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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 39
  • Comments on "Effects of desensitization on mobile radio system performance, Parts I and II"

    Publication Year: 1994
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (78 KB)  

    Jui Chi Yao comments on the paper by Gavan and Shulman (IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.33, no.4, p.291-300, 1984). Gavan presents a reply which gives corrections to typographic errors in the above paper and the paper by Gavan and Shulman (vol.33, no.4, p.287-90, 1984).<> View full abstract»

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  • Simplified forward-link power control law in cellular CDMA

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1088 - 1093
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    Power control, a key feature of CDMA systems, is examined and discussed with a focus on the base-to-mobile link. The problem of finding an optimal power control law is considered, the optimality of the PCL is precisely stated, and a class of very simple PCLs, which achieve almost optimal performance in terms of system utilization, is proposed. Based on a completely analytical approach, results for the system performance are computed and discussed View full abstract»

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  • Switched diversity on microcellular Ricean channels

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 970 - 976
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    The performances of switched dual diversity systems operating on independent and correlated Ricean fading channels are analyzed using a discrete time model. The average bit error rate (BER) of the discrete time switched diversity system using binary noncoherent frequency shift keying (NCFSK) on slow, nonselective Ricean fading channels is derived. A closed form expression that gives the optimum switching threshold in a minimum error rate sense is derived for the case of independent branch signals. Results for the optimum switching threshold for the case of correlated branch signals, obtained numerically, are also presented. Results using selection diversity combining are obtained for comparison. The effects of fading severity on both the BER and on the optimum switching threshold are investigated. The Ricean fading model may be used to model both the microcellular radio environment and the mobile satellite fading channel. Hence, the results of the paper are useful for both of these areas View full abstract»

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  • Effects of extra signals on drivers' distance keeping-a simulation study

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1118 - 1124
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    One hundred and twenty-one older drivers (ages 55-86) followed a lead car in a driving-simulator. They were asked “to keep at a safe and comfortable distance” behind the lead car, to respond if they wished to a separation indicator which provided a visual signal when the lead vehicle was closer than 26 m, and to cancel a distracting light. When the older drivers' performance is compared to that of a control group of 25 younger drivers (ages 30-44), it is found that the ability to match the varying speed of the lead car of most of the older drivers is indistinguishable from that of the younger drivers, but that a few older drivers have a substantially worse performance. Any additional task reduces performance of all the drivers but the older drivers were able to use an indication of the distance between the cars to reduce the effect of the distracting task View full abstract»

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  • Shared time division duplexing: an approach to low-delay high-quality wireless digital speech communications

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 934 - 945
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)  

    Various strategies to provide low-delay high-quality digital speech communications in a high-capacity wireless network are examined. Various multiple access schemes based on time-division and packet reservation are compared in terms of their statistical multiplexing capabilities, sensitivity to speech packet dropping, delay, robustness to lossy packet environments, and overhead efficiency. In particular, a low-delay multiple access scheme, called shared time-division duplexing (STDD) is proposed. This scheme allows both the uplink and downlink traffic to share a common channel, thereby achieving high statistical multiplexing gain even with a low population of simultaneous conversations. The authors also propose a choice of low delay, high quality speech coding and digital modulation systems based on adaptive DPCM, with QDPSK or pseudo-analog transmission (skewed DPSK), for use in conjunction with the STDD multiple access protocol. The choice of the alternative systems depends on required end-to-end delay, recovered speech quality and bandwidth efficiency. Typically, with a total capacity of 1 MBaud, 2 ms frame and 8 kBaud speech coding rate, low delay STDD is able to support 48 pairs of users compared to 38, 35, and 16 for TDMA with speech activity detection, basic TDMA and PRMA respectively. This corresponds to respective gains of 26%, 37% and 200% View full abstract»

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  • Compact pattern based dynamic channel assignment for cellular mobile systems

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 892 - 896
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    A new compact pattern based dynamic channel assignment strategy called CP-based DCA is proposed. The strategy aims at dynamically keeping the cochannel cells of any channel to a compact pattern. A compact pattern of a channel is defined as the pattern with minimum average distance between cochannel cells. CP-based DCA consists of two phases: channel allocation and channel packing. Channel allocation is used to assign an optimal idle channel to a new call. Channel packing is responsible for the restoration of the compact patterns and is performed only when a compact channel is released. Simulation results indicate that the CP-based DCA always performs better than the borrowing with directional channel locking (BDCL) strategy. In the designed example, CP-based DCA is shown to have 2% more traffic-carrying capacity than that of the BDCL in case of uniform traffic, and 8% more traffic-carrying capacity in case of nonuniform traffic, both at a blocking rate of 0.02. Besides, the number of channels reassigned per released call in CP-based DCA is at most one and is, therefore, another advantage over BDCL View full abstract»

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  • The effect of adjacent channel interference on the capacity of FDMA cellular systems

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 946 - 954
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    In FDMA cellular radio systems, the adjacent channel interference (ACI) is suppressed by the IF filter and also by a distance factor. Channels immediately adjacent to each other in frequency are assigned to different cells and, as such, the distance plays a role in reducing their mutual interference. The authors study the feasibility of optimizing the frequency spacing between carriers such that the combined effect of distance and IF filter will be enough to control the interference while allowing the maximum number of channels in a given bandwidth. They also study the decision feedback equalizer (DFE) as a means to reduce any excess ACI that results from reducing the channel spacing. The paper starts with a model that estimates the cumulative probability density of the signal to adjacent channel interference ratio (SIR) as a function of the channel spacing. They then present the results of a computer simulation study to estimate the performance of DFE in mitigating the effect of ACI. The results indicate that, under the conditions of slow flat fading and selection diversity, the DFE is very effective in reducing the effect of excess ACI interference which allows for a considerable reduction in the frequency spacing View full abstract»

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  • Propagation mechanisms in microcell and indoor environments

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1058 - 1066
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    For the investigation of propagation mechanisms in microcell and indoor environments, theoretical model calculations are compared to wide-band measurements. The theoretical principles of the elementary process of scattering from a 2-D surface, such as a wall, are described. A ray-tracing algorithm based on this is employed to describe propagation in 3-D structures, like rectangular rooms or street canyons. Space-dependent complex impulse responses are calculated. These are compared to the results of high resolution measurements of the space-dependent complex impulse response in the same environments. If conducted in an appropriate manner, the measurements yield very dense information about the propagation in the measured environment. It is demonstrated that the concept of the scattering function is useful for microcell and indoor environments. Comparisons between the theoretical and measured wide-band results show a high degree of agreement View full abstract»

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  • Automatic vehicle location in cellular communications systems

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 902 - 908
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    The paper presents a method of automatic vehicle location (AVL). Signals are transmitted from base stations in a cellular communications system. A device is embedded into a cellular phone installed in a vehicle. When this vehicle is traveling through a cellular territory, the device receives those signals and calculates the attenuation of those signals to locate the current vehicle position. A preliminary study by using computer simulation shows that the error between the exact position and the estimated position is in the range from 0 to 575 m. This result is based on the assumptions that the base stations are separated from each other by 5 km and the point-to-area terrain configuration has a 3 dB standard deviation of a normal signal strength distribution. A further modification by employing fuzzy logic is under development. The goal is to keep the location accuracy within 200 m View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of narrowband microcellular speech transmission schemes

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 909 - 924
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1324 KB)  

    Experiments are conducted on a number of mobile radio systems that are suitable for operation in nondispersive microcellular networks. It becomes apparent that the selection of the type of modem and the number of its levels, the choice of speech codec to be used, and whether to deploy a channel codec, depends on the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and teletraffic demand, if the power consumption of the handheld portable is to be minimized. Following the implications of the authors' limited number of experiments, they generalize their findings to some of the requirements of an adaptive transceiver that might be deployed in the next generation of mobile radio networks View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of the irreducible errors in a frequency-selective fading channel by fractional-bit differential detection

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1039 - 1048
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)  

    The irreducible errors in digital mobile communications with high data rate in low-delay-spread channels are mainly caused by time dispersion (frequency selectivity) of the channel. The errors originate in the transition regions between adjacent symbols when deep fades occur. We show that fractional-bit differential detection with proper timing avoids these transition regions and decreases the irreducible errors. Assuming an MSK modulation format and slow Rayleigh fading, we derive a formula for calculation of the error probability in which we apply an “effective delay spread.“ A procedure to predict the effective delay spread is proposed. We verify the calculated error probability by a Monte Carlo software simulation for three different delay power profiles. The approach increases the tolerable delay spread in an unequalized receiver by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the details of the delay power profile. Filtering the MSK signal tends to smear the transition region over the entire symbol duration, reducing the effectiveness of fractional-bit detection. This explains qualitatively the mismatch between theory and experiment in previously published results. We discuss the conditions of filtering and of finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) under which fractional-bit detection is effective. For instance, for a delay spread around one-tenth of the symbol length, improvement is gained if the SNR is above 15 dB View full abstract»

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  • Voice/data channel access integration in TDMA digital cellular networks

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 986 - 996
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB)  

