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Display Technology, Journal of

Issue 7 • Date July 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • Journal of Display Technology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 521 - 522
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  • Low-Power Bi-Side Scan Driver Integrated by IZO TFTs Including a Clock-Controlled Inverter

    Page(s): 523 - 525
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a low power In-Zn-O thin-film transistors (IZO TFTs) scan driver including a clock-controlled inverter to avoid the direct current path compared with the conventional diode-connected inverter. The so-called bi-side scan driver is divided into two parts, laying on the two sides of panel to drive the odd lines and the even lines of pixel arrays, respectively. Due to a smaller duty ratio of the clock in the output section than that of clocks in the inner section, only one large size transistor is required for both charging and discharging the scan line, and the discharging speed is faster than that of other merging TFT methods because it is at the bootstrapped state for the whole driving phase. Experimental results show that the output signal of each stage for the proposed scan driver has no distortion and exhibits good noise-suppressed characteristics. It is also verified that the power consumption of the clock-controlled inverter can be significantly reduced compared with the conventional diode-connected inverter. View full abstract»

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  • Emerging Quantum-Dots-Enhanced LCDs

    Page(s): 526 - 539
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quantum dots (QDs)-based backlight greatly enhances the color performance for liquid crystal displays (LCDs). In this review paper, we start with a brief introduction of QD backlight, and then present a systematic photometric approach to reveal the remarkable advantages of QD backlight over white LED, such as much wider color gamut, higher optical efficiency, enhanced ambient contrast ratio, and smaller color shift. Some popular LC modes are investigated, including twisted nematic, fringing field switching (FFS) for touch panels, multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) for TVs, and blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) for next-generation displays. Especially, QD-enhanced BPLC combines the major advantages of FFS and submillisecond response time. It has potential to become a unified display solution. View full abstract»

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  • Ghosting Impingements in 3D Dual-View Projection Systems

    Page(s): 540 - 547
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we discuss various technical options to implement 3D dual-view systems, from four frames generated by two triggered or non-triggered 3D projectors. Such a technique offers 3D free-viewpoint capabilities for two viewers. We compare two different technical implementations based on transmissive video projection and reflective silver screen, combining two different 3D encoding techniques: polarization and time multiplexing. The main objective is to analyze and mitigate the ghosting effects, as a function of the technical, modal and frame pairing choices with respect, first to the image optical quality and second to prevent visual fatigue. We suggest some solutions to reduce the impact of the physical ghosting and frame unbalance. These solutions will be expanded in a second paper. View full abstract»

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  • Inverted Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Light-Emitting Diodes With Balanced Charge Injection

    Page(s): 548 - 552
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Green phosphorescent inverted hybrid inorganic-organic light-emitting diodes (IHyLEDs) based on a simplified organic layer/ WO3 structure have been demonstrated. The WO3 layer enabled facile hole injection and transport, which was balanced by efficient electron injection from the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) cathode overcoated with nanometer-thick Ca. The IHyLEDs had a turn-on voltage of 6 V. At 20 mA/cm2, it reached a luminance of 8133 cd/m 2 and a current efficiency of 40 cd/A, which were 43% higher than a similar IHyLED with a conventional Al/LiF electron injection layer. The IHyLEDs with Ca also exhibited improved reliability under constant-current stressing at 20 mA/cm2. View full abstract»

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  • Diffraction Influence on the Field of View and Resolution of Three-Dimensional Integral Imaging

    Page(s): 553 - 559
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of the diffraction limit on the field of view of three-dimensional integral imaging (InI) systems is estimated by calculating the resolution of the InI system along arbitrarily tilted directions. The deteriorating effects of diffraction on the resolution are quantified in this manner. Two different three-dimensional scenes are recorded by real/virtual and focused imaging modes. The recorded scenes are reconstructed at different tilted planes and the obtained results for the resolution and field of view of the system are verified. It is shown that the diffraction effects severely affect the resolution of InI in the real/virtual mode when the tilted angle of viewing is increased. It is also shown that the resolution of InI in the focused mode is more robust to the unwanted effects of diffraction even though it is much lower than the resolution of InI in the real/virtual mode. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Error Concealment Method Based on Fuzzy Reasoning for Multi-View Video Coding

    Page(s): 560 - 567
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study proposes an adaptive error concealment selection process in order to improve the quality of reconstructed images which have low computation complexity for multi-view video coding. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses the motion vector variances and texture histogram bins in the blocks neighboring the damaged block in order to define two correlations; the degree of motion and the degree of texture similarity. To increase the accuracy of the suitable EC for the damaged macro-block, these two correlations are used to select a suitable error concealment method for reconstructing the damaged macro-block through fuzzy reasoning. The motion degree indicates the motion complexity for the damaged macro-block, and the texture similarity degree indicates the spatial continuity between the damaged macro-block and its neighboring block. The proposed adaptive error concealment is selected to reduce concealing time on homogenous damaged blocks and to improve the reconstructed image quality on non-homogenous damaged blocks. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the concealing time by at least 1.16 s and can improve the peak signal-to-noise (PSNR) by 0.13 dB-2.44 dB and 0.11 dB-3.52 dB in the main views and auxiliary views, respectively. This proposed algorithm is suitable for the multi-view video transmission on the consumer electronic fields such as 3D mobile devices, 3D television. View full abstract»

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  • Segmentation-Based Clipped Error Control Algorithm for Global Backlight Dimming

    Page(s): 568 - 573
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new backlight dimming method that applies segmentation-based clipped error control to liquid crystal displays. Clipped error control is the most important algorithm for power saving during backlight dimming. The proposed segmentation-based clipped error control algorithm considers the exact local distribution of an image using image segmentation, which enhances the image quality compared with existing methods. In addition, a binary search algorithm is applied to the proposed method for reducing the computational complexity. The experimental results showed that the average peak signal-to-noise ratio with the proposed method was up to 11.734 dB higher than those of conventional methods whereas the power consumption increased only slightly. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Sensor and Display Pixel Circuits for Mobile Near-to-Eye Applications

    Page(s): 574 - 581
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1737 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hybrid sensor/display pixels and their operating schemes are proposed, simulated, and characterized. The circuit design implemented a phototransistor connected to a drive thin-film transistor (TFT) and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The circuits were fabricated using hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) TFTs as a hybrid photosensor/switching device. The light sensitivity of the phototransistors and response to incident illumination were modeled and verified experimentally for different white-light intensities. The pixel gray scale was determined by the pulse-height voltage modulation from the phototransistor, which was varied by changing the light intensity. The resulting circuits have a wide dynamic range with a light to dark output current ratio of 104 for TFTs having channel lengths of and light intensity up to ~ 8 mW/cm2. A 256-RGB-level imaging scale is possible with 5-nA steps for each grey scale in a pixel array matrix having a refresh rate of more than 200 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Attention Tunneling: Effects of Limiting Field of View Due to Beam Combiner Frame of Head-Up Display

    Page(s): 582 - 589
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1097 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Head-up displays (HUDs) have become an integral part of the fighter aircraft and are now becoming increasingly popular in various nonmilitary sectors also. It enhances the pilot's performance by providing him with all of the flight, aircraft, target, and weapon data in collimated fashion superimposed on his forward view. The collimation of HUD symbology and infrared raster image removes requirement of refocusing eyes on outside events. However, there are attention capture and cognitive tunneling issues related with usage of HUD in aircraft. In this paper, effect of obstruction due to beam combiner frame in form of misaccommodation, misconvergence, and limited horizontal field of view (FOV) on attention capture of aircraft pilot has been presented. While the beam combiner frame is necessary to hold wavelength selective glasses, they provide obscuration in forward view of pilot in both, total field of view (TFOV) as well as instantaneous field of view (IFOV). Angle of combiner frame structure and its width present different degrees of obscuration to the pilot within the head motion box (HMB). These limitations cause inappropriate distribution of pilot's attention on outside events and aircraft events, as he has to adjust his head position to view the obscured part of outside world. This forces him to focus his attention more on outside events which may make him miss some event on HUD symbology. The study and experimental results have been presented in detail to corroborate this fact. View full abstract»

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  • Thin-Film Bipolar Transistors on Recrystallized Polycrystalline Silicon Without Impurity Doped Junctions: Proposal and Investigation

    Page(s): 590 - 594
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A lateral polysilicon Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (poly-Si BCPT) on undoped recrystallized polycrystalline silicon which is compatible with the thin-film field effect transistor (TFT) fabrication is reported in this paper. Using calibrated two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the poly-Si BCPT is evaluated in detail by considering the position of the single grain boundary. Our simulation results demonstrate that the poly-Si BCPT has the potential to realize low-cost thin-film polycrystalline silicon bipolar transistors with large current gain and cut-off frequency making it suitable for a number of applications including the driver circuits of the displays. View full abstract»

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  • Imaging and Confocal Systems for in vivo Measurements of Human-Iris Spectral Reflectance

    Page(s): 595 - 600
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two experimental configurations, an imaging system and a confocal system, are constructed to measure the spectral reflectance of human irises in vivo. The light from a white light-emitting diode (LED) is focused on the iris and the reflected light is measured by a spectrometer. A flat plate coated with barium sulphate (Ba2SO4) with reflectance 0.99 for visible light is used as a reference to calibrate the system. Samples of gray-blue and black-brown eyes are measured to compare the performance of the two systems. The differences between the reflectance spectra of the two systems show that Fresnel reflection from the interface between air and cornea is the dominating effect. The spatial filtering characteristic of the confocal system provides a nice capability in eliminating the contribution of cornea reflectance. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy Integral Imaging Camera Calibration for Real Scale 3D Reconstructions

    Page(s): 601 - 608
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a quantitative analysis of the error in the reconstruction of a 3D scene which has been captured with Synthetic Aperture Integral Imaging system. The 3D information is obtained from 2D images for which the camera parameters are unknown. The model used for calibrating the Integral Imaging camera setup is based on fuzzy systems. These systems provide the opportunity for modeling of conditions which are inherently imprecisely defined. We demonstrate that the error in the 3D reconstruction not only depends on the number of cameras, but also to their relative positions. Our model is applied to a set of images captured experimentally from a real object. A true-color real scale 3D reconstruction is successfully achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Measurement and Stress Analysis of ITO/PET Flexible Substrate by Shadow Moiré Interferometer With Phase-Shifting Interferometry

    Page(s): 609 - 614
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    Phase-shifting interferometry was applied in the double beam shadow moiré interferometer, and furthermore,this technique used the automatic measurement system to catch the interferograms and calculated the residual stress of flexible electronics. As results of the shadow moiré interferometer were symmetrical, this measurement system was found to be stable and of high precision. The systematic error was less than 2% when the tolerance of the CCD view angle was between -5° and +5°. Experimental results showed that this technique can precisely determine a fraction of a fringe with a precision of 0.44% for a rigid specimen. The stress of a flexible substrate can be evaluated by the modified Stoney formula. Therefore, the residual stress of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was -744.1 MPa and the measurement tolerance was ±9.4 MPa of 1.26% error. View full abstract»

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  • Threshold Voltage Extraction in the Saturation Regime Insensitive to the Contact Properties for Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Page(s): 615 - 618
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (803 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, the conventional threshold voltage ( Vth) extraction method assuming ohmic contacts in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) was shown to be difficult to obtain the intrinsic Vth values for devices with non-negligible contact properties. A simple Vth extraction method based on a modified analytical current-voltage expression in the saturation regime was thus proposed to exclude the influence of the contact properties. By applying the method to experimental devices of two different contacts, apparent Vth values close to the intrinsic values were obtained, which proved the method to be useful for accurate device characterization and modeling of OTFTs. View full abstract»

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  • [Blank page]

    Page(s): B619 - B620
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  • Open Access

    Page(s): 621
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  • Two ways to Access the IEEE Member Digital Library

    Page(s): 622
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  • myIEEE

    Page(s): 623
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  • Journal of Display Technology information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • [Blank page - back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

This publication covers the theory, design, fabrication, manufacturing and application of information displays and aspects of display technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Arokia Nathan
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, U.K.