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Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • A Graph Derivation Based Approach for Measuring and Comparing Structural Semantics of Ontologies

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1039 - 1052
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1940 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ontology reuse offers great benefits by measuring and comparing ontologies. However, the state of art approaches for measuring ontologies neglects the problems of both the polymorphism of ontology representation and the addition of implicit semantic knowledge. One way to tackle these problems is to devise a mechanism for ontology measurement that is stable, the basic criteria for automatic measurement. In this paper, we present a graph derivation representation based approach (GDR) for stable semantic measurement, which captures structural semantics of ontologies and addresses those problems that cause unstable measurement of ontologies. This paper makes three original contributions. First, we introduce and define the concept of semantic measurement and the concept of stable measurement. We present the GDR based approach, a three-phase process to transform an ontology to its GDR. Second, we formally analyze important properties of GDRs based on which stable semantic measurement and comparison can be achieved successfully. Third but not the least, we compare our GDR based approach with existing graph based methods using a dozen real world exemplar ontologies. Our experimental comparison is conducted based on nine ontology measurement entities and distance metric, which stably compares the similarity of two ontologies in terms of their GDRs. View full abstract»

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  • A Myopic Approach to Ordering Nodes for Parameter Elicitation in Bayesian Belief Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1053 - 1062
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Building Bayesian belief networks in the absence of data involves the challenging task of eliciting conditional probabilities from experts to parameterize the model. In this paper, we develop an analytical method for determining the optimal order for eliciting these probabilities. Our method uses prior distributions on network parameters and a novel expected proximity criteria, to propose an order that maximizes information gain per unit elicitation time. We present analytical results when priors are uniform Dirichlet; for other priors, we find through experiments that the optimal order is strongly affected by which variables are of primary interest to the analyst. Our results should prove useful to researchers and practitioners involved in belief network model building and elicitation. View full abstract»

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  • A Probabilistic Approach to String Transformation

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1063 - 1075
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2035 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many problems in natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and bioinformatics can be formalized as string transformation, which is a task as follows. Given an input string, the system generates the k most likely output strings corresponding to the input string. This paper proposes a novel and probabilistic approach to string transformation, which is both accurate and efficient. The approach includes the use of a log linear model, a method for training the model, and an algorithm for generating the top k candidates, whether there is or is not a predefined dictionary. The log linear model is defined as a conditional probability distribution of an output string and a rule set for the transformation conditioned on an input string. The learning method employs maximum likelihood estimation for parameter estimation. The string generation algorithm based on pruning is guaranteed to generate the optimal top k candidates. The proposed method is applied to correction of spelling errors in queries as well as reformulation of queries in web search. Experimental results on large scale data show that the proposed approach is very accurate and efficient improving upon existing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency in different settings. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptation Regularization: A General Framework for Transfer Learning

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1076 - 1089
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1909 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Domain transfer learning, which learns a target classifier using labeled data from a different distribution, has shown promising value in knowledge discovery yet still been a challenging problem. Most previous works designed adaptive classifiers by exploring two learning strategies independently: distribution adaptation and label propagation. In this paper, we propose a novel transfer learning framework, referred to as Adaptation Regularization based Transfer Learning (ARTL), to model them in a unified way based on the structural risk minimization principle and the regularization theory. Specifically, ARTL learns the adaptive classifier by simultaneously optimizing the structural risk functional, the joint distribution matching between domains, and the manifold consistency underlying marginal distribution. Based on the framework, we propose two novel methods using Regularized Least Squares (RLS) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), respectively, and use the Representer theorem in reproducing kernel Hilbert space to derive corresponding solutions. Comprehensive experiments verify that ARTL can significantly outperform state-of-the-art learning methods on several public text and image datasets. View full abstract»

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  • Centroid Ratio for a Pairwise Random Swap Clustering Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1090 - 1101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Clustering algorithm and cluster validity are two highly correlated parts in cluster analysis. In this paper, a novel idea for cluster validity and a clustering algorithm based on the validity index are introduced. A Centroid Ratio is firstly introduced to compare two clustering results. This centroid ratio is then used in prototype-based clustering by introducing a Pairwise Random Swap clustering algorithm to avoid the local optimum problem of k -means. The swap strategy in the algorithm alternates between simple perturbation to the solution and convergence toward the nearest optimum by k -means. The centroid ratio is shown to be highly correlated to the mean square error (MSE) and other external indices. Moreover, it is fast and simple to calculate. An empirical study of several different datasets indicates that the proposed algorithm works more efficiently than Random Swap, Deterministic Random Swap, Repeated k-means or k-means++. The algorithm is successfully applied to document clustering and color image quantization as well. View full abstract»

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  • Diverse Set Selection Over Dynamic Data

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1102 - 1116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Result diversification has recently attracted considerable attention as a means of increasing user satisfaction in recommender systems, as well as in web and database search. In this paper, we focus on the problem of selecting the k-most diverse items from a result set. Whereas previous research has mainly considered the static version of the problem, in this paper, we exploit the dynamic case in which the result set changes over time, as for example, in the case of notification services. We define the CONTINUOUS k-DIVERSITY PROBLEM along with appropriate constraints that enforce continuity requirements on the diversified results. Our proposed approach is based on cover trees and supports dynamic item insertion and deletion. The diversification problem is in general NP-hard; we provide theoretical bounds that characterize the quality of our cover tree solution with respect to the optimal one. Since results are often associated with a relevance score, we extend our approach to account for relevance. Finally, we report experimental results concerning the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach on a variety of real and synthetic datasets. View full abstract»

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  • Effective and Efficient Clustering Methods for Correlated Probabilistic Graphs

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1117 - 1130
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, probabilistic graphs have attracted significant interests of the data mining community. It is observed that correlations may exist among adjacent edges in various probabilistic graphs. As one of the basic mining techniques, graph clustering is widely used in exploratory data analysis, such as data compression, information retrieval, image segmentation, etc. Graph clustering aims to divide data into clusters according to their similarities, and a number of algorithms have been proposed for clustering graphs, such as the pKwikCluster algorithm, spectral clustering, k-path clustering, etc. However, little research has been performed to develop efficient clustering algorithms for probabilistic graphs. Particularly, it becomes more challenging to efficiently cluster probabilistic graphs when correlations are considered. In this paper, we define the problem of clustering correlated probabilistic graphs. To solve the challenging problem, we propose two algorithms, namely the PEEDR and the CPGS clustering algorithm. For each of the proposed algorithms, we develop several pruning techniques to further improve their efficiency. We evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithms and pruning methods through comprehensive experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Semi-Supervised Feature Selection: Constraint, Relevance, and Redundancy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1131 - 1143
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a three-level framework for semi-supervised feature selection. Most feature selection methods mainly focus on finding relevant features for optimizing high-dimensional data. In this paper, we show that the relevance requires two important procedures to provide an efficient feature selection in the semi-supervised context. The first one concerns the selection of pairwise constraints that can be extracted from the labeled part of data. The second procedure aims to reduce the redundancy that could be detected in the selected relevant features. For the relevance, we develop a filter approach based on a constrained Laplacian score. Finally, experimental results are provided to show the efficiency of our proposal in comparison with several representative methods. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Range Queries With Predicates on Moving Objects

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1144 - 1157
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A well-studied query type on moving objects is the continuous range query. An interesting and practical situation is that instead of being continuously evaluated, the query may be evaluated at different degrees of continuity, e.g. every 2 seconds (close to continuous), every 10 minutes or at irregular time intervals (close to snapshot). Furthermore, the range query may be stacked under predicates applied to the returned objects. An example is the count predicate that requires the number of objects in the range to be at least Y. The conjecture is that these two practical considerations can help reduce communication costs. We propose a safe region-based solution that exploits these two practical considerations. An extensive experimental study shows that our solution can reduce communication costs by a factor of 9.5 compared to an existing state-of-the-art system. View full abstract»

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  • Interpreting the Public Sentiment Variations on Twitter

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1158 - 1170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2025 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Millions of users share their opinions on Twitter, making it a valuable platform for tracking and analyzing public sentiment. Such tracking and analysis can provide critical information for decision making in various domains. Therefore it has attracted attention in both academia and industry. Previous research mainly focused on modeling and tracking public sentiment. In this work, we move one step further to interpret sentiment variations. We observed that emerging topics (named foreground topics) within the sentiment variation periods are highly related to the genuine reasons behind the variations. Based on this observation, we propose a Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) based model, Foreground and Background LDA (FB-LDA), to distill foreground topics and filter out longstanding background topics. These foreground topics can give potential interpretations of the sentiment variations. To further enhance the readability of the mined reasons, we select the most representative tweets for foreground topics and develop another generative model called Reason Candidate and Background LDA (RCB-LDA) to rank them with respect to their “popularity” within the variation period. Experimental results show that our methods can effectively find foreground topics and rank reason candidates. The proposed models can also be applied to other tasks such as finding topic differences between two sets of documents. View full abstract»

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  • Mining Probabilistically Frequent Sequential Patterns in Large Uncertain Databases

