise and the 1/f2 and 1/f noise; 2) why conduction noise is a quality indicator; 3) the quality of electrical contacts and vias; 4) electromigration damage; 5) the reliability in diode type devices like solar cells, laser diodes, and bipolar transistors; and 6) the series resistance in modern short channel MESFET, MODFET, and MOST devices View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Editor-in-Chief
John D. Cressler
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology