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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sep 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Systematic policy development to ensure compliance to environmental regulations

    Page(s): 1289 - 1305
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    More efficient enforcement of environmental regulations would enhance environmental conditions around the globe by improving compliance to existing regulations and by allowing regulatory agencies to broaden their scope without increasing their budgets. This research analyzes comply-evade decisions by regulated firms in the context of their relationships with environmental agencies, and determines which enforcement policies effectively encourage voluntary compliance. More specifically, the enforcement conflict is modeled as a 2×2 non-cooperative game called the Enforcement Dilemma. This game is examined as a simultaneous game, and also as a more realistic sequential game with asymmetric information. Then a supergame based on the Enforcement Dilemma is developed and analyzed. An effective long-term policy called the review strategy is proposed to overcome the dilemma in this context View full abstract»

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  • A guided evolutionary simulated annealing approach to the quadratic assignment problem

    Page(s): 1383 - 1386
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    The quadratic assignment problem, one of the classical NP-complete problems, is usually interpreted as a facility layout problem, of which the task is to assign facilities to locations in a manner so as to minimize a total cost function. The complexity of the problem has motivated the development of many approximation procedures. In this paper, the authors present a new approach to the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The new technique, called guided evolutionary simulated annealing (GESA), is a parallel algorithm. It combines the ideas of simulated evolution and simulated annealing in a novel way. The authors demonstrate the technique using facility layout problems as examples. Simulation results for benchmark problems are reported. The results indicate that the GESA method outperforms other approximation methods View full abstract»

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  • Manual control approach to the teaching of a robot task

    Page(s): 1339 - 1346
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    This paper considers the generation of skillful control actions, which require high experience of a task, by manual control using a master-slave manipulator. The authors have shown that a robot manipulator can be “taught” a skilled task using a “teaching method” based on manual control at a master manipulator. It takes, however, a long time for a human operator to control the master-slave manipulator satisfactorily when the task is complicated. In this paper, an iterative modification method using the master-slave manipulator (IMMSM) is proposed, which makes it possible to improve the movement of the slave based on performance evaluation. As the master-slave manipulator is usually used in teleoperation, the master is complicated and expensive because of the high maneuverability required. By applying the proposed method, a simple device like a joystick can be used. Using a joystick and a small manipulator, the authors have investigated the effect of IMMSM allowing iteration in the “teaching” of a simple task. The experimental results show that the operator can “teach” a skilled task to the robot manipulator using IMMSM. The oscillation frequency of the task error becomes large as progress is made through iterative modifications and the operator, finally, can not modify the high frequency signal any further. To avoid this confusing development for the operator the high frequency signal of the master manipulator is restricted by a function like a low-pass filter. In an experiment, it is confirmed that a filtering function helps the human operator to perform IMMSM more accurately View full abstract»

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  • On the global optimum path planning for redundant space manipulators

    Page(s): 1306 - 1316
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    Robotic manipulators will play a significant role in the maintenance and repair of space stations and satellites, and other future space missions. Robot path planning and control for the above applications should be optimum, since any inefficiency in the planning may considerably risk the success of the space mission. This paper presents a global optimum path planning scheme for redundant space robotic manipulators to be used in such missions. In this formulation, a variational approach is used to minimize the objective functional. It is assumed that the gravity is zero in space, and the robotic manipulator is mounted on a completely free-flying base (spacecraft) and the attitude control (reaction wheels or thrust jets) is off. Linear and angular momentum conditions for this system lead to a set of mixed holonomic and nonholonomic constraints. These equations are adjoined to the objective functional using a Lagrange multiplier technique. The formulation leads to a system of differential and algebraic equations (DAEs). A numerical scheme for forward integration of this system is presented. A planar redundant space manipulator consisting of three arms and a base is considered to demonstrate the feasibility of the formulation. The approach to optimum path planning of redundant space robots is significant since most robots that have been developed for space applications so far are redundant. The kinematic redundancy of space robots offers efficient control and provides the necessary dexterity for extra-vehicular activity that exceeds human capacity View full abstract»

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  • Fast method for updating robust pseudoinverse and Ho-Kashyap associative processors

    Page(s): 1387 - 1390
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    A new approximate method is proposed for updating robust pseudoinverse and Ho-Kashyap associative processors. The method can both add and delete vectors. It is faster than existing methods for updating the standard pseudoinverse associative processor, in addition to operating on a preferable robust associative processor. The new method is based on the matrix inversion lemma. Update algorithms are also noted that are suitable for reduced accuracy (analog) processors and for pipelined array processors View full abstract»

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  • A student model of katakana reading proficiency for a Japanese language intelligent tutoring system

    Page(s): 1347 - 1357
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB)  

    This work describes the development of a student model that is used in a Japanese language intelligent tutoring system to assess a pupil's proficiency at reading one of the distinct orthographies of Japanese, known as katakana. While the effort required to memorize the relatively few katakana symbols and their associated pronunciations is not prohibitive, a major difficulty in reading katakana is associated with the phonetic modifications which occur when English words which are transliterated into katakana are made to conform to the more restrictive rules of Japanese phonology. The algorithms described here are able to automatically acquire a knowledge base of these phonological transformation rules, use them to assess a student's proficiency, and then appropriately individualize the student's instruction View full abstract»

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  • Finding a subset of representative points in a data set

    Page(s): 1416 - 1424
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    Deals with the problem of finding the representative points from a data set ⊆ℜ2. Two algorithms are stated. One of the algorithms can find the local best representative or seed points. The extension of these algorithms for three or more dimensions is also discussed. Experimental results on synthetic and real life data are provided which manifest the utility of these algorithms View full abstract»

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  • Solving find path problem in mapped environments using modified A* algorithm

    Page(s): 1390 - 1396
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    Presents a path planning algorithm to solve the find path problem in mapped environments. The moving objects considered in this paper can be any shape, which is approximated by its bounding convex polygon. Since the actual translating and rotating movement of the object in the free space is considered in the finding of a collision-free path, it won't miss those paths which require rotational maneuvering. In addition to the progressing strategy, a modified A* algorithm based on the revised depth-first search in setting up the h' value is also proposed to find the optimal path. From the experimental results, the modified A* algorithm is proved to be a very good method View full abstract»

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  • On geometric hashing and the generalized Hough transform

    Page(s): 1328 - 1338
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    The generalized Hough transform and geometric hashing are two contemporary paradigms for model-based object recognition. Both schemes simultaneously find instances of objects in a scene and determine the location and orientation of these instances. The methods encode the models for the objects in a similar fashion and object recognition is achieved by image features “voting” for object models. For both schemes, the object recognition time is largely independent of the number of objects that are encoded in the object-model database. This paper puts the two schemes in perspective and examines differences and similarities. The authors also study object representation techniques and discuss how object representations are used for object recognition and position estimation View full abstract»

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  • Modeling, analysis and simulation of failures in a materials handling system with extended Petri nets

    Page(s): 1358 - 1373
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    This paper models, analyzes, accommodates and simulates potential failures which may occur in a materials handling system with extended Petri nets (EPNs). EPNs are shown to be able to cope with various important failure situations that occur in a manufacturing system through the definition of six different types of places. Detailed EPN based subnets are provided to study and accommodate occurred failures. The approach described proposes an efficient methodology to generate an overall EPN design to model and analyze potential system failures at different levels of detail. It has been observed that the study of boundedness properties rather than the safeness properties of a manufacturing system with resource constraints leads to a better defined EPN system model. The subnet structural properties and the overall system properties are preserved. The Stochastic Petri Net Package (SPNP) is used for simulation studies View full abstract»

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  • Generalized half-split search for model-based diagnosis

    Page(s): 1412 - 1416
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    A major step in model-based fault diagnosis is the generation of candidate components which might be responsible for the observed symptom of a malfunction. After the candidates are determined, each component can then be examined in turn. It is useful to be able to choose the most likely candidate to focus on first so that the faulty parts can be located sooner. This paper presents some topological heuristics for ordering candidates according to their relationships with violations and corroborations. Candidates are also reordered or eliminated when new information is acquired during diagnosis. These ordering and reordering techniques are shown to be effective for model-based diagnosis. For single fault cases, the average length of diagnosis is log n, where n is the number of components. In general, the average length of diagnosis is k log n when there rare k faults in the device initially View full abstract»

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  • Long and short delay feedback on one-link nonlinear forearm with coactivation

    Page(s): 1317 - 1327
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    Control strategies for a one-link model of the human forearm system are presented. Three attributes of the human forearm are implemented in the second order nonlinear model: neural transmission delays in the feedback paths, nonlinear behavior of the spindle reflex, and stiffness regulation through coactivation. Three feedback loops are present in the model: intrinsic feedback (undelayed) from the actuators, spindle feedback (delayed), and higher level controller feedback (delayed). The stability of the model is examined through computer simulation analysis. A method of speed control of the arm is presented that utilizes continuous transitions in the feedforward activation levels of the muscles. Two control strategies are utilized by the higher level controller: a proportional plus integral (PI) compensation strategy, and a fuzzy control strategy. Both strategies can endure long loop transmission delays without causing the system to become unstable. A comparison of the settling time of these two controllers in compensating for disturbances and loading errors is presented View full abstract»

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  • Multicriteria design of manufacturing systems through simulation optimization

    Page(s): 1407 - 1411
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    Simulation is a popular tool for the design and analysis of manufacturing systems. The popularity of simulation is due to its flexibility, its ability to model systems when analytical methods have failed, and its ability to model the time dynamic behavior of systems. However, in and of itself, simulation is not a design tool; therefore, in order to optimize a simulation model, it often must be used in conjunction with an optimum-seeking method. This paper describes an interactive (decision maker-computer) methodology for multiple response optimization of simulation models. This approach is based on a multiple criteria optimization technique called the STEP method. The proposed methodology is illustrated with an example involving the optimization of a manufacturing system View full abstract»

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  • A reachability synthesis procedure for discrete event systems in a temporal logic framework

    Page(s): 1397 - 1406
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    A temporal logic model is introduced to the modeling and design of discrete event systems. Within such a model, the relationship between the reachability of states and the validity of formulas is given to provide a basis for the composition and synthesis of discrete event systems in a temporal logic framework. The composition of temporal logic models is accomplished by formulating a temporal logic model as a process algebra and defining projection applications within the temporal logic models. Procedures are developed for reachability synthesis and a controller logic model is designed to ensure that the required behavior of the system is met. An example of a system of read-write processes is demonstrated to illustrate the novelty of this approach View full abstract»

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  • A Petri net model for temporal knowledge representation and reasoning

    Page(s): 1374 - 1382
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    This paper presents a general model based on timed Petri net, capable of handling both qualitative and quantitative temporal information. Both metric relations between time points and qualitative relations between time interval can be encoded in a model. This model also allows the representation of higher-order expression and repeated activities which constitute a large part of the normal schedule. In addition, graphical representation of a timed Petri net gives a straightforward view of relations between temporal objects View full abstract»

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