    The integration of digital data capabilities in the soon to be widely deployed digital cellular networks, which were primarily designed for voice communications, offers a low-cost way to capture the large and ever growing market for mobile data services. The authors propose and evaluate a multiaccess protocol for integrating data traffic in the E(nhanced)-TDMA voice system with digital speech interpolation, which is an enhancement of the emerging North American digital cellular standard. The proposed, protocol combines random access with slot reservation mechanisms to statistically multiplex data packets with speech spurt packets over the shared terminal-to-base air channel. The integrated protocol requires no modification in the voice access protocol used in the E-TDMA system, and can attain performance close to that of an ideal voice/data multiplexer. Furthermore, the protocol may enable multislot assignment per TDMA frame to match the throughput needs of individual data terminals, and can accommodate application-dependent data transmission priorities View full abstract»

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  • Channel borrowing without locking for sectorized cellular communications

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1067 - 1077
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB)  

    Channel borrowing without locking (CBWL) is a family of channel sharing schemes for cellular communication systems. They allow real-time borrowing of channels from adjacent cells without the need for channel locking in cochannel cells. In this paper, an analysis of cochannel interference for CBWL schemes in sectorized cellular systems is presented. Two typical configurations are analyzed. One has 120° directional antennas and a reuse factor of seven. The other has 60° directional antennas and a reuse factor of four. The analysis shows that CBWL can significantly enhance the traffic capacity of sectorized cellular systems at the cost of a slight increase of cochannel interference in comparison with the corresponding sectorized scheme and no borrowing View full abstract»

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  • Multipath propagation effects on a CDMA cellular system

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 848 - 855
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    The performance of the reverse link of a code division multiple access cellular system is evaluated. At the base station, the signal from each user is demodulated by a coherent BPSK RAKE receiver. Parameters for the model of the impulse response of the channel were taken from measurements of the digital cellular channel in Toronto. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a received signal is used to measure the performance of the reverse link. The variation in SNR of received signals at the base station should be as small as possible to reduce interference in the network. A power control scheme to lower the variation in SNR of the received signals is analyzed. The effects of lowering the bandwidth of the transmitted signal were also investigated View full abstract»

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  • The propagation characteristics of the crank-tunnel with reflectors

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1145 - 1147
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  

    In underground environments, communicability is vital in emergency cases such as fires, as well as in routine management operations. In a disaster, the lines of the wire communication system may be damaged. Therefore, a simple wireless device is necessary for the preservation of public safety. The present study aims at establishing a basis for solving such problems. The authors have analyzed the propagation characteristics of the crank-tunnel. To solve such a boundary value problem, they have introduced the boundary-element method and the surface impedance approximation. Owing to the presence of the reflector, radio communication characteristics in crooked tunnels are improved View full abstract»

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  • Implicit deregistration in a PCS network

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1006 - 1010
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)  

    Registration/deregistration is required in a PCS network when a portable moves between registration areas. Several schemes were proposed to deregister a portable after it moves out of a registration area (RA). A simple scheme called implicit deregistration totally eliminates network traffic due to deregistration. However, this scheme may delete valid registration records. Thus, the size of a registration database must be sufficiently large to ensure low probability that a valid registration record is deleted. This paper describes an analytic model to determine the size k of the registration database for an RA in the implicit deregistration scheme. If the expected number of portables in an RA is N, then our study indicates that good performance can be achieved if k≃5N View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of mobile packet radio networks in Rayleigh fading environments

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1112 - 1117
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)  

    In this paper, we consider a Rayleigh fading channel for mobile radio networks. The distribution of cumulated instantaneous interference power is determined when interfering stations are located at random. The corresponding distances from a reference station are represented by a (deterministically delayed) renewal process with finite horizon. This distribution serves as a basis for determining the probability of successful transmission. We start with a short survey on existing models in the literature View full abstract»

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  • The influence of mobile-to-mobile land communication channel spectrum on the error rate of binary DPSK and NFSK matched filter receivers

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 832 - 836
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    The effect of a specific fading correlation function derived for a mobile-to-mobile land communication channel on the performance of differentially coherent PSK and noncoherent FSK matched filter receivers is investigated. The bit error probability, irreducible error rate, and the degradation in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are specifically derived for each system. The effect of the fading bandwidth on the performance of the system is also investigated View full abstract»

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  • Sector antenna and DFE modems for high speed indoor radio communications

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 925 - 933
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)  

    This paper examines the outage probabilities of BPSK and BPSK/DFE radio modems with omnidirectional and six-sector antennas. The effects of room size, data rate, transmitted power and sector antenna patterns on the performance of the systems are analyzed. A 2-D ray tracing algorithm is used to model the radio propagation in a typical indoor environment used for wireless LAN applications. The parameters of the radio propagation model are adjusted to fit the results of simulations to the results of empirical measurements with omnidirectional antenna. It is shown that in a line-of-sight (LOS) environment, a six-sector antenna is more effective than a DFE with an omnidirectional antenna at eliminating the effects of multipath. For an obstructed-line-of-sight (OLOS) environment where at least one wall exists between the transmitter and the receiver, the DFE is more effective than the six-sector antenna. It is shown that a BPSK/DFE modem with a six-sector antenna can support data rates close to 20 Mbps View full abstract»

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  • Experimental evaluation of combined postdetection diversity and concatenated channel coding

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1022 - 1026
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    The combined effects of postdetection diversity reception and concatenated channel coding are experimentally evaluated for π/4-shift QDPSK signal transmission over a Rayleigh fading channel. Two-branch postdetection diversity reception using maximal ratio combining (MRC) and selection combining (SC) are considered. The concatenated channel coding uses the Reed-Solomon (15,k) code of GP(2 4) as the outer code and the BCH (7,4) code as the inner code (k=9,11,13). Measured bit error rate (BER) performance results are presented under cochannel interference (CCI) and multipath channel delay spread, as well as additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) View full abstract»

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  • A model for generating on-off patterns in conversational speech, including short silence gaps and the effects of interaction between parties

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1094 - 1100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    The six-state model for on-off characteristics of conversational speech established by Brady (1969) does not consider pauses in speech shorter than 200 ms. Such an omission is significant since new-generation speech interpolation systems will utilize these short pauses as well as the longer periods of silence. This paper proposes modifications to the Brady model to represent the effects of the short pauses while preserving the effects of the longer silences and the dynamics of the interaction between speaking parties. The modified Brady model provides a tool for more accurately assessing the performance of new-generation wireless communication systems View full abstract»

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  • Combined speech and channel coding for mobile radio communications

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1078 - 1087
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (860 KB)  

    We present a combined speech and channel coding scheme for digital mobile communications. The speech coding algorithm is based on code-excited linear prediction (CELP) and it provides good communication quality speech at a rate of 4 kbps. For the channel code, both rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC) codes and punctured Reed-Solomon (PRS) codes are considered. In the case of RCPC codes, soft decision decoding is considered, in addition to the simpler hard decision decoding. The modulation format chosen in our study is π/4-DQPSK with differential detection. Unequal error protection is used based on the bit error sensitivities of the different speech parameters. The performance of the combined speech and channel codec is studied under different mobile channel conditions, such as fade rates, signal-to-noise ratios, and interleaving delays. The results indicate that, with no interleaving delay and a large channel signal-to-noise ratio, PRS codes and RCPC codes with soft decision decoding have similar performance, given in terms of the segmental signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) of the reconstructed speech. At low channel SNR, RCPC codes with soft decision decoding are significantly better than PRS codes. Informal listening tests were also conducted and the results indicate that the difference between the quality of the reconstructed speech in an error-free channel and that in a Rayleigh fading channel is imperceptible at channel SNRs larger than 20 dB for both the RCPC and the PRS-based codecs View full abstract»

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  • The application of a deterministic ray launching algorithm for the prediction of radio channel characteristics in small-cell environments

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 955 - 969
    Cited by:  Papers (86)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1260 KB)  

    Propagation characteristics play a fundamental role in the design and implementation of radio systems. The application of broadband digital data services within the cordless environment requires close consideration of the dispersive nature of radio channels. A prediction algorithm is presented such that propagation characteristics can be estimated for small-cell high-data-rate systems. Through the use of geometric optics and geometric theory of diffraction the algorithm performs ray launching techniques in order to evaluate reflected, transmitted, and diffracted rays from a simplified description of a given environment. Both modeled and measured results are presented demonstrating the model's ability to predict typical rms delay spread values View full abstract»

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  • Simplified Viterbi processors for the GSM Pan-European cellular communication system

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 870 - 878
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    The GSM cellular system provides the European countries with a common digital mobile radio structure for overland communications. This paper illustrates an implementation of a GSM receiver in which two reduced complexity Viterbi processors are used: the first one for the demodulation of the GMSK signal and the second one for the decoding operations. The performance of the receiver is evaluated through a channel simulator for mobile communications. The results show that in many cases the proposed receiver allows the significant reduction of the computation complexity with respect to the classical Viterbi processor. In particular, for mean and high signal-to-noise ratios, a reduction of four times in the computational burden is obtained View full abstract»

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  • Multicarrier modulation for narrowband PCS

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 856 - 862
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)  

    Investigation of multicarrier modulation has demonstrated the feasibility of using this modulation format to deliver relatively high channel bit rates (24 kbps) to a low cost, pager-like personal communications service (PCS) terminal that enjoys long battery life (e.g., one month on a few pen-light cells). This is to be compared to the 1200 bps carried by typical current paging systems or the 6250 bps attained by the new ERMES paging system. While more complex modulation formats, such as PSK and QAM, might achieve higher bit rates in less (power, size, cost) constrained environments, amplitude keying of the component subcarriers allows simple noncoherent energy detection that is found to be robust in this short message delivery application View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida