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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 70
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2397 - 2400
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2401 - 2404
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  • Guest Editorial Special Issue on Antenna Design and Integration in Smart Sensors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2405
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  • Printed Antennas for Sensor Applications: A Review

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2406 - 2418
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the expansion in number and requirements of modern wireless communications, the technology related to their associated antennas has been continuously improved. Among other options, printed antennas offer excellent features, such as low weight, profile, and cost, while maintaining good performance characteristics. In addition, their straightforward integration with electronics has opened new fields of application such as smart sensing systems. Printed antennas can be used in different parts of a wireless smart sensor as a radio link, sensing element, or even as energy harvester. In this paper, we present a thorough review of recent advances of printed antennas as regards their use in smart sensing applications. View full abstract»

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  • RFID-Based Sensors for Zero-Power Autonomous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2419 - 2431
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has enabled a new class of low cost, wireless zero-power sensors, which open up applications in highly pervasive and distributed RFID-enabled sensing, which were previously not feasible with wired or battery powered wireless sensor nodes. This paper provides a review of RFID sensing techniques utilizing chip-based and chipless RFID principles, and presents a variety of implementations of RFID-based sensors, which can be used to detect strain, temperature, water quality, touch, and gas. View full abstract»

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  • Sub-THz Sensor Array With Embedded Signal Processing in 90 nm CMOS Technology

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2432 - 2441
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3612 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The architecture and the operation of a sub-THz sensor array are presented, which have been implemented in standard 90 nm CMOS technology. The integrated sensor array is arranged around of 12 silicon field effect plasma wave detectors with integrated planar antennas. The received signals are further processed by pre-amplifiers, analog to digital converters, and a time shared digital domain lock-in amplifier. The system automatically locks to external modulation and provides standard digital streaming output. Instead of building a uniform array, seven different antenna types with various polarization properties (horizontal and vertical linear; left and right handed circular polarization) and spectral responsivity have been integrated. The sensors altogether provide broadband response from 0.25 to 0.75 THz. The peak amplified responsivity of the sensors is 185 kV/W at 365 GHz and at the detectivity maximum, the noise equivalent power (NEP) is near to 40 pW/√Hz. Under nonzero drain current, the peak sensitivity rises above 1.2 MV/W with a moderate NEP ~ 200 pW/ Hz at 50 nA source-drain current. Application example is provided as a multi-wavelength transmission imaging case study. View full abstract»

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  • Leveraging Depolarization to Increase the Link Reliability for Wireless Sensors Operating in Hyper-Rayleigh Environments

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2442 - 2446
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1993 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless communications within enclosed environments such as aircraft and vehicles have been shown to experience fading with statistics that are worse than Rayleigh. Motivated by low-cost, low-complexity systems (e.g., wireless sensors) that may be deployed in such environments; this paper explores the benefits of polarization diversity using very large data sets collected over a small area and over the 5-6 GHz band. The results also demonstrate that antennas capable of capturing depolarized signal components can significantly mitigate the harshest of fading environments. View full abstract»

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  • A Wearable Wrap-Around Sensor for Monitoring Deep Tissue Electric Properties

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2447 - 2451
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1145 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wearable wrap-around sensor is proposed for continuous measurement of the permittivity of biological tissues deep into the torso (specifically, lung, and heart). The sensor is composed of multiple electrodes (antennas), excited at a single low frequency. A postprocessing technique is applied to the scattering data received by the electrodes to extract the permittivity of the tissues. The extraction process, which suppresses interferences from skin, fat, muscle, and bone layers is important especially with the fact that electrical properties may deviate from one person to another. In addition, the physical layout of the sensor provides the means to excite specific segments in a manner that localizes the extracted dielectric constant. This capability can allow for rudimentary localized imaging of the torso's cross section and different regions of the body using a low-cost portable sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Quality Factor Optimization of Inductive Antennas for Implantable Pressure Sensors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2452 - 2460
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2073 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inductive antenna design for passive wireless implantable use presents several challenges not currently addressed. A small form factor is desired for minimally invasive implantation and monitoring, and a low frequency is necessary for effective through-body power transfer. However, a small inductor limits sensitivity to changes in capacitance at low-frequency operation. It is thus necessary to optimize the inductor for maximal sensitivity while satisfying tight area and low frequency constraints. Here, a design methodology is presented for planar circular spiral inductors used with capacitive pressure sensors to form a passive wireless implantable pressure sensor. Several analytical expressions are collected to find the optimal geometric parameters that maximize the quality factor and sensitivity of the sensor frequency response. The analysis is validated through comparison with field solvers and wireless measurements of fabricated devices. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave MEMS Antenna Sensor Characterization and Target Detection Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2461 - 2468
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates microwave antenna sensors fabricated on a silicon micro electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) platform. The antennas are designed to operate between 10-16 GHz with 41% bandwidth and 50 Ω input impedance. Each antenna sensor is comprised of two planar metallic four point leaves in horizontal and vertical directions providing dual linear polarization. The design is simulated using the Ansoft high frequency structure simulator. The antennas are fed using coplanar waveguide routed on top of 100 μm width silicon hinges. The fabricated MEMS platform show maximum rotation of 9.14° (total range of 18.28°) around two axes using four torsion hinges. The results highlight the limitation of silicon as hinge material when larger angles are desired. The antenna sensors demonstrate good detection of targets using measured scattered data and the artificial neural networks technique. View full abstract»

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  • Nonuniform Frequency Diverse Array for Range-Angle Imaging of Targets

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2469 - 2476
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although phased-array antennas are widely used in communication, radar, and navigation systems, its beampattern is a function of angle only and thus there is no range information. To circumvent this limitation, we design a frequency diverse array (FDA) antenna system for range-angle imaging of targets. Our approach exploits the nonuniform FDA as the transmitter to provide range-dependent beampattern and the uniform phased-array as the receiver which results in angle-dependent beampattern. Range-angle imaging of targets is achieved from the cooperative transmit-receive beamforming. The imaging performance measures including spatial resolution and system processing gain are analyzed. In addition, several design specifications are discussed. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Planar Differential Antenna Design and Integration With Pulse Radar Microchip Sensor

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2477 - 2487
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports the design and integration of a novel planar antenna on FR4 substrate with a system-on-a-chip ultra wideband pulse radar in 90-nm CMOS technology packaged in a 32 pin quad flat no-lead package, allowing the implementation of a short-range pulse radar sensor for biomedical applications. Functional tests have shown that the pulse radar sensor detects three targets with different areas (26 × 26, 13 × 26, and 13 × 13 cm2) for front-back movements up to 2 cm around a distance of 70 cm. Field operational tests show that the radar sensor allows the contactless detection of the respiratory rate of the persons under test, be they adult (both genders) and infant, for sub-centimeter chest movements up to a distance of 45 cm from the radar sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous High-Speed High-Resolution Nanomechanical Mass Sensing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2488 - 2489
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mass sensing has so far rather developed along the resolution axis, reaching atomic-scale detection, than into the direction of high speed. This letter reports on a novel self-calibrating technique that makes high-speed inertial mass sensors capable of instant high-resolution detection and weighing. The sensing nanoelectromechanical resonator is embedded into a phase-locked loop and the sensor-inherent nonlinear phase-frequency relation is exploited for autocalibration. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of Tactile Sensing for Palpation in Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Review

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2490 - 2501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) made it possible to perform a number of medical manipulations with reduced patient trauma and better accuracy. Various devices, including tactile sensors, have been developed in recent years to enhance the quality of this procedure. The objective of this paper is to review the latest advancements and challenges in the development of tactile sensing devices designed for surgical applications. In particular, the focus is on palpation and probing devices that can be potentially used in RMIS. In addition, we explore the aspects that should be taken into account when designing tactile sensors for RMIS, incorporating biological inspiration of tactile sensing, features of manual palpation, requirements of RMIS. We provide an overview of recommendations for the development of tactile sensing devices, especially in the context of RMIS. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple Wideband Acoustic Source Tracking in 3-D Space Using a Distributed Acoustic Vector Sensor Array

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2502 - 2513
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1626 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the problem of tracking multiple acoustic sources in 3-D space using a distributed acoustic vector sensor array. Unlike the existing two-stage localization approach, which estimates the direction of arrival of the source at each sensor first and then triangulate a 3-D position, a particle filtering approach is developed to directly fuse the signals collected from distributed sensors. To enhance the tracking performance and constrain the computational complexity, an information filter is developed to approximate the optimal importance sampling. Since the position state of the source is linear with the velocity state, a Rao-Blackwellization step is employed to marginalize out the velocity component. In addition, the posterior Cramér-Rao bound is developed to provide a lower performance bound for the distributed tracking system. Both the numerical study and simulations show that the proposed tracking approach significantly outperforms the two-stage localization approaches for 3-D position estimation. View full abstract»

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  • Reliable Cooperative Communications Based on Random Network Coding in Multi-Hop Relay WSNs

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2514 - 2523
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reliability is an important issue when designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs), since the WSNs need to work for a long time without manual interventions. Many techniques, such as multiple input multiple output systems and low density parity check codes, have been devised to improve the reliability of computer networks and wireless networks. However, these techniques are too complicated to apply in the WSNs due to the extremely limited resources of the wireless sensor nodes. Hence, it is a hot research topic to design a reliable scheme with low complexity in the WSNs. In recent years, there are a few schemes proposed to improve transmission reliability in the WSNs, such as multipath routing and cooperative transmission. In this paper, a network coding-based cooperative communications scheme (NCCC) is proposed. Combining the advantages of both cooperative communications and network coding, the NCCC can improve the packet loss-resistant capability through network coding and the communications fail-resistant capability through cooperative communications. In the NCCC, coding vectors in network coding procedure are chosen from a finite field randomly, which makes the NCCC easy to be implemented in the resource-limited sensor nodes. Theoretical analyses and experimental results show that the NCCC can achieve a good reliability performance at the cost of neglectable delay. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature Based on Modal Interference

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2524 - 2528
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (757 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple optical fiber sensor configuration for simultaneous measurement of refractive index (RI) and temperature based on modal interference is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing configuration is formed by splicing two multimode fibers among three single mode fibers. Due to the different sensitivity responses of the two wavelength transmission dips formed by the cladding modes interfering with the core mode, it is possible to measure the RI and temperature by monitoring the wavelength shifts of the two transmission dips. The experimental results indicate that the sensing sensitivities of RI and temperature are -37.9322 nm/RIU and 0.0522 nm/°C within the RI range from 1.3105 to 1.3517 and the temperature range from 25°C to 85°C, respectively. The proposed sensor configuration features the advantages of easy to fabricate, robust, cost effective, and high sensitivity, making it exhibit potential applications in physical, biological, and chemical sensing. View full abstract»

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  • Electrochemical Determination of Paracetamol by a Novel Derivative of Formazan Modified Pencil Graphite Electrode

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2529 - 2536
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1439 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A modified electrode, based on electrodeposition of 5,5'-(oxybis(4,1-phenylene))bis(3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1phenylformazan (BF) onto pencil graphite (PG) electrode, was investigated for the determination of paracetamol in this paper. BF was synthesized for the first time in this paper and used for the modification of PG electrode. The electrochemical performance of the modified (BF/PG) electrodes was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry at phosphate buffer solution. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the BF/PG was investigated and optimized. Two linear regions were observed. The first region demonstrates linearity over a concentration range of 0.05-1 μM with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.996. The slope of the second linear region was smaller than the first region's slope with a wide concentration range of 1-100 μM (R2 = 0.976). The detection limit of paracetamol is 2.4×10-9M (S/N = 3). The proposed low cost BF/PG electrode, showed a stable and reproducible response without any influence of interferents commonly existing in pharmaceutical samples. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a CMOS Monolithic Digitized Light Detector With Noise Insensitivity for Light Monitoring Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2537 - 2545
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2295 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a CMOS monolithic digitized light detector with noise insensitivity for light monitoring applications is newly proposed. The proposed chip is attractive due to the fact that analog processing circuits and light sensor are integrated robustly and compactly. The output signal of the proposed chip is a pulse stream, it could be easily sent over a wide range of transmission media, such as package switch networks, radio, optical, infrared, ultrasonic, and so forth. Unlike previous works, the proposed chip is suitable for processing at a varied light range and also insensitivity to light noise for light monitoring applications. The light range is 15.5 to 2650 lux. All the functions and performance of the proposed monolithic digitized light detector are successfully tested and proven through measurements and confirmed it to be applied on the car-backing monitoring applications. The chip area is 1.998 × 1.616 mm2. The proposed chip is suitable for light monitoring devices, such as wireless sensor network devices. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Digitized Vibration Detector Implemented by CMOS Digitized Capacitive Transducer With In-Plane SoI Accelerometer

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2546 - 2556
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a digitized vibration detector implemented by CMOS digitized capacitive transducer with in-plane silicon-on-insulator (SoI) accelerometer is newly proposed. The proposed digitized vibration detector is attractive due to the fact that all the circuits and the sensor can be robustly and compactly combined together. A total solution including the continuous-time-voltage (CTV) analog sensing circuits and digitalized interface are proposed in this paper. Based upon 0.35-μm 2P4M CMOS technology with 3 V power supply, all the functions and performance of the proposed CMOS digitized capacitive transducer are successfully tested and proven through measurements and confirmed it to be applied on the in-plane SoI accelerometer. The sensitivity of the proposed CTV analog sensing circuits is 50.488 mV/g and maximum nonlinearity is 2.5% over the excitation of 0.25-5.75-g intensity. The peak signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio of the proposed digitized vibration detector is 67.6 dB under excitation of 3.25-g intensity. The proposed digitized vibration detector is suitable for digitized accelerometer applications, such as automobiles, consumer electronics, Wii game player, and so on. View full abstract»

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  • Energy Efficient Environment Monitoring System Based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard for Low Cost Requirements

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2557 - 2566
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power consumption, portability, and system cost are important parameters in designing pervasive measurement systems. With these parameters in mind, wireless environment monitoring system with a capability to monitor greenhouse gases, such as CO, CO2, SOx, NOx, O2 with environmental parameter is developed. In order to achieve the target design goals, the communication module, the wireless smart transducer interface module, and wireless network capable application processor module were developed based on the IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE 1451.2, and IEEE 1451.1 standards, respectively. The low cost and energy efficient gas sensing modules were successfully developed with improved tolerance to EMF/RFI noise. We defined recalibration of the system at time intervals to ensure that the desired accuracy is maintained. This paper presents the undertaken design detailing solutions to issues raised in previous research. View full abstract»

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  • Multipoint Liquid Detection Sensor Based on the V-Grooved Single-Mode Optical Fiber

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2567 - 2570
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A V-grooved single-mode optical fiber is proposed as a multipoint liquid detection sensor, and its feasibility is demonstrated using optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). The optical mode is affected by an external medium covering the V-grooved region due to the exposed fiber core. As a result, it is possible to detect the leakage of liquid and position of events through monitoring the transmission and reflection signal of OTDR. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Fiber Optic Sensor System for Measuring the Strain, Temperature, and Thermal Strain of Composite Materials

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2571 - 2578
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1178 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a hybrid optical fiber sensor system for simultaneously sensing the strain, temperature, and thermal strain of composite materials. The hybrid fiber optic sensor system involves a combination of three sensors: 1) a polarimetric sensor based on an acrylate coated polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF); 2) a coating stripped PM-PCF sensor; and 3) a fiber Bragg grating sensor (FBG). Temperature is sensed using the FBG sensor, axial strain is sensed using the acrylate coated PM-PCF sensor, and thermal strain is sensed using the coating stripped PM-PCF. The hybrid sensor system presented operates in the intensity domain by converting the polarization and wavelength information from the polarimetric sensors and the FBG, respectively, into detectable linear intensity variations. Subsequently, by deriving a characteristic matrix for the hybrid sensors, information about temperature, axial strain, and thermal strain can be simultaneously determined. An experimental demonstration of the hybrid sensor system is described based on a glass fiber reinforced composite material sample within which the three different sensors are embedded. The proposed sensor configuration can be employed in composite material structural health monitoring applications. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.