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1171 - 1184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Data uncertainty is inherent in many real-world applications such as environmental surveillance and mobile tracking. Mining sequential patterns from inaccurate data, such as those data arising from sensor readings and GPS trajectories, is important for discovering hidden knowledge in such applications. In this paper, we propose to measure pattern frequentness based on the possible world semantics. We establish two uncertain sequence data models abstracted from many real-life applications involving uncertain sequence data, and formulate the problem of mining probabilistically frequent sequential patterns (or p-FSPs) from data that conform to our models. However, the number of possible worlds is extremely large, which makes the mining prohibitively expensive. Inspired by the famous PrefixSpan algorithm, we develop two new algorithms, collectively called U-PrefixSpan, for p-FSP mining. U-PrefixSpan effectively avoids the problem of “possible worlds explosion”, and when combined with our four pruning and validating methods, achieves even better performance. We also propose a fast validating method to further speed up our U-PrefixSpan algorithm. The efficiency and effectiveness of U-PrefixSpan are verified through extensive experiments on both real and synthetic datasets. View full abstract»

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  • Mining Statistically Significant Co-location and Segregation Patterns

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1185 - 1199
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In spatial domains, interaction between features gives rise to two types of interaction patterns: co-location and segregation patterns. Existing approaches to finding co-location patterns have several shortcomings: (1) They depend on user specified thresholds for prevalence measures; (2) they do not take spatial auto-correlation into account; and (3) they may report co-locations even if the features are randomly distributed. Segregation patterns have yet to receive much attention. In this paper, we propose a method for finding both types of interaction patterns, based on a statistical test. We introduce a new definition of co-location and segregation pattern, we propose a model for the null distribution of features so spatial auto-correlation is taken into account, and we design an algorithm for finding both co-location and segregation patterns. We also develop two strategies to reduce the computational cost compared to a naïve approach based on simulations of the data distribution, and we propose an approach to reduce the runtime of our algorithm even further by using an approximation of the neighborhood of features. We evaluate our method empirically using synthetic and real data sets and demonstrate its advantages over a state-of-the-art co-location mining algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Privacy-Preserving and Content-Protecting Location Based Queries

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1200 - 1210
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1251 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present a solution to one of the location-based query problems. This problem is defined as follows: (i) a user wants to query a database of location data, known as Points Of Interest (POIs), and does not want to reveal his/her location to the server due to privacy concerns; (ii) the owner of the location data, that is, the location server, does not want to simply distribute its data to all users. The location server desires to have some control over its data, since the data is its asset. We propose a major enhancement upon previous solutions by introducing a two stage approach, where the first step is based on Oblivious Transfer and the second step is based on Private Information Retrieval, to achieve a secure solution for both parties. The solution we present is efficient and practical in many scenarios. We implement our solution on a desktop machine and a mobile device to assess the efficiency of our protocol. We also introduce a security model and analyse the security in the context of our protocol. Finally, we highlight a security weakness of our previous work and present a solution to overcome it. View full abstract»

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  • Product Aspect Ranking and Its Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1211 - 1224
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Numerous consumer reviews of products are now available on the Internet. Consumer reviews contain rich and valuable knowledge for both firms and users. However, the reviews are often disorganized, leading to difficulties in information navigation and knowledge acquisition. This article proposes a product aspect ranking framework, which automatically identifies the important aspects of products from online consumer reviews, aiming at improving the usability of the numerous reviews. The important product aspects are identified based on two observations: 1) the important aspects are usually commented on by a large number of consumers and 2) consumer opinions on the important aspects greatly influence their overall opinions on the product. In particular, given the consumer reviews of a product, we first identify product aspects by a shallow dependency parser and determine consumer opinions on these aspects via a sentiment classifier. We then develop a probabilistic aspect ranking algorithm to infer the importance of aspects by simultaneously considering aspect frequency and the influence of consumer opinions given to each aspect over their overall opinions. The experimental results on a review corpus of 21 popular products in eight domains demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Moreover, we apply product aspect ranking to two real-world applications, i.e., document-level sentiment classification and extractive review summarization, and achieve significant performance improvements, which demonstrate the capacity of product aspect ranking in facilitating real-world applications. View full abstract»

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  • Random Projection Random Discretization Ensembles—Ensembles of Linear Multivariate Decision Trees

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1225 - 1239
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel ensemble method random projection random discretization ensembles(RPRDE) to create ensembles of linear multivariate decision trees by using a univariate decision tree algorithm. The present method combines the better computational complexity of a univariate decision tree algorithm with the better representational power of linear multivariate decision trees. We develop random discretization (RD) method that creates random discretized features from continuous features. Random projection (RP) is used to create new features that are linear combinations of original features. A new dataset is created by augmenting discretized features (created by using RD) with features created by using RP. Each decision tree of a RPRD ensemble is trained on one dataset from the pool of these datasets by using a univariate decision tree algorithm. As these multivariate decision trees (because of features created by RP) have more representational power than univariate decision trees, we expect accurate decision trees in the ensemble. Diverse training datasets ensure diverse decision trees in the ensemble. We study the performance of RPRDE against other popular ensemble techniques using C4.5 tree as the base classifier. RPRDE matches or outperforms other popular ensemble methods. Experiments results also suggest that the proposed method is quite robust to the class noise. View full abstract»

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  • Range Aggregation With Set Selection

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1240 - 1252
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the classic range aggregation problem, we have a set S of objects such that, given an interval I, a query counts how many objects of S are covered by I. Besides COUNT, the problem can also be defined with other aggregate functions, e.g., SUM, MIN, MAX and AVERAGE. This paper studies a novel variant of range aggregation, where an object can belong to multiple sets. A query (at runtime) picks any two sets, and aggregates on their intersection. More formally, let S1,...,Sm be m sets of objects. Given distinct set ids i, j and an interval I, a query reports how many objects in Si ∩ Sj are covered by I. We call this problem range aggregation with set selection (RASS). Its hardness lies in that the pair (i, j) can have (2m) choices, rendering effective indexing a non-trivial task. 2 The RASS problem can also be defined with other aggregate functions, and generalized so that a query chooses more than 2 sets. We develop a system called RASS to power this type of queries. Our system has excellent efficiency in both theory and practice. Theoretically, it consumes linear space, and achieves nearly-optimal query time. Practically, it outperforms existing solutions on real datasets by a factor up to an order of magnitude. The paper also features a rigorous theoretical analysis on the hardness of the RASS problem, which reveals invaluable insight into its characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Trustworthiness Management in the Social Internet of Things

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1253 - 1266
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1835 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The integration of social networking concepts into the Internet of things has led to the Social Internet of Things (SIoT) paradigm, according to which objects are capable of establishing social relationships in an autonomous way with respect to their owners with the benefits of improving the network scalability in information/service discovery. Within this scenario, we focus on the problem of understanding how the information provided by members of the social IoT has to be processed so as to build a reliable system on the basis of the behavior of the objects. We define two models for trustworthiness management starting from the solutions proposed for P2P and social networks. In the subjective model each node computes the trustworthiness of its friends on the basis of its own experience and on the opinion of the friends in common with the potential service providers. In the objective model, the information about each node is distributed and stored making use of a distributed hash table structure so that any node can make use of the same information. Simulations show how the proposed models can effectively isolate almost any malicious nodes in the network at the expenses of an increase in the network traffic for feedback exchange. View full abstract»

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  • Using Incomplete Information for Complete Weight Annotation of Road Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1267 - 1279
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We are witnessing increasing interests in the effective use of road networks. For example, to enable effective vehicle routing, weighted-graph models of transportation networks are used, where the weight of an edge captures some cost associated with traversing the edge, e.g., greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or travel time. It is a precondition to using a graph model for routing that all edges have weights. Weights that capture travel times and GHG emissions can be extracted from GPS trajectory data collected from the network. However, GPS trajectory data typically lack the coverage needed to assign weights to all edges. This paper formulates and addresses the problem of annotating all edges in a road network with travel cost based weights from a set of trips in the network that cover only a small fraction of the edges, each with an associated ground-truth travel cost. A general framework is proposed to solve the problem. Specifically, the problem is modeled as a regression problem and solved by minimizing a judiciously designed objective function that takes into account the topology of the road network. In particular, the use of weighted PageRank values of edges is explored for assigning appropriate weights to all edges, and the property of directional adjacency of edges is also taken into account to assign weights. Empirical studies with weights capturing travel time and GHG emissions on two road networks (Skagen, Denmark, and North Jutland, Denmark) offer insight into the design properties of the proposed techniques and offer evidence that the techniques are effective. View full abstract»

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  • Using Personalization to Improve XML Retrieval

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1280 - 1292
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the amount of information increases every day and the users normally formulate short and ambiguous queries, personalized search techniques are becoming almost a must. Using the information about the user stored in a user profile, these techniques retrieve results that are closer to the user preferences. On the other hand, the information is being stored more and more in an semi-structured way, and XML has emerged as a standard for representing and exchanging this type of data. XML search allows a higher retrieval effectiveness, due to its ability to retrieve and to show the user specific parts of the documents instead of the full document. In this paper we propose several personalization techniques in the context of XML retrieval. We try to combine the different approaches where personalization may be applied: query reformulation, re-ranking of results and retrieval model modification. The experimental results obtained from a user study using a parliamentary document collection support the validity of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Low-Rank Subspace Segmentation

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1293 - 1297
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Subspace segmentation is the problem of segmenting (or grouping) a set of n data points into a number of clusters, with each cluster being a (linear) subspace. The recently established algorithms such as Sparse Subspace Clustering (SSC), Low-Rank Representation (LRR) and Low-Rank Subspace Segmentation (LRSS) are effective in terms of segmentation accuracy, but computationally inefficient as they possess a complexity of O(n3), which is too high to afford for the case where n is very large. In this paper we devise a fast subspace segmentation algorithm with complexