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Haptics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-March 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Editorial

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Consonance of Vibrotactile Chords

    Page(s): 3 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (771 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the perception of complex vibrotactile stimuli in which a few sinusoidal vibrations with different frequencies are superimposed. We begin with an observation that such vibrotactile signals are analogous to musical chords in which multiple notes are played simultaneously. A set of so-called “vibrotactile chords” are designed on the basis of musical chords, and their degrees of consonance (harmony) that participants perceive are evaluated through a perceptual experiment. Experimental results indicate that participants can reliably rate the degrees of consonance of vibrotactile chords and establish a well-defined function that relates the degree of consonance to the base and chordal frequency of a vibrotactile chord. These findings have direct implications for the design of complex vibrotactile signals that can be produced by current wideband actuators such as voice-coil, piezoelectric, and electroactive polymer actuators. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Evaluating Vibrotactile Dimensions for the Design of Tactons

    Page(s): 14 - 23
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    Vibrotactile stimuli are defined in terms of their amplitude, frequency, waveform and temporal profile all of which have been varied to create tactons. A number of approaches have been adopted to design tactons including multidimensional scaling, iterative empirical methods and using perceptual processing models. The objective of the present set of experiments was to create sets of tactons based on the properties of the dimensions of vibrotactile stimuli. An absolute identification paradigm was used in which each of nine tactons was presented eight times using a tactor mounted on either the index finger or forearm. It was found that tactons created by varying the frequency, amplitude and temporal profile of the vibrotactile stimuli were correctly identified on 73-83 percent of the trials, with a mean information transfer of 2.41 bits. The latter metric indicates that for these sets of nine tactons between five and six could be reliably identified. The vibrotactile stimuli delivered in the experiments were identified as consistently on the forearm as the hand and the IT values were similar at the two locations. This suggests that sites other than the hand can be used effectively in tactile communication systems and that it is channel capacity that ultimately determines performance on this type of task. View full abstract»

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  • Exploring the Role of Haptic Feedback in Enabling Implicit HCI-Based Bookmarking

    Page(s): 24 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (762 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We examine how haptic feedback could enable an implicit human-computer interaction, in the context of an audio stream listening use case where a device monitors a user's electrodermal activity for orienting responses to external interruptions. When such a response is detected, our previously developed system automatically places a bookmark in the audio stream for later resumption of listening. Here, we investigate two uses of haptic feedback to support this implicit interaction and mitigate effects of noisy (false-positive) bookmarking: (a) low-attention notification when a bookmark is placed, and (b) focused-attention display of bookmarks during resumptive navigation. Results show that haptic notification of bookmark placement, when paired with visual display of bookmark location, significant improves navigation time. Solely visual or haptic display of bookmarks elicited equivalent navigation time; however, only the inclusion of haptic display significantly increased accuracy. Participants preferred haptic notification over no notification at interruption time, and combined haptic and visual display of bookmarks to support navigation to their interrupted location at resumption time. Our contributions include an approach to handling noisy data in implicit HCI, an implementation of haptic notifications that signal implicit system behavior, and discussion of user mental models that may be active in this context. View full abstract»

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  • Grip Force Control during Virtual Object Interaction: Effect of Force Feedback, Accuracy Demands, and Training

    Page(s): 37 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When grasping and manipulating objects, people are able to efficiently modulate their grip force according to the experienced load force. Effective grip force control involves providing enough grip force to prevent the object from slipping, while avoiding excessive force to avoid damage and fatigue. During indirect object manipulation via teleoperation systems or in virtual environments, users often receive limited somatosensory feedback about objects with which they interact. This study examines the effects of force feedback, accuracy demands, and training on grip force control during object interaction in a virtual environment. The task required subjects to grasp and move a virtual object while tracking a target. When force feedback was not provided, subjects failed to couple grip and load force, a capability fundamental to direct object interaction. Subjects also exerted larger grip force without force feedback and when accuracy demands of the tracking task were high. In addition, the presence or absence of force feedback during training affected subsequent performance, even when the feedback condition was switched. Subjects' grip force control remained reminiscent of their employed grip during the initial training. These results motivate the use of force feedback during telemanipulation and highlight the effect of force feedback during training. View full abstract»

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  • Haptic Simulation of Organ Deformation and Hybrid Contacts in Dental Operations

    Page(s): 48 - 60
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    There are two main challenges in simulating bi-manual dental operations with six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering. One is to simulate large deformation and force response of a tongue under multi-region contacts with a dental mirror, and the other is to simulate the force response when a dental probe inserts into a narrow periodontal pocket, which leads to simultaneous contacts of different types between the probe and both rigid and deformable objects (i.e., a rigid tooth and its surrounding deformable gingiva), which we call hybrid contacts, as well as frequent contact switches. In this paper, we address both challenges. We first introduce a novel method for modeling deformation based on a sphere-tree representation of deformable objects. A configuration-based constrained optimization method is utilized for determining the six-dimensional configuration of the graphic tool and the contact force/torque. This approach conducts collision detection, deformation computation, and tool configuration optimization very efficiently, avoids inter-penetration, and maintains stability of haptic display without using virtual coupling. To simulate the force response due to fine manipulation of the probe inside a narrow periodontal pocket, we propose an efficient method to simulate the local deformation of the gingiva and stable haptic feedback under frequent contact switches. Simulations on typical dental operations were carried out to validate the efficiency and stability of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Intra- and Intermanual Curvature Aftereffect Can Be Obtained via Tool-Touch

    Page(s): 61 - 66
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    We examined the perception of virtual curved surfaces explored with a tool. We found a reliable curvature aftereffect, suggesting neural representation of the curvature in the absence of direct touch. Intermanual transfer of the aftereffect suggests that this representation is somewhat independent of the hand used to explore the surface. View full abstract»

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  • Precise Shape Reconstruction by Active Pattern in Total-Internal-Reflection-Based Tactile Sensor

    Page(s): 67 - 77
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    We are developing a total-internal-reflection-based tactile sensor in which the shape is reconstructed using an optical reflection. This sensor consists of silicone rubber, an image pattern, and a camera. It reconstructs the shape of the sensor surface from an image of a pattern reflected at the inner sensor surface by total internal reflection. In this study, we propose precise real-time reconstruction by employing an optimization method. Furthermore, we propose to use active patterns. Deformation of the reflection image causes reconstruction errors. By controlling the image pattern, the sensor reconstructs the surface deformation more precisely. We implement the proposed optimization and active-pattern-based reconstruction methods in a reflection-based tactile sensor, and perform reconstruction experiments using the system. A precise deformation experiment confirms the linearity and precision of the reconstruction. View full abstract»

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  • Relative Contribution Ratios of Skin and Proprioceptive Sensations in Perception of Force Applied to Fingertip

    Page(s): 78 - 85
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (961 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Humans perceive a force applied to their fingertips by integrating skin and proprioceptive sensations. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution ratios of these sensations using two approaches. Decoupled forces were applied to the finger pad and proximal interphalangeal joint of the index finger of the participants. First, we calculated the ratios from the point of subjective equality between the skin and the proprioceptive perceptions. Second, we obtained discrimination limens of the two perceptions to compute their contribution ratios. The results of these two approaches showed good agreement. Additionally, we investigated how the magnitudes of forces, which were 1.0 and 0.3 N, applied to a fingertip affect the relative contribution ratios of the two sensory channels. When humans perceived the force of 1.0 N, the relative contribution ratios of skin and proprioceptive sensations were 16-28 and 72-84 percent, respectively. In contrast, when humans perceived the force of 0.3 N, the relative contribution ratios were 37-55 and 45-63 percent, respectively. These relative contribution ratios can be utilized for the design of efficient haptic interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Reorienting Driver Attention with Dynamic Tactile Cues

    Page(s): 86 - 94
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    A series of three experiments was designed to investigate whether the presentation of moving tactile warning signals that are presented in a particular spatiotemporal configuration may be particularly effective in terms of facilitating a driver's response to a target event. In the experiments reported here, participants' visual attention was manipulated such that they were either attending to the frontal object that might occasionally approach them on a collision course, or else they were distracted by a color discrimination task presented from behind. We measured how rapidly participants were able to initiate a braking response to a looming visual target following the onset of vibrotactile warning signals presented from around their waist. The vibrotactile warning signals consisted of single, double, and triple upward moving cues (Experiment 1), triple upward and downward moving cues (Experiment 2), and triple random cues (Experiment 3). The results demonstrated a significant performance advantage following the presentation of dynamic triple cues over the static single tactile cues, regardless of the specific configuration of the triple cues. These findings point to the potential benefits of embedding dynamic information in warning signals for dynamic target events. These findings have important implications for the design of future vibrotactile warning signals. View full abstract»

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  • 2013 Reviewers List*

    Page(s): 95 - 96
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2013 Index IEEE Transactions on Haptics Vol. 6

    Page(s): 97 - 104
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Haptics addresses the science, technology and applications associated with information acquisition and object manipulation through touch.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lynette Jones
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02139
USA
Phone: 617-253-3973
Fax: 617-253-2218
Email: ljones@mit.edu
Website: http://meche.mit.edu/people/index.html?id=128

Associate Editor-in-Chief
Cagatay Basdogan
Koc University
College of Engineering
Istanbul, 34450 Turkey
Phone: 902123381721