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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 9 • Date Sep 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • A new method for the calculation of propagation constants and field profiles of guided modes of nonlinear channel waveguides based on the effective index method

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1550 - 1559
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB)  

    In this paper, an extension of the effective index method (EIM) to waveguiding structures containing ideal or saturable third-order nonlinear materials is presented. By applying separation of variables to the dominant field component, the complete problem is subdivided into two scalar problems in the lateral and transverse direction, as in the case of the normal EIM. Making use of the strong transverse confinement, as observed in most real waveguide structures, the nonlinear index changes of the various transverse sections can be lumped into nonlinear effective indexes of the equivalent layered planar structures. By using these nonlinear effective indexes in self-consistent field calculations in the transverse direction, a complete approximate solution is obtained. In this way, the amount of computational effort required for the calculation of the effective indexes and field profiles of the waveguides can be reduced significantly View full abstract»

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  • Rapid direct fabrication of active electro-optic modulators in GaAs

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1588 - 1596
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)  

    We have developed several direct-write laser processing techniques to masklessly fabricate prototypes of waveguiding devices in GaAs/AlGaAs substrates. This flexible technology allows the rapid, successive fabrication and testing of devices such as modulators. Previously, we had reported use of this technology to fabricate low-loss single-mode passive waveguiding structures and devices. In this paper, we report the fabrication of active electro-optic modulators. These devices include an electro-optic polarization modulator, an integrated amplitude modulator consisting of a polarization modulator and an on-chip polarizer, and an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer View full abstract»

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  • Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1569 - 1576
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    A novel integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator comprising an electrooptic (EO) phase-distribution modulator and a focusing grating coupler (FGC) in an EO polymer planar waveguide on a Si substrate is proposed and demonstrated. The integrated phase-distribution modulator is made up of three-finger top electrodes and a planar bottom electrode sandwiching the waveguide. The electrodes are used for both the poling process and the modulation of the phase distribution of the guided wave. The FGC couples the guided wave to a beam focused on a point in free space. The intensity distribution of the focused spot is modulated by altering the wavefront of the guided wave. The bottom metal electrode is extended to the place under the FGC and serves as a reflection film so that the output coupling occurs only into the direction of the air for increasing the efficiency. The device was designed and fabricated with an active polymer p-NAn-PVA (p-nitroaniline n-polyvinyl alcohol). An extinction ratio of the focal-spot intensity was higher than 3 dB at a modulation voltage of 30 V for 3-mm-long electrodes. The frequency response was measured to be flat over 2 MHz. The EO effect induced by poling showed no significant relaxation over 300 h in an unconditioned room (20-30°C) View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of the different types of fiber-chromatic-dispersion equalization for IM-DD ultralong-distance optical communication systems with Er-doped fiber amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1616 - 1621
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    We have evaluated the transmission performance of different fiber-chromatic-dispersion-equalization methodologies for ultralong distance IM-DD optical communication systems that use Er-doped fiber amplifier repeaters. The experiment used a 1000 km fiber loop consisting of 30 dispersion-shifted fiber spans and 31 Er-doped fiber amplifiers. We changed the insertion point of the normal single-mode fiber for equalization to change the shape of the accumulated chromatic dispersion. Comparison of the longest transmission distance and the width of the 9000 km transmissible window are discussed for several types of dispersion equalization. The results indicate that the best type of the dispersion equalization for ultralong distance IM-DD optical communication systems is to install dispersion-shifted fibers with short sections of normal single-mode fibers to compensate the accumulated dispersion View full abstract»

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  • Optical noise in frequency-periodic networks

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1660 - 1667
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    The problem of optical noise in partially-coherent optical networks is revisited, using the recently developed frequency-domain formulation. By applying this formulation to the important case of networks with a frequency-periodic transfer function (frequency-periodic networks) we derived a general expression for the output optical-noise power density spectrum. The general expression consists of an infinite sum of terms, which are expressed as products of two factors: one factor is derived from the network transfer function, and the other from the source statistical correlation functions. The source factors have been evaluated for the case of a random-phase source, which is used frequently to describe single-mode laser diodes. Simplified formulae were derived for several special cases of practical importance, and the Mach-Zehnder network was considered as an example View full abstract»

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  • Improved 8×8 integrated optical matrix switch using silica-based planar lightwave circuits

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1597 - 1606
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)  

    An improved 8×8 optical matrix switch was fabricated using silica-based planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) on a silicon substrate. Three improvements were made. First, the waveguide material was changed from titanium-doped silica (SiO22-TiO2) to germanium-doped silica (SiO22-GeO2) to reduce propagation loss. Second, offset driving powers were supplied to every switch unit to realize high extinction ratios. Third, the dummy switch units were modified to suppress the crosstalk through these units. The average insertion loss of the fabricated device was 3.81 db in the TE mode and 3.82 dB in the TM mode. The average extinction ratio of the switch units was 25.3 dB in the TE mode and 22.3 dB in the TM mode. The accumulated crosstalk was estimated to be less than -14 dB in the TE mode and -11 dB in the TM mode. The average driving power of the phase shifter in the on-state was 0.54 W in the TE mode and 0.52 W in the TM mode. The switching response time was 1.3 ms. The packaged 8×8 matrix switch with additional fiber-waveguide coupling loss of 2.7 dB was successfully employed in photonic multimedia switching and photonic inter-module connector system experiments View full abstract»

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  • Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1577 - 1587
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis and a comparison with experimental results on self-mixing interference inside a single-longitudinal-mode diode laser. A theoretical model, based on the steady-state equations of the lasing condition in a Fabry-Perot type laser cavity, is described, and through it a satisfactory analysis of self-mixing interference for optical sensing applications is given. In this work, the self-mixing interference produced by an external optical feedback is found to be due to the variations in the threshold gain and in the spectral distribution of the laser output. The gain variation results in an optical intensity modulation, and the spectral variation determines both the modulation waveform and the coherence properties of the interference. The theoretical analysis of the self-mixing interference is seen to yield a simulation of the laser power modulation which is in good agreement with the experiment results reported View full abstract»

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  • WDM cross-connected star topology for the bilayered ShuffleNet

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1668 - 1678
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB)  

    A WDM cross-connect is a device based on integrating a two-dimensional array of Bragg diffraction cells. This device can be used in various wavelength routing network applications and it overcomes the major problems related to a conventional broadcast passive star coupler. In this paper, we propose a method of using this device in the implementation of a new logical topology: the bilayered ShuffleNet. This new configuration uses the same configuration as the conventional ShuffleNet, where N=kPk, but with the addition of another set of connections, the bilayered ShuffleNet achieves a higher efficiency compared to the conventional case. Moreover, the bilayered configuration offers additional flexibility View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "Detailed comparison of two approximate methods for the scalar wave equation for a rectangular optical waveguide" [and reply]

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1701 - 1702
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (100 KB)  

    Comment and reply on the optimised Hermite Gaussian method for waveguide analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of the lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1517 - 1523
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    For the first time, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is applied to study the lightguiding structure of optical fibers: the local surface topography of an etched fiber endface is profiled with AFM. The etching rate has been studied as a fingerprint to determine the effect of dopant chemistry and preform fabrication conditions on the fiber structure. Structural and geometrical distortions of the lightguiding structure can be directly measured with high spatial resolution. Furthermore, by quantifying the etched depth in relation to the refractive-index change, a spatial mapping of the refractive-index change can be inferred from the AFM profile. These examples demonstrate the effective use of AFM to elucidate, on a nanometric scale, features of the lightguiding structure that contribute to the performance of light transmission View full abstract»

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  • Decay of transmitted light during fiber breaks-implications for break location

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1532 - 1535
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)  

    The accuracy of a bit-counting method for locating fiber breaks in an optical communication system proposed by Rosher et al. is limited in part by the decay time of the transmitted light during fiber failure. In order to understand the nature of this limitation, decay times were measured for individual fibers using a variety of failure mechanisms. The mechanics of the break processes were considered and the implications for break location using the bit-counting technique were assessed. The fastest decay times (≈14 ns) occurred when fibers broke catastrophically under stress levels greater than 0.7×109 N/m2. The decay times in this case implied a small break-location uncertainty of 3 m when employing the bit-counting scheme. Since the strength members of fiber cable break at much greater tensions, decay times for cable failures (for example, caused by a backhoe) should not significantly limit the break-location accuracy assuming that the fibers do not bend severely before breaking. For stresses below 0.7×109 N/m2 the decay times increase as the stress decreases, attributable to a corresponding decrease in the speed with which the cores of the broken fiber sections tilt with respect to each other and/or separate View full abstract»

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  • Development of fiber-optic depolarizer and its application to measurement systems for polarization-insensitive operation of silica-waveguide matrix switches

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1640 - 1647
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    This paper describes an automatic system that measures the bias and switching currents of all the switch elements in the polarization-insensitive operation of silica-waveguide 8×8 matrix switches. A new type of depolarizer that can be used for coherent laser sources was compactly packaged with an excess loss of 6 dB. The packaged depolarizer was coupled to an automatic measurement system that was achieved mainly by using two 64-channel power supplies that drive all the heaters of a matrix switch via a computer. By using a DFB laser source at 1305 nm, whose output was unpolarized with the depolarizer, all the switch elements could be adjusted so that they were polarization insensitive within 0.3 dB to any polarization state. About 2 hours were required to complete the measurement for one matrix switch View full abstract»

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  • Compact-same-size 52- and 156 Mb/s SDH optical transceiver modules

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1607 - 1615
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB)  

    Four types of compact SDH optical transceiver modules for intra- and interoffice transmission systems operating at 51.84- and 155.52-Mb/s have been incorporated with two types of packages, which are the same size for both bit rates. These modules contain both a transmitter and a receiver with a clock recovery function integrated in a single package. They were realized in the same size of L:50 mm×W:25 mm×H:8 mm (volume:10 cm3) and L:81 mm×W:31 mm×H:8 mm (volume:20-cm3) for intra- and interoffice system applications, respectively. The following technologies were used in their development: 1) three kinds of custom IC's were implemented using a 2-μm Si bipolar process, 2) surface-mounted SAW filters with the same size for both bit rates, and 3) high-density packaging technology to minimize receiver sensitivity degradation due to crosstalk noises. As a result, high receiver sensitivity of -43.2 and -42.7 dBm was achieved for 51.84-/s and 155.52-Mb/s interoffice transceiver modules with a wide dynamic range of over 30 dB. Also, in transceiver modules for intraoffice system applications, a receiver sensitivity of -37.7 and -31.7 dBm were obtained for both bit rates View full abstract»

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  • Precision fabrication of D-shaped single-mode optical fibers by in situ monitoring

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1524 - 1531
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)  

    A technique has been developed to locally remove, over a distance of several millimeters of fiber length, the cladding layer of single-mode (at the 1300 nm wavelength) optical fibers with 1 μm depth precision by use of mechanical lapping and in situ optical transmission monitoring. A cylinder lap dressed with diamond is used to perform high-pressure mechanical lapping. The in situ monitoring technique is based on the specific different attenuations exhibited by higher order propagating modes (for 633 nm light) as the cylinder penetrates into the fiber. Advantages include relatively rapid overall processing, high lapping rate, good optical surface quality, and 1 μm precision. Experimental results are presented and analyzed by an approximate geometrical-optics model View full abstract»

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  • An ultrasonic fiber-optic hydrophone incorporating a push-pull transducer in a Sagnac interferometer

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1696 - 1700
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of a push-pull acoustic transducer incorporated in a Sagnac interferometer is presented. The transducer is optimized for detection of ultrasonic signals in the frequency range 0.4-1.5 MHz. Two different configurations are investigated. In one, the sensing fiber forming the transducer constitutes the total loop length, and in the second an additional delay coil is included in the middle section of the Sagnac loop. In the latter we demonstrate experimentally noise-equivalent pressures of 36-43 dB re. 1 μPa/Hz1/2 in the frequency range 0.4-1.0 MHz. An approximate theoretical model is presented, and we obtain reasonable agreement between theory and experiment for both the frequency-dependent noise equivalent pressure and the directional responsivity of this push-pull acoustic fiber-optic sensor View full abstract»

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  • Polarization modulation errors in all-fiber depolarized gyroscopes

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1679 - 1684
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    Polarization modulation errors in all-fiber depolarized gyros having imperfect depolarization are examined. As in the case of PM fiber gyros, birefringence modulation is shown to give rise to quadrature errors. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of a small time lag between the modulation of the two linear polarization states of a fiber-wound PZT modulator by correlating this effect with an associated signal channel error. Proper frequency operation and/or good depolarization of the light act to reduce both types of errors View full abstract»

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  • Variational analysis of modal-coupling efficiency between graded-index waveguides

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1543 - 1549
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    Some new trial functions that extend the Hermite-Gaussian (HG) function are proposed for solving the modal coupling of one planar graded-index waveguide region to another and with the assumption of no reflections, based on the scalar variational principle. In many cases in this work, we show that the present trial functions give a significant improvement over the HG trial function and are very close to the exact numerical results. Since approximate results in a closed form can be derived by variational approach, this analysis is also very useful in the modal-coupling design of the other integrated-optical devices View full abstract»

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  • Coupling in multilayer optical waveguides: an approach based on scattering data

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1560 - 1568
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    Within the context of weak coupling theory, we derive representations of the coupling coefficients between neighboring waveguides by representing the field-dependent interaction integrals by algebraic expressions involving scattering data and we illustrate the contexts in which scattering theory can make a viable alternative to existing formulation of the waveguide coupling problem View full abstract»

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  • Development of prototype fiber-optic-based Fizeau pressure sensors with temperature compensation and signal recovery by coherence reading

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1685 - 1695
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)  

    A range of prototype fiber-optic-based Fizeau interferometric pressure sensors with temperature compensation and signal recovery by dual-wavelength coherence reading have been developed. A separate fiber-optic-based Fizeau temperature sensor with similar cavity length was incorporated into the pressure sensor to allow the pressure measurement to be corrected for the temperature dependence of the pressure probe. The pressure and temperature probes were multiplexed spatially. For the low-pressure sensor, the obtained range to resolution ratio and the accuracy were ~6.7×103:1 and better than ±1 percent over a pressure range of 0-0.48 bar, respectively. For the medium pressure sensor, the achieved range to resolution ratio and the overall accuracy were 3.6×104:1 and ±0.15 percent over a full-pressure range of ~10 bar. For the high pressure sensor, a range to resolute ratio of ~1.67×104:1 and an overall measurement accuracy of ±0.69 percent over a pressure range of ~1000 bar have been achieved. Due to the universality of the signal-processing scheme based on the dual-wavelength coherence-reading technique, the signal-processing box can be compatible with a range of sensors illuminated by the sources with similar central wavelengths. This study would be readily used to develop a range of commercial fiber-optic pressure sensors with similar optical path differences, interrogated by a universal signal-processing box, for different applications View full abstract»

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  • All optical signal regularizing/regeneration using a nonlinear fiber Sagnac interferometer switch with signal-clock walk-off

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1648 - 1659
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB)  

    All-optical signal regularizing/regeneration using a nonlinear fiber Sagnac interferometer switch (NSIS) that employs signal-clock walk-off is investigated. The NSIS realizes all-optical signal regeneration, including timing and amplitude regularizing, by switching clock pulses with amplified input signals using a walk-off-induced, wide, square switching window and intensity-dependent transmittance of the device. First, characteristics (in both the temporal and spectral domains) of the all-optical signal regeneration achieved with the NSIS are investigated theoretically and experimentally. They certify that if clock pulses are within the square switching window obtained with signal-clock walk-off, the clock pulses can be modulated according to the data that the input signals carry and retain their temporal and spectral profiles. This means that if clock pulses can be prepared that meet the system requirements, the NSIS can convert input signals that may not satisfy system requirements into high-quality output signals. Limitations on the switching contrast due to the cross-phase modulation of counterpropagating reference pulses is also discussed. Second, two possible applications of NSIS-based all-optical signal regularizing/regeneration, 1) an all-optical multiplexer with an optical clock and 2) an all-optical regenerative repeater, are discussed. Preliminary experiments with ~10-ps pulses at bit rates of ~5 Gb/s that use locally prepared optical clock pulses, show that the NSIS provides an error-free regeneration function with a certain tolerance for pulse-period irregularity if a proper optical clock is obtained View full abstract»

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  • Modeling propagation in optical fibers using wavelets

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1536 - 1542
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    A new model for the linear and nonlinear propagation of arbitrary optical waveforms through monomode fiber is presented. The basis of the method is the representation of the in-phase and quadrature components of the propagating electric field by their wavelet transform coefficients. For certain wavelet functions, a closed-form solution of the dispersive wave equation can be obtained, thereby allowing an analytic description of the propagating waveform in linear fiber. Nonlinear propagation is modeled using a split-step wavelet method that proceeds in a manner analogous to the split-step Fourier method. Arbitrarily shaped pulses or pulse sequences, with or without frequency chirping of the source, are accommodated with ease. A particular feature of the method is its inherent ability to provide time-resolved power spectra of the propagating waveforms View full abstract»

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  • Silica-based 8×8 optical matrix switch module with hybrid integrated driving circuits and its system application

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1631 - 1639
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB)  

    A compact, low-crosstalk 8×8 optical matrix switch module has been developed. A thermooptic switch chip and driving circuits with TTL interfaces are integrated on a 100-mm2 ceramic substrate. It achieved a low insertion loss of 10.0 dB, a low crosstalk level of -25.9 dB, and had excellent stability in practical operation. A photonic intermodule connector for electronic switching systems in the near future is also demonstrated through the use of these optical switch modules View full abstract»

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  • Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1622 - 1630
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)  

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent optical-frequency-domain reflectometry using semiconductor laser sources are presented. Good agreement was found between the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio due to the phase noise and the experimental results. The sensitivity limit due to the quantum noise is also described. Limitations due to the nonlinearity in the optical frequency sweep produced by the thermal-response time of the laser and mode hopping are investigated and compared with experimental results. Two interferometric methods to characterize the thermal-response time of the laser and their implementations are described. The effects of mode hopping in the optical-frequency sweep are compared to numerical simulations. A simple formula to predict the position of spurious peaks due to mode hopping are presented. A spatial resolution of 400 μm over 10 cm was obtained by correcting the nonlinearity in the optical-frequency sweep by using an auxiliary interferometer. The Rayleigh backscattering was observed for the first time over more than 400 m of fiber using a DFB laser coupled to an external cavity View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs