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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 55
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2913 - 2916
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2917 - 2920
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  • Enhanced Inertial-Aided Indoor Tracking System for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

    Page(s): 2921 - 2929
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in localization algorithms for indoor environments. In this paper, we have developed an enhanced filtering method for indoor positioning and tracking applications using a wireless sensor network. The method combines position, speed, and heading measurements with the aim of achieving more accurate position estimates both in the short and the long term. Using as a base, the well-known extended Kalman filter, we have incorporated two novel measurement covariance matrix tuning methods. The power threshold covariance matrix tuning method and the distance statistics covariance matrix tuning method, both based on the statistical characteristics of the distance estimations. In addition, we take into account the inertial measurements obtained from a nine-degrees of freedom inertial measurement unit. The system has been validated in real scenarios and results show that it provides long-term accuracy, that is, the accuracy remains below 1 m during a 20-min test. In summary, our methods benefit from the reduced observation error of the inertial sensors in the short term and extend it over a long period of time. View full abstract»

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  • An Optoelectromechanical Sensor for Detecting Adulteration in Anhydrous Milk Fat

    Page(s): 2930 - 2931
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the theory, design, fabrication, and test results of a new system, which is used for the detection and measurement of adulteration of clarified butterfat, a classification of anhydrous milk fat. Detection of adulteration by 20% or more of animal body's fat in clarified butter is very easily and economically, done. The Time period of simple harmonic motion of uniform density metallic rod, oscillating in medium from a fixed point under controlled temperature conditions, is effected by the characteristics of the medium. Experimentally, it has been verified that the relationship between time periods of oscillation of rod pendulum in medium is appreciably proportional to adulterant in the sample. View full abstract»

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  • PTC-Based Sigma-Delta ADCs for High-Speed, Low-Noise Imagers

    Page(s): 2932 - 2933
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a novel column-parallel readout circuit for image sensors based on incremental-sigma-delta (ISD) ADCs. The excessive number of clock cycles needed per conversion is addressed. We apply the photon transfer curve-based conversion to a second-order ISD ADC, achieving a (2.75times ) clock cycles reduction when compared with a standard second-order ISD ADC while maintaining a similar noise performance. This results in the reduction of the pixel readout time and of the size of the digital filter. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of a Suicide by Hanging Based on a 3-D Image Analysis

    Page(s): 2934 - 2935
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (605 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Prisoner suicide has been one of the leading causes of death in correctional facilities. In particular, since hanging is the most common suicide method, various systems have been proposed to detect and prevent hanging attempts. This letter presents the preliminary results of applying 3-D image recognition techniques to detect a partial suspension hanging attempt. This is the most frequently occurring method of hanging in prison settings, but is difficult to recognize using conventional methods. By using a 3-D camera and random forest, the experimental results show that the proposed detection algorithm can detect hanging suicide attempts with more than 95% accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • A Frequency-Compensation-Type Microwave Power Sensor Fabricated by GaAs MMIC Process

    Page(s): 2936 - 2937
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, a novel microwave power sensor is proposed to accomplish frequency compensation for 1-20-GHz application. Compared with traditional power sensor, this design has two extra power compensation ports in order to adjust the output voltage. This device is designed and fabricated with GaAs MMIC process. The measured return loss of three ports is less than -26 dB over 1-20 GHz. The output voltage increases with the incident power and the sensitivity is close to 0.115, 0.111, and 0.106 mV/mW at 1, 10, and 20 GHz, respectively. Frequency compensation is performed and the output voltage is compensated to that of 10 GHz. Clearly, when the incident power is fixed, the curve after compensation is flat and the voltage does not change with the frequency of the signal anymore. View full abstract»

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  • Optimized Double-Layered Grating Structures for Chem/Biosensing in Midinfrared Range

    Page(s): 2938 - 2946
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3793 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Double-layered grating structures (DGSs) fabricated of gold (Au) and silver (Ag), respectively, are proposed for chem/biosensing in the midinfrared range. The geometry parameters of the DGS sensors are optimized using a rigorous coupled wave analysis method such that the minimum reflectance is obtained at an infrared wavelength of 4.8 μ or 6.7 μm. The magnetic field patterns and Poynting vector distributions within the optimized grating structures are examined using a finitedifference time-domain method. The simulation results show that for a resonant wavelength of 4.8 μm, the Au and Ag sensors both have a sensitivity of 2000 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 3000 nm/RIU theoretical sensing resolution of 5 × 10-6 RIU and of 1 × 10-7 RIU, respectively. Similarly, for a resonant wavelength of 6.7 μm, the two sensors have a sensitivity of around 200 nm/RIU and theoretical resolution of 5 × 10-5 RIU. In other words, the sensitivity of the DGS sensors optimized for an infrared wavelength of 4.8 μm is one order higher than that of the sensors optimized for a wavelength of 6.7 μm. In general, the results presented in this paper show that the proposed DGS sensors provide a simple and versatile solution for performing chem/biosensing at midinfrared wavelengths. View full abstract»

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  • Fast and Accurate Determination of Olive Oil Acidity by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Page(s): 2947 - 2954
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Virgin olive oil is an important ingredient of the Mediterranean diet highly appreciated for its beneficial health effects due to the presence of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant properties. The olive oil quality is defined by many parameters, among which acidity and peroxide index and according to international regulations, these two determinations are carried out in laboratory environment, by means of manual titration. This kind of method, however, cannot be used on oil production sites, where, instead, it would be desirable to know the main characteristics of the oil for proper product classification. In this paper, a new technique to measure olive oil acidity by electrical conductance is presented that allows for fast, cost-effective, and on-site measurements. Such a technique has been validated with a set of 55 olive oil samples. Two different oil emulsions have been used and compared for the measurements: based on a hydro-alcoholic solution (60% ethanol 40% distilled water) and distilled water, respectively. The data show that the electrical conductance of the emulsion with hydro-alcoholic solution is a strong function of the olive oil acidity, that can be estimated with good accuracy (R2 =0.9308). The experiments with distilled water, instead, exhibit no significant correlation between oil acidity and emulsion conductance that, however, is found to provide information about peroxide index, polyphenols content, and filtration technique. Furthermore, using both types of emulsions to compensate for conductance variations other than free fatty acids the accuracy in acidity determination can be improved reaching R2 =0.9786. View full abstract»

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  • Camera Control in Multi-Camera Systems for Video Quality Enhancement

    Page(s): 2955 - 2966
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2597 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiview video captured by multi-camera systems has been widely used in many applications such as surveillance, 3D television, and free viewpoint television. After capturing, the multi-camera system generally requires to compress a large amount of multiview data due to limitations on the transmission capacity. To improve video quality, previous work on video compression focused on algorithm refinements when a raw multiview video is compressed at a limited bit-rate, whereas existing work on instrumentation generally introduced higher resolution capture and additional hardware. In contrast, this paper uses camera control to enhance video quality. Individual cameras are controlled to adjust their pan angles and focal lengths to compensate for both object location difference and color inconsistency among camera views at the video acquisition stage. Such a compensation makes the camera images more similar and therefore improves the video quality when a raw multiview video is compressed at a limited bit-rate. The optimal pan angle and focal length are designed for each camera. An example application is to monitor a potted plant in real time for ornamental horticulture study. Experimental results validate the camera control method. View full abstract»

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  • Wastage-Aware Routing in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 2967 - 2974
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Environmental energy harvesting or scavenging can provide a solution to the energy capacity limitation of wireless sensor networks. However, in order to efficiently use harvested energy, the harvest properties need to be incorporated into the network design. Existing harvest-aware routing protocols incorporate node residual battery and forecast energy harvest information into routing decisions. We propose a route selection scheme that additionally considers the network energy wastage due to overcharge of finite-capacity batteries, which has not been previously considered. This is done by minimizing the cost associated with the energy consumption due to packet transmission, and the energy wastage due to battery overcharge. We show in the simulation results that by doing so, higher residual energy levels can be achieved. Further, this paper also investigates how various network factors, such as topology, energy consumption rate, and prediction errors affect energy savings through wastage awareness. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the Sampling Rate of Biochemical Measurements Using Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry for In Vivo Applications

    Page(s): 2975 - 2980
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advances in science and technology have permitted the development of wireless systems that can make biochemical measurements within functioning tissue in behaving animals. However, data transfer requirements and power limitations have significantly limited the applicability of these systems. In an effort to create protocols that will reduce the density of the data to be transferred and the power consumption of wireless systems, this paper evaluates reducing the sampling rate of a proven in vivo measurement technology, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. Existing FSCV protocols to measure biochemical signaling in the brain were created without consideration for data density or power consumption. In this paper, the sampling rate of the FSCV protocol for detecting the neurotransmitter dopamine in functioning brain tissue was reduced from 10 to 1 Hz. In vitro experiments showed that the 1-Hz protocol did not negatively affect sensor responsivity or selectivity. The reduced sampling rate was verified in vivo by directly monitoring dopamine fluctuations in intact brain tissue. The 1-Hz sampling rate reduces the quantity of data generated by an order of magnitude compared with the existing protocol, and with duty cycling is expected to decrease power consumption by a similar value in wireless systems. View full abstract»

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  • A Magnetic Leakage Flux-Based Approach for Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Machines

    Page(s): 2981 - 2988
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault diagnosis in electric machines can be accomplished by analyzing the anomalies in magnetic leakage flux. In order to achieve a desired performance from the leakage flux-based fault diagnosis approaches, an accurate monitoring system and a suitable algorithm are required. In this paper, a high precision Rogowski search coil is utilized for accurate monitoring of electric machine leakage flux. In addition, a simple fault diagnosis technique based on harmonic content of the measured signal is suggested. Performance of the technique is evaluated by some experiment tests. View full abstract»

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  • Data Compression for Image Sensor Arrays Using a 15-bit Two-Step Sigma–Delta ADC

    Page(s): 2989 - 2998
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a readout integrated circuit with embedded data compression function for image sensors. Data compression is realized by adding a comparator in a two-step incremental sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a fully floating double sampling integrator. The output difference between two adjacent pixels is compared with a predefined threshold using the comparator to detect redundant pixels. Once the difference is smaller than the threshold, indicating a redundant pixel, the AD conversion is omitted and the redundant information is stored using a Boolean variable. Thus, the conversion speed can be improved and the storage space is saved. An ADC test vehicle with an (8 times 8) array has been fabricated using 0.5-(mu ) m CMOS technology. Measurement results show that the frame rate of the image sensor is 10%-236% faster than conventional ADC, and data compression ratios between 1 and 5 are achieved for images with different redundancy. The advantages of this on-chip image compression are the embedded and simple circuits, considerable speed and storage space improvement, and low power consumption. The preliminary results have demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed compression method. View full abstract»

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  • A Phantom Sensory Framework for Enhancing Remote-Perception in Tele-Operated Systems

    Page(s): 2999 - 3007
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Operator of man-in-loop type remote operated slave robotic systems, need to perceive remote work environment through innovative sensing, particularly when slave is in close vicinity of objects. Real-time rendering of multiple types of perceivable effects in such state has been devised by employing innovative sensory techniques. A phantom that maintains self-state synchronized with the tele-operated robot's dynamic state has been devised to host the sensors in modeled workspace. The hosted sensor is presented same spatial state as faced by the slave robot in real time and senses vicinity using innovative activation of phantom's work environment. Work details sensor forming methods, sensor function, and the process of phantom-environment formation. The sensor responds to vicinity in several ways. Modalities of rendering the sensed effects too have been delved in. View full abstract»

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  • High-Throughput Immunomagnetic Cell Detection Using a Microaperture Chip System

    Page(s): 3008 - 3013
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a microchip system based on a combination of immunomagnetic separation, microfluidics, and size-based filtration for high-throughput detection of rare cells. In this system, target cells bind to magnetic beads in vitro and flow parallel to a microchip with flow rates of milliliters/minute. A magnetic field draws the bead-bound cells toward the microchip, which contains apertures that allow passage of unbound beads while trapping the target cells. The cells captured on the chip can be investigated clearly under a microscope and released from the chip for further analysis. We first characterize the system by detecting cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and A549) in culture media. We then demonstrate detection of 100 MCF-7 cells spiked in 7.5 mL of human blood to simulate detection of circulating tumor cells present in cancer patient blood samples. On average, 85% of the spiked cells were detected. We expect this system to be highly useful in a wide variety of clinical as well as other applications that seek rare cells. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonically Sprayed Nanostructured Perovskite-Type CdSnO3 Thin Films for Sensing of CWA Simulants

    Page(s): 3014 - 3020
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    CdSnO3 thin films were prepared using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, microstructural, and optical properties of the films were studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy, respectively. The sensing performance of a typical film was tested for chemical warfare agent simulants, such as, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide C4H9ClS CEES (CEES), dimethyl methyl phosphonate C3H9O3P (DMMP), and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide C8H9ClS (CEPS). The simulant sensing performance of CdSnO3 thin-film-based sensor was tested. CdSnO3 thin-film-based sensor was observed to be more sensitive to CEES as compared with DMMP and CEPS. The results were discussed and interpreted. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a New Energy-Based Sensor Selection Method for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Page(s): 3021 - 3032
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spectrum sensing is essential to identify the presence of primary users (PUs) in cognitive radio networks. Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) obtained from the diversity of different sensors improves the reliability of decisions made about the presence of PU. Although CSS offers significant advantages, it may introduce some shortcomings including the energy consumption and overhead in the sensing phase. Also, due to the limited life span of batteries, the energy consumption process for performing CSS should be balanced among sensors so that some sensors do not encounter rapid battery drain. Therefore, the management of sensors for the participation in CSS is of great importance. In this paper, a new energy-based sensor selection algorithm is proposed to provide approximately the same lifetimes for sensors via the appropriate design of CSS. Furthermore, a mathematical model is proposed to analyze the process of energy consumption for sensors. The system model we consider in this paper focuses on different sensors consuming various amounts of energy for CSS. The analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves approximate fairness among sensors in terms of lifetime. In addition, comparison between the proposed algorithm and the existing algorithms reveals that our proposed algorithm can balance the process of energy consumption among sensors and significantly increase the average number of live sensors before the network lifetime finishes. View full abstract»

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  • A Modified Technique of Flow Transducer Using Bourdon Tube as Primary Sensing Element

    Page(s): 3033 - 3039
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The pressure head at a point inside a flowing fluid through a pipeline decreases with the increase of flow rate according to Bernoulli's equation. The measurement of flow rate by measuring this pressure is not generally used since decrease of pressure is very small compared with static pressure at no flow. In this paper, a modified differential inductance-type technique has been developed to measure the flow rate of a fluid by measuring only this change in pressure without using any obstruction in the pipeline. A differential inductance-type pressure transducer using two identical Bourdon tubes as the primary sensing elements, has been designed and developed to measure the small decrease of pressure due to flow of fluid in a horizontal pipeline. The transducer has been used to measure the flow rate of tap water through a pipeline. The basic theoretical equations describing the operation of the transducer have been derived. The transducer has been experimentally tested and the experimental results are reported in this paper. The experimental characteristic is found to follow the theoretical equations with good repeatability. View full abstract»

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  • A Layered 3D Touch Screen Using Capacitance Measurement

    Page(s): 3040 - 3045
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    In this paper, we develop a layered 3D touch screen using capacitance measurement to detect an object both before and after contact for operation of a 3D image on the display. The proposed 3D touch screen employs layered parallel and plane-type capacitance sensors. The 3D touch screen can detect indentations and the precise position of an object and can identify the material in contact with it. In addition, it can detect the object and its position during noncontact (proximity range). Thus, the proposed 3D touch screen detects objects in the 3D range. In this paper, the proposed 3D touch screen is set on a display and detects objects and their positions before and after contact. The proposed 3D touch screen has the potential to be used as functional and useful interface. View full abstract»

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  • Beyond the Stop-and-Go Assumption in Pulse-Doppler Radar Sensors

    Page(s): 3046 - 3051
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (966 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Coherent radars have multiple applications; among them, they can obtain images of targets. Unfortunately, the image quality can be seriously compromised for highly maneuvering targets, since the commonly adopted stop-and-go assumption is no longer valid for them. An approximated conventional explicit model for the signal delay, being proportional to the time-dependent target range, is usually employed to evaluate the violation of the stop-and-go simplification in these scenarios. Nevertheless, even this model can lead to radar-based measurement inaccuracies for extreme situations; for example, those involving very fast relative dynamics between the platform and target or for radars exploiting long-time-pulse waveforms. In this paper, an implicit function is proposed as the exact model for the radar echo time delay. Solutions for the conventional and exact models in the case of first- and second-order range polynomials are provided, and pertinent comparisons between them are accomplished. The main conclusion of this paper is that the conventional model is generally a good approximation to the exact solutions, but there may be extreme cases for which it does not give insight into the real appearing effects. Thus, the application of the exact model for the derivation of the radar round-trip delay could enable the conception of advanced radar-sensor algorithms, which improve the image quality for highly maneuvering targets. Simulated results of 1-D range profiles for a linear frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar example are also presented for verification of the expounded analytical equations. View full abstract»

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  • Superior Path Planning Mechanism for Mobile Beacon-Assisted Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 3052 - 3064
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3027 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In many wireless sensor network applications, such as warning systems or healthcare services, it is necessary to update the captured data with location information. A promising solution for statically deployed sensors is to benefit from mobile beacon-assisted localization. The main challenge is to design and develop an optimum path planning mechanism for a mobile beacon to decrease the required time for determining location, increase the accuracy of the estimated position, and increase the coverage. In this paper, we propose a novel superior path planning mechanism called Z-curve. Our proposed trajectory can successfully localize all deployed sensors with high precision and the shortest required time for localization. We also introduce critical metrics, including the ineffective position rate for further evaluation of mobile beacon trajectories. In addition, we consider an accurate and reliable channel model, which helps to provide more realistic evaluation. Z-curve is compared with five existing path planning schemes based on three different localization techniques such as weighted centroid localization and trilateration with time priority and accuracy priority. Furthermore, the performance of the Z-curve is evaluated at the presence of obstacles and Z-curve obstacle-handling trajectory is proposed to mitigate the obstacle problem on localization. Simulation results show the advantages of our proposed path planning scheme over the existing schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Game Theoretic Energy Efficiency Design in MC-CDMA Cooperative Networks

    Page(s): 3065 - 3075
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The energy efficiency (EE) maximization on the uplink of multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) cooperative wireless networks is a NP-hard optimization problem of great interest for future networks systems. This paper presents two different noncoalitional game theoretic approaches to solve in a distributed fashion the EE maximization problem that arises in MC-CDMA wireless cooperative networks considering receiver multiuser filter design. A study over the quasi-concavity of the utility function is presented while numerical results and a complexity analysis are offered to corroborate the mathematical model and observe the tradeoff between EE, spectral efficiency, and average transmission power. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.