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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 68
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 976
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEC 61850 Model Expansion Toward Distributed Fault Localization, Isolation, and Supply Restoration

    Page(s): 977 - 984
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a smart-grid environment, more intelligent, distributed control devices will be deployed in the distribution network to significantly enhance reliability and flexibility. Distributed fault localization, isolation, and supply restoration (FLISR) are examples of such important applications. These devices need a standard model to share information with each other and support interoperability of intelligent electronic devices from different manufacturers. IEC 61850 has been developed as a series of standards to facilitate interoperability of substation automation systems (SAS). Earlier efforts focus on the application of IEC 61850 to a distributed FLISR system. However, the difference between SAS and FLISR has not been addressed. In this paper, an IEC 61850 model expansion toward a distributed FLISR system is proposed based on the requirement analysis of a variety of distributed FLISR modes. Moreover, a typical breaker-level switch-mode FLISR algorithm is studied as an example to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed model. The correctness and security of the proposed model and algorithm are verified by the model checker and tested in an intelligent distribution simulation system. View full abstract»

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  • Mathematical Model of a Gas Discharge Arrester Based on Physical Parameters

    Page(s): 985 - 992
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    This paper deals with a mathematical model of a gas discharge arrester, developed within the Matlab/Simulink program environment on the basis of physical and mathematical parameters. The model includes important physical phenomena regarding a gas discharge arrester, such as its overvoltage causing triggering, discharge processes, electric arc, and a possible repeated dielectric breakdown in gas due to the heat released from the arc to the gas. This paper includes computations for the operating conditions of a gas discharge arrester connected to an ac circuit. The computing results are compared with those measurements of electrical quantities performed on a gas discharge arrester. View full abstract»

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  • Cascaded Two-Level Inverter-Based Multilevel STATCOM for High-Power Applications

    Page(s): 993 - 1001
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1766 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a simple static var compensating scheme using a cascaded two-level inverter-based multilevel inverter is proposed. The topology consists of two standard two-level inverters connected in cascade through open-end windings of a three-phase transformer. The dc-link voltages of the inverters are regulated at different levels to obtain four-level operation. The simulation study is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK to predict the performance of the proposed scheme under balanced and unbalanced supply-voltage conditions. A laboratory prototype is developed to validate the simulation results. The control scheme is implemented using the TMS320F28335 digital signal processor. Further, stability behavior of the topology is investigated. The dynamic model is developed and transfer functions are derived. The system behavior is analyzed for various operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive PI Control of STATCOM for Voltage Regulation

    Page(s): 1002 - 1011
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    STATCOM can provide fast and efficient reactive power support to maintain power system voltage stability. In the literature, various STATCOM control methods have been discussed including many applications of proportional-integral (PI) controllers. However, these previous works obtain the PI gains via a trial-and-error approach or extensive studies with a tradeoff of performance and applicability. Hence, control parameters for the optimal performance at a given operating point may not be effective at a different operating point. This paper proposes a new control model based on adaptive PI control, which can self-adjust the control gains during a disturbance such that the performance always matches a desired response, regardless of the change of operating condition. Since the adjustment is autonomous, this gives the plug-and-play capability for STATCOM operation. In the simulation test, the adaptive PI control shows consistent excellence under various operating conditions, such as different initial control gains, different load levels, change of transmission network, consecutive disturbances, and a severe disturbance. In contrast, the conventional STATCOM control with tuned, fixed PI gains usually perform fine in the original system, but may not perform as efficient as the proposed control method when there is a change of system conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Rule-Based Charging of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs): Impacts on the Aging Rate of Low-Voltage Transformers

    Page(s): 1012 - 1019
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    Massive deployment of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the coming years will create more challenges for the power system including the aging rate of transformers. It will be an essential requirement to propose solutions to minimize the impacts related to the integration of PEVs. Special attention must be given to the residential electric grid where charging will mostly take place. In this paper, first we propose a rule-based (RB) algorithm which determines the minimum charging power levels of home-charged PEVs with/without a charging ban during peak hours. Second, we evaluate the consequences of supplying an RB algorithm on life duration of a low-voltage transformer supplying a residential area. View full abstract»

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  • New Measures of Power-Grid Voltage Variation

    Page(s): 1020 - 1027
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new method of power-grid signal variation measurement, consisting of a demodulation algorithm and a set of measures (indices). The measures that will be presented are the abstract functionals, operating on the complex envelope of a signal. This paper presents a demodulation algorithm, definitions of proposed functionals, results of simulations, as well as laboratory experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Field Test and Theoretical Analysis of Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation Velocity on Crossbonded Cable Systems

    Page(s): 1028 - 1035
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    In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on a three-phase cable system, consisting of three single core (SC) cables in flat formation with an earth continuity conductor is under study. The propagation velocity is an important parameter for most travelling wave off- and online fault location methods and needs to be exactly known for optimal performance of these algorithm types. Field measurements are carried out on a 6.9 km and a 31.4 km 245 kV crossbonded cable system, and the results are analysed using the modal decomposition theory. Several ways for determining the propagation velocities for the coaxial and intersheath modes velocities are presented using both single- and synchronized double ended measuring methods. The accuracy of the different methods is evaluated and the results are compared to simulations and theoretical calculated values. Good agreement is found between the different proposed methods and theoretical values. The deviations are explained and a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the most important parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Operation of Long Inhomogeneous AC Cable Lines: The Malta–Sicily Interconnector

    Page(s): 1036 - 1044
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1619 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach to optimal exploitation and reactive power control of long inhomogeneous high-voltage ac cable lines, such as submarine interconnectors including significant land cable stretches. Voltage and reactive power profiles are discussed, highlighting the requirements for full exploitation of power transmission capacity, and giving formulae for optimal voltage control. Capability curves for the lossy inhomogeneous cable line are discussed; this paper also proposes a simple algorithm for controlling the reactive power flow at one end of the line independently from active power, using variable shunt reactors and tap-changing transformers. The application of the presented treatment to a real inhomogeneous line, that is, the 118-km-long 245-kV-50-Hz Malta-Sicily interconnector currently under construction, yields maximum power and optimal voltage drop values in close agreement with detailed simulation results. Power-flow simulations also confirm the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power control algorithm. Finally, total transmission losses associated with the proposed optimal voltage control are evaluated and shown to be competitive with those of state-of-the-art HVDC-VSC systems. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel Massive-Thread Electromagnetic Transient Simulation on GPU

    Page(s): 1045 - 1053
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2185 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation of a large-scale power system consumes so much computational power that parallel programming techniques are urgently needed in this area. For example, realistic-sized power systems include thousands of buses, generators, and transmission lines. Massive-thread computing is one of the key developments that can increase the EMT computational capabilities substantially when the processing unit has enough hardware cores. Compared to the traditional CPU, the graphic-processing unit (GPU) has many more cores with distributed memory which can offer higher data throughput. This paper proposes a massive-thread EMT program (MT-EMTP) and develops massive-thread parallel modules for linear passive elements, the universal line model, and the universal machine model for offline EMT simulation. An efficient node-mapping structure is proposed to transform the original power system admittance matrix into a block-node diagonal sparse format to exploit the massive-thread parallel GPU architecture. The developed MT-EMTP program has been tested on large-scale power systems of up to 2458 three-phase buses with detailed component modeling. The simulation results and execution times are compared with mainstream commercial software, EMTP-RV, to show the improvement in performance with equivalent accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Induced Voltage of Overhead Ground Wires in 50 0-kV Single-Circuit Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 1054 - 1062
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    General grounding method of overhead ground wires adopted in Chinese 500-kV transmission lines is usually optical fiber composite ground wire (OPGW) grounded at each tower while common ground wire (CGW) insulated with one point grounded. Energy loss of OPGW and high induced voltage of CGW is a problem to be concerned as to its values and control methods. Both field measurement and ATP-EMTP simulation of induced current and induced voltage of overhead ground wires in a 500-kV single-circuit transmission line are carried out in this paper. Quantitative data of induced current and energy loss show the urgent necessity to reduce the energy loss and change the grounding method of overhead ground wires. A no-loss method for ground wires is proposed by comparing advantages and disadvantages of three grounding methods of overhead ground wires, where both OPGW and CGW are insulated with one point grounded. Induced voltage is calculated in different transposition pitch and segment length of ground wires with grounding position at the end of the line or at the midpoint of transposition pitch and segment. It shows that induced voltage of ground wires grounded at the midpoint of transposition pitch and segment is half of which grounded at the end. Moreover, induced voltage of overhead ground wires can be reduced to 500 V or other limited values by choosing a reasonable transposition pitch and grounding position. View full abstract»

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  • Shifting Window Average Method for Phasor Measurement at Offnominal Frequencies

    Page(s): 1063 - 1073
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A shifting window average method (SWAM) is proposed for phasor measurement at offnominal frequencies. The proposed SWAM is not only applicable for fundamental frequency phasor measurement, but also for harmonic phasor measurement as well. SWAM is based on a mathematical analysis of the errors induced in the commonly used DFT method at offnominal frequency inputs. First, a comprehensive derivation of magnitude and phase-angle measurement errors of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is proposed. It is indicated that the errors are caused by modulations between different exponential components in the signal, and can be modeled by quasisinusoids with frequencies equal to the frequency differences between modulated components. SWAM is then introduced to eliminate the errors by examining the analytic form of the errors. Simulation tests have been performed on several benchmark signals. Simulation cases have validated that SWAM achieves higher accuracy compared with the DFT-based method and the three-sample average filter method. Experimental tests were also performed to validate the accuracy of the proposed method. Due to its high accuracy and reasonably low processing effort, SWAM is a valuable candidate for online phasor measurement in power systems. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Parameter Identification Method for Single-Phase Transformers by Using Real-Time Data

    Page(s): 1074 - 1082
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Equivalent circuit parameters of transformers are related to the condition of their windings. Information concerning winding deformations, failures, and temperature can be acquired by monitoring these parameters. Methods used for the determination of electrical parameters generally require disconnection of the transformer from the power system. In this paper, a novel method which uses real-time data of the transformer to determine its parameters is presented. Therefore, this method eliminates the need for the disconnection of the transformer from the power system. In the method, winding parameters are obtained by applying the differential equation algorithm to the fundamental frequency components of transformer data. Fundamental frequency components of the currents and voltages are computed by using the discrete cosine transform. Transformer core parameters are also computed via core losses and the polynomial curve-fitting method with the least squares error method. The proposed method has been tested and validated by simulations and experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Criticality Analysis of Failure to Communicate in Automated Fault-Management Schemes

    Page(s): 1083 - 1091
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1380 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effectiveness of various functions in a smart distribution grid relies on a reliable communication system. These functions are normally developed based on specific automation schemes. The majority of automated fault-management schemes (AFMSs) requires a dependable communication system to accomplish their intended functions. In a smart distribution grid, the AFMSs are responsible for automatic fault detection, location, isolation, and service restoration activities. Failure to communicate among various communicating devices involved in the AFMS may have a considerable impact on the reliability of electricity service delivered to the customers. This paper aims to quantitatively evaluate the reliability impact of failure to communicate in the AFMS. A highly loaded urban distribution network equipped with AFMS is utilized for directing the quantitative reliability case studies. The study results show that the service reliability can be significantly affected if the communication system fails to operate successfully. View full abstract»

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  • Multiattribute SCADA-Specific Intrusion Detection System for Power Networks

    Page(s): 1092 - 1102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The increased interconnectivity and complexity of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems in power system networks has exposed the systems to a multitude of potential vulnerabilities. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a next-generation SCADA-specific intrusion detection system (IDS). The proposed system analyzes multiple attributes in order to provide a comprehensive solution that is able to mitigate varied cyber-attack threats. The multiattribute IDS comprises a heterogeneous white list and behavior-based concept in order to make SCADA cybersystems more secure. This paper also proposes a multilayer cyber-security framework based on IDS for protecting SCADA cybersecurity in smart grids without compromising the availability of normal data. In addition, this paper presents a SCADA-specific cybersecurity testbed to investigate simulated attacks, which has been used in this paper to validate the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Blind Equalization for Power-Line Communications Using Chaos

    Page(s): 1103 - 1110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the use of chaos in power-line communication (PLC) with blind equalization of the multipath effects is considered. After investigating equalization methods for chaotic signals, we propose an minimum phase-space volume-extended Kalman filter (EKF) equalization method to fulfill the practical requirements. First, an EKF-based method is used to replace the inverse filter to overcome the channel noise. Second, a nearest neighbor search method and a fast system identification method are used to reduce the computational complexity. Computer simulations are used to confirm the efficiency of the proposed method. Furthermore, real PLC channel experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. View full abstract»

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  • Soft Reclosing of an Industrial Power Network Using an Inverter-Controlled Energy-Storage System

    Page(s): 1111 - 1119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1954 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a process for using inverter-coupled local energy storage to support a part of the network in an industrial power system following a momentary outage, and then transfer the loads to the utility source in a transient-free manner. This process, called “Soft-Reclosing,” eliminates a number of problems and minimizes the losses encountered by industries due to power outages and momentary interruptions. Consequential damages, scrap losses, and motor-starting inrush currents that cause voltage dips in nearby load centers, and breaker reclosing transients are avoided through the use of this method. The soft-reclose process is accomplished by supplying the plant with a voltage/frequency ramp while the network operates in islanded mode, then reclosing the service-entrance breaker when the plant network is matched in phase and voltage to the utility grid. Voltage and frequency acceleration of the network are controlled by the inverter according to the characteristics of the connected loads. The method is tested with simulation using the power system network which is representative of a plastic/rubber manufacturing plant. The results show a significant reduction in current spikes, voltage dips, motor torque, speed, power factor fluctuations, and most important, process downtime compared to a conventional manual restart process. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Selection Algorithm of a Wavelet-Based Transformer Differential Current Features

    Page(s): 1120 - 1126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel selection algorithm of wavelet- based transformer differential current features is proposed. The minimum description length with entropy criteria are employed for an initial selection of the mother wavelet and the resolution level, respectively; whereas stepwise regression is applied for obtaining the most statistically significant features. Dimensionality reduction is accordingly achieved, with an acceptable accuracy maintained for classification. The validity of the proposed algorithm is tested through a neuro-wavelet- based classifier of transformer inrush and internal fault differential currents. The proposed algorithm highlights the potential of utilizing synergism of integrating multiple feature selection techniques as opposed to an individual technique, which ensures optimal selection of the features. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of Failures Within Transformers by FRA Using Multiresolution Decomposition

    Page(s): 1127 - 1137
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2883 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The detection of failures within power transformers is considered an important issue since these components are of critical importance for power system reliability; moreover, their replacement cost is extremely high. In monitoring the transformer condition along its useful life, frequency-response analysis (FRA) has gained great interest due to its sensitivity to failures in the windings and the iron core. These failures can be detected by evaluating transfer function changes by means of statistical and mathematical indices and classified according the frequency band in which these changes take place. However, this procedure involves evaluation inaccuracies due to disturbances or minor changes during FRA measurements. The new methodology is based on the decomposition of the original responses in several levels of decomposition (filtering) using the discrete wavelet transform, and the subsequent comparison using smooth versions of the responses. Fault detection is further supported with statistical indices calculated using the frequency band where abnormal differences appear. This procedure gives more robustness to the method and reduces the possible influence of disturbances during measurement in the diagnosis result. The methodology has been tested using different failure cases and two of them are used for validation purposes in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Estimation of Single-Phase Grid Voltage Parameters Under Distorted Conditions

    Page(s): 1138 - 1146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an accurate technique for the estimation of single-phase grid voltage fundamental amplitude and frequency. The technique consists of a quadrature signal generator (QSG) and a discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The frequency information required by the QSG based on a second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) is estimated using the spectral leakage property of the DFT. The presented DFT operation does not require real-time evaluation of trigonometric functions. The frequency estimation is less affected by the presence of harmonics when compared to similar techniques based on QSG-SOGI such as the phase-locked loop and the frequency-locked loop. Moreover, unlike these techniques, the DFT-based QSG-SOGI (DFT-SOGI) technique does not create any interdependent loops, thus increasing the overall stability and easing the tuning process. The effectiveness of the proposed technique has been validated on a real-time experimental setup. View full abstract»

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  • Overvoltages due to Synchronous Tripping of Plug-in Electric-Vehicle Chargers Following Voltage Dips

    Page(s): 1147 - 1156
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2052 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging equipment incorporates protection that ensures that grid disturbances do not damage the charger or vehicle. When the grid voltage sags below 80% of nominal, undervoltage protection is likely to disconnect the charging load from the grid. Most PEV charging will occur overnight, when non-PEV load is at a minimum. This paper argues that PEV voltage-sag response, when synchronized across large numbers of PEVs, could result in the loss of a significant proportion of the total load. It is shown that this load loss can lead to unacceptably high voltages once the initiating event has been cleared. This paper explores the nature of this voltage-rise phenomenon. Analysis tools are developed to assist in determining PEV loading conditions that demarcate acceptable postdisturbance voltage response from unacceptable outcomes. Two examples, based on standard distribution test systems, are used to illustrate PEV-induced overvoltage behavior, and demonstrate applications of the analysis tools. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • A Dynamic Master/Slave Reactive Power-Management Scheme for Smart Grids With Distributed Generation

    Page(s): 1157 - 1167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a novel coordinated voltage-control (CVC) scheme for distributed generations (DGs) that relies on adaptively changing the roles (master or slave) of the devices [inverter-based DG, diesel generator, and online tap changer (OLTC)] within the smart grid, depending on system conditions. In addition, the proposed scheme imposes different control response and bandwidth on the devices to coordinate the reactive power among distributed generations (DGs) and OLTC steps. The main objective of the proposed method is twofold: 1) to maximize the reactive power reserve of DGs and, hence, facilitate reaction during contingency situations and 2) to provide voltage regulation during normal operating conditions. The simulated distribution system includes inverter-based DGs (photovoltaic and wind turbine), diesel generator, and OLTC and the potential of the CVC scheme is evaluated and analyzed in view of improving voltage profile, maximizing the reactive power reserve, enhancing fault ride through and improving the transient stability margin. The control algorithm is examined under steady state, load excursion, and three-phase-to-ground fault conditions. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed CVC scheme to satisfy the targeted objectives with significant improvement in the maximum critical clearing time. The proposed scheme is independent of real-time measurements and is widely adaptive to the dynamics of power systems, thus making it quite suitable for utility implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of Aeolian Vibration on Transmission-Line Conductors Using a Nonlinear Time History Model—Part I: Damper Model

    Page(s): 1168 - 1175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Stockbridge dampers, which consist of a clamp, a messenger cable, and two attached masses, have been successfully used throughout the world for many decades to provide additional damping to transmission-line conductors and reduce aeolian vibration amplitudes. An alternative damper, the Hydro-Québec damper, has a rotational joint with elastomer cylinders to provide stiffness and damping. The objective of this study is to develop a nonlinear model for both types of dampers that predicts their dynamic response for all expected amplitudes and frequencies. These models are built from simple experimental characterization tests to identify stiffness and damping properties. As a validation of the models, the force and phase shift with respect to frequency are obtained numerically and compared successfully to experimental results. These models will be fixed to a conductor model in Part II to predict aeolian vibration amplitudes of damped spans. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of Aeolian Vibration on Transmission-Line Conductors Using a Nonlinear Time History Model—Part II: Conductor and Damper Model

    Page(s): 1176 - 1183
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Various numerical tools have been developed to predict the level of aeolian vibrations for a damped span of transmission-line conductors. In part I of this study, nonlinear time history models of two types of transmission-line dampers were developed. In this paper, a model for the complete conductor-damper system is presented. When combined with empirical equations for wind power input and conductor self-damping using the Energy Balance Principle, the direct integration time history model proposed allows the prediction of the vibration amplitudes expected on a damped span. The amplitudes predicted by the model compare well to experimental data sets available in the literature. Since the damper is modelled from its mechanical properties of geometry, mass, stiffness, and damping, the optimization of a conductor-damper system can be done easily with this model, without additional experimental tests. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811