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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Aug 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • High performance single-chip gating circuit for a phase-controlled bridge

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 467 - 470
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  

    The increasing availability of single-chip low cost microcontrollers has made it possible to reconsider conventional hardware designs for a variety of gating circuits. This paper, in particular, presents the design of a gating circuit for a six-pulse phase-controlled bridge utilizing a single-chip programmable microcontroller. The dynamic performance of the proposed gating circuit is similar to an analog circuit implementation. The resolution of the firing angle is better than 0.1 degrees at 60 Hz. Moreover, the system is designed to operate over a frequency range of 3 Hz to 120 Hz, and to automatically adapt to changes in line frequency. The experimental verification of the performance criteria are also presented. Finally, an example of a special application for a dual-bridge AC to DC converter is presented View full abstract»

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  • Spectral modeling of switched-mode power converters

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 441 - 450
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    A new modeling approach for the spectral analysis of pulsewidth modulated (PWM) converters with independent inputs is developed. The key of this approach is to extend the Volterra functional series to nonlinear systems with multiple independent inputs. After formulating the state-space equations describing the dynamical behavior of PWM converters, the Volterra transfer function characterizing the output frequency response can be obtained, which is then symmetrised to form the spectral model. Since the model is developed in a closed form, it is suitable for computer analysis. The modeling approach has been applied to various PWM converters, and the results are verified. The spectral models of different power converters can readily be obtained by using this general approach View full abstract»

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  • Motion stereo for mobile robots

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 378 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    A method allowing a mobile robot to measure accurately its distance from external objects is introduced. It only requires a single uncalibrated camera and a dynamic vision system. The method was evaluated in an optical laboratory and also in outdoor-experiments. Even in outdoor-experiments with a vehicle moving at a speed of 30 km/h, errors of less than 1% of the true distance were achieved in real time. The accuracy achievable with the method depends on the nature of the image features used as a basis for the measurement. Laboratory experiments have been performed to investigate quantitatively the characteristics of the feature detectors under conditions of reduced lighting and, consequentially, reduced SNR, and with image features not matching the feature detectors perfectly. The best results can be achieved by using edge-like features. Point-like features do have certain desirable characteristics, but point detectors are more sensitive to noise than edge detectors. Hence, the accuracy achieved with corner detectors was less than the one achieved with edge detectors. Nevertheless, even with corner detectors the resulting error was less than 1%, despite the fact that the image of the target object did not contain good corners View full abstract»

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  • Fault mode single-phase operation of a variable frequency induction motor drive and improvement of pulsating torque characteristics

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 426 - 433
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    Improved reliability and fault tolerant operation of power converter systems are extremely important for industrial AC drives. The paper considers variable frequency variable voltage operation of a three-phase induction motor in single-phase mode for two common faults of a three-phase inverter, i.e., open base drive and device short-circuit. The motor performance has been extensively analyzed in single-phase mode and remedial strategies have been developed to neutralize large second and other lower order harmonic pulsating torques. In a single-phase open loop volts/Hz control made of a faulty three-phase inverter, it has been demonstrated that odd harmonic voltages at appropriate phase angles can be injected to neutralize the low frequency pulsating torques so as to permit smooth drive operation. It has been shown that the pulsating torque can be further reduced by load dependent flux programming rather than operating with constant rated flux View full abstract»

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  • Novel adaptive tolerance band based PWM for field-oriented control of induction machines

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 406 - 417
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)  

    Two levels of an innovative adaptive switching pattern (ASP) for use in the control of induction machines are described. The ASP is based on a tolerance band control strategy resulting in nearly sinusoidal stator currents. The first level (ASP1) significantly increases the switching time thereby eliminating the very fast switching sometimes experienced. The second level (ASP2) reduces the number of double commutations by one or two orders of magnitude. The price for applying ASP is only a small, irregular, consequential increase in the current error. A rotating reference frame fixed to the rotor flux is applied. This makes ASP especially suitable for application in the field-oriented control of current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) fed induction motor drives. The theoretical background supported by conclusive simulation results illustrates clearly the significant benefits of ASP over the regular switching pattern often used. To complete the picture a short survey of the various techniques used in the speed control of induction machines is presented in the introduction View full abstract»

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  • Landmark-oriented visual navigation of a mobile robot

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 392 - 397
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    This paper describes a method of landmark based vehicle guidance used for navigation in corridors and similar indoor environments. Motion tasks are specified by a symbolic course description without providing explicit geometric information. A video sensor system is used for environmental perception and landmark detection. Aspects of sensor data processing and vehicle guidance are discussed. Experimental results are reported View full abstract»

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  • Robust control of permanent magnet motors: VSS techniques lead to simple hardware implementations

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 451 - 460
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    It is shown how very simple velocity-tracking robust controllers for permanent magnet motors driving nonlinear loads can be designed based on variable structure systems techniques. Very fast dynamics, accurate and robust velocity-tracking are achieved with very simple hardware components without resorting to powerful digital signal processors and related interface hardware. A cascade control structure is used to ensure maximum flexibility. The controller for a DC motor is considered in great detail. Extension to AC synchronous PM motors is also presented. At the different control levels robustness is addressed with specific algorithms and the simplest solution is always selected. The controller architecture for both DC and AC synchronous motor are presented and discussed in the paper. Experimental results related to the control of a DC motor driving a nonlinear load are also shown. They demonstrate feasibility and excellent performances of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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  • Vision-based vehicles in Japan: machine vision systems and driving control systems

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 398 - 405
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    This paper surveys three intelligent vehicles developed in Japan, and in particular the configurations, the machine vision systems, and the driving control systems. The first one is the Intelligent Vehicle, developed since the mid 1970's, which has a machine vision system for obstacle detection and a dead reckoning system for autonomous navigation on a compact car. The machine vision system with stereo TV cameras is featured by real time processing using hard-wired logic. The dead reckoning function and a new lateral control algorithm enable the vehicle to drive from a starting point to a goal. It drove autonomously at about 10 km/h while avoiding an obstacle. The second one is the Personal Vehicle System (PVS), developed in the late 1980's, which is a comprehensive test system for a vision-based vehicle. The machine vision system captures lane markings at both road edges along which the vehicle is guided. The PVS has another machine vision system for obstacle detection with stereo cameras. The PVS drove at 10-30 km/h along lanes with turnings and crossings. The third one is the Automated Highway Vehicle System (AHVS) with a single TV camera for lane-keeping by PD control. The machine vision system uses an edge extraction algorithm to detect lane markings. The AHVS drove at 50 km/h along a lane with a large curvature View full abstract»

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  • Control of switched reluctance motor torque for force control applications

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 461 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)  

    The paper presents a method for controlling switched reluctance motor (SRM) torque for force control applications. SRMs are used in AdeptOne robots, and the authors perform experiments with two robots, controlled in coordination, in grasping and manipulation of various objects. The object and robot parameters are not exactly known, and adaptive methods are used to control the overall system. These methods are model-based control techniques which require high bandwidth torque control. This requirement is typical for high precision mechanisms. SRM characteristics are very nonlinear. In particular the torque ripple, friction, and the torque versus position and current relationships were analyzed in the context mentioned above, and specifically, for force control applications. The proposed method is based on a new commutation algorithm and a measured torque versus position and current relationship, used to smooth the SRM's torque ripple, hence generating a torque output nearly independent of position. Furthermore, the internal friction is estimated on-line, and compensated for. This renders a high accuracy torque tracking. The torque control method is based on feedback from the motor angular velocity, motor angle, armature current, and feedforward for friction compensation and cancellation of nonlinear effects. The method has been tested experimentally on Adept motors and the results were very encouraging. The method has been also used for adaptive control of two coordinated Adept robots View full abstract»

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  • On-line vehicle and pedestrian detections based on sign pattern

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 384 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)  

    Real time detection methods of moving vehicles and pedestrians for navigation of the mobile robot are proposed. The method is based on a locomotion strategy, viz. signature-based stereotype motion. Signature of the moving vehicle is the shadow underneath the vehicle which is darker than any other parts of the asphalt paved road. Signature of the pedestrian is rhythm of walking. Rhythm of walking is unique to the pedestrian, and not influenced by time, weather, sunlight, shadow, and distance. Moreover, it is independent from clothes the pedestrian puts on. The result of experiments verify the validity of the methods View full abstract»

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  • One-dimensional position measurement for large-gap magnetic suspension system

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 471 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    This paper presents a one-dimensional position measurement for a suspended object in a large-gap magnetic suspension system which allows wider range of control. The position measurement system uses a linear photosensor array to detect the position of the suspended object. The proposed measurement is simple, effective, and less expensive than other methods in large-gap magnetic suspension systems View full abstract»

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  • A resonant inverter for electronic ballast applications

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 418 - 425
    Cited by:  Papers (92)  |  Patents (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)  

    Electronic ballasts must provide enough open circuit voltage to start the fluorescent lamp and current limiting while the lamp is running. Resonant inverters may be utilized in electronic ballasts because of their load-dependent characteristics. The three basic types of resonant inverters, the series-loaded, parallel-loaded, and the series-parallel-loaded, are compared using fundamental approximation techniques for their applicability in electronic ballasts operating from a low voltage source. A parallel-loaded resonant inverter operating slightly above its resonant frequency is selected because of the high voltage gains possible. Operation above the resonant frequency allows zero-voltage turn on of the semiconductor devices. Zero-voltage turn off can be achieved with the addition of lossless snubber capacitors. Experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design procedure View full abstract»

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  • A quick response peak detector for variable frequency three-phase sinusoidal signals

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 434 - 440
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)  

    An instantaneous peak detector for three-phase variable frequency sinusoidal signals is proposed. The three-phase characteristic is fully used in the proposed detector to achieve instantaneous response and frequency independence characteristics. A very simple hardware implementation circuit is also presented for minimizing the number of analog computational components. Moreover, the proposed detector possesses excellent linearity and low sensitivity to small voltage unbalance and harmonic distortion. Because of its promising accuracy and transient response, it can be used in many systems such as the voltage regulator of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), an automatic line voltage regulator, or electric generators, etc., to improve the system transient performance. Theoretical analysis, hardware implementation, and some experimental results are also detailed in this paper View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

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Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
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