By Topic

Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug 1994

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • R&D project termination decisions by discriminant analysis-an international comparison

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 245 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)  

    Substantial efforts have been made to improve R&D project termination decisions. One major stream of research has demonstrated that discriminant functions can distinguish between successful and unsuccessful projects. It is of considerable importance to test the validity of discriminant functions. In the present study the authors show the applicability of a discriminant function that was originally developed by Balachandra for US R&D projects to data from British and German R&D projects. The results are mixed. It is encouraging that a very high percentage of projects can be correctly classified as successes or failures. But the discriminant functions vary between countries. Thus, the results reveal different management perceptions of project success factors in these countries View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Organizational activity analysis: a methodology for analyzing and improving technical organizations

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 234 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB)  

    The role of a technical manager is changing as the skills for success become more managerial, and the technical function becomes more tightly coupled with organizational goals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an approach to evaluating technical organizations or units in a quantitative way consistent with the needs of many technical managers who increasingly are being asked to make decisions about reorganization, downsizing, and productivity improvement. Organizational activity analysis examines unit mission-related functioning through the use of an activity database. The methodology provides decision makers with reliable information upon which decisions for operations improvement can be made. A description of the methodology, example applications, and implementation strategies are presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measuring efficiency of power plants in Israel by data envelopment analysis

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 291 - 301
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)  

    An application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) for measuring and evaluating the operating efficiency of power plants in the Israeli Electric Corporation (IEC) is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of screening the list of potential input and output factors and determining the most relevant ones. Special attention is given to the qualitative factor concerning air pollution, which is treated as a categorical variable. The incorporation of `standard data' is examined and the results are analyzed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Collaborative research as a function of proximity, industry, and company: a case study of an R&D consortium

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 255 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    Collaborative work among researchers at US Universities, industry, and federal laboratories is increasingly advocated in the globally competitive marketplace. Reliable and meaningful measures of such collaboration have been sparse. This study uses a bibliographic search of published, co-authored research papers to analyze collaboration patterns among researchers at one of the nation's oldest, largest, and most complex R&D consortia, the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC) and its shareholders, other industry participants, universities, and federal laboratories. The data indicate that, in terms of a defined population of published research articles, MCC researchers have collaborated more frequently with academic than with corporate researchers and more often with nonshareholder than shareholder organizations. MCC is located in Austin, Texas. Geographic proximity has played a role in the consortium's collaboration with universities only for the local research university, The University of Texas at Austin. Proximity has not been an important factor in corporate collaboration, with the consortium. Among MCC shareholders, collaboration has varied by type of industry, while universities have played an important linking role between MCC and industry. R&D expenditures per employee for member companies are inversely related to the frequency of co-authorship of articles with MCC researchers. Collaboration of MCC shareholders with international researchers has been fairly frequent, given that MCC is closed to foreign membership View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Prioritizing telecommunications technologies for long-range R&D planning to the year 2006

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 264 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)  

    This paper concerns telecommunications technologies prioritization for long-range R&D planning at the Korea Telecommunication Authority (KTA), which is the primary common carrier in Korea. Criteria weighting and technological importance ranking were determined by means of the Analytic Hierarchy Process as a decision aid, along with hierarchical representation and pairwise comparisons. The opinions derived from three divisions of KTA were analyzed and aggregated. Such aggregated prioritization weighting of technologies allows the corporation management to use it for funding decisions about technological aspects of its long-range planning for R&D projects during the period from 1992 to 2006; especially those concerning baseline budget level selection and the scope of research activities. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • AI-based generation of production engineering labor standards

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 302 - 309
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)  

    Increased automation of manufacturing is necessary to compete in today's worldwide markets. The role of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for incorporating the automation with changing manufacturing environments needs to be investigated. AI techniques can assist in meeting the challenge of transforming shop floor production engineering data into appropriate production engineering labor standards in a timely, consistent, and cost effective manner. Production heuristics can be incorporated into an expert system that can learn from the changing manufacturing environment. This paper presents a prototype expert system which transfers the knowledge of experienced methods engineers into a rule-based system to develop the appropriate job elements and standard times for each engineering task. Manufacturing data taken from a leading US company are used for the testing and validation of the prototype system. The prototype system demonstrated the applicability of automated generation of knowledge transfer to the decomposition of the job into tasks. Further implications of the automated systems are discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Exploring the success of information technology enabled business process reengineering

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 276 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    In the face of intense competition and economic pressures, corporations are shifting their fundamental unit of analysis from the business function to the business process. Business process reengineering (BPR) involves the radical change of age-old processes in the quest for significant improvement in performance. Information technologies are important enablers of this change. Results of an exploratory study of 59 executives are presented in an attempt to examine two basic questions: (1) are corporations undertaking IT-enabled BPR projects perceived to be successful, and (2) can the success be explained by an integration of IS with strategy. The claim tested in this paper is that any radical change must be directed from the top of the organization to be successful. The results provide early optimism for this growing phenomenon, indicating that this is indeed true for most major IT-enabled BPR efforts View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Career development opportunities and likelihood of turnover among R&D professionals

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 223 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    It is commonly assumed that the turnover of R&D professionals can be reduced by providing them with opportunities for career development within their company. This study suggests that this may not always be the case. Findings from a study of over two thousand R&D professionals suggest that their likelihood of turnover changes with the types of career development opportunities they are provided. Professionals provided with opportunities to develop their technical careers are more likely to leave their current employer, but less likely to leave R&D for other areas of the company. Moreover, professionals provided with managerial development opportunities are more likely to leave R&D for other areas of the company, but less likely to leave their current employer View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The effect of a nominal monetary gift and different contacting approaches on mail survey response among engineers

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 285 - 290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    Increasingly, designers are looking for ways to incorporate the voice-of-the-market into new product designs. Mail questionnaires are one commonly used method to survey user preferences. Research methods which increase response rates and quality of mail surveys can help result in the design of products that more accurately reflect market needs. This study examines the effect of a nominal monetary gift and different contacting approaches on mail survey response rates among a population of engineers. The study found that the inclusion of a nominal monetary gift had a dramatic effect on survey response rates among engineers. Precontact with targeted firms was also found to increase survey response rates. Additionally, this research found differences in the response rates between direct precontact of subjects in target firms versus indirect contact of engineers who were referred as CAD experts in their firms. These referrals were found more likely to answer difficult survey questions and much more likely to volunteer to participate in follow-up qualitative research. Identification of this group of qualified referrals may be useful for design teams working on new, technologically advanced products View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Improving the R&D-production interface in industrial companies

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 315 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    Today, technological innovation is considered an essential component of corporate success. However, investment in R&D will result in innovative products only if research findings are transferred to production. This paper presents the results of a study on the barriers to and facilitators of this transfer process. Data were collected from 60 R&D division managers and 58 production managers from 61 companies in Brazil. Size of the R&D unit and the nature of the technology were considered in the analysis. Recommendations to improve the links between R&D and production are presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fixed control limits for continuous flow processes

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 310 - 314
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    In this paper, fixed control limits are shown to be an effective means of monitoring data that are autocorrelated. Autocorrelated data are encountered in continuous flow processes (i.e., chemical processes) due to the natural properties of such processes or may be the result of the use of automatic feedback control. Average run lengths (ARLs), based upon 10000 simulations of various out-of-control conditions, are presented for these control charts. Based upon the simulated ARLs, it is concluded that the fixed control limits effectively detect changes in the autocorrelated structure while maintaining the exact performance as a standard Shewhart control chart for individual measurements when the process is not disturbed. Furthermore, example data sets are plotted on these control charts to graphically present their effective and ease of use View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Management of technical functions such as research, development, and engineering in industry, government, university, and other settings. Emphasis is on studies carried on within an organization to help in decision making or policy formation for RD&E. 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Rajiv Sabherwal
Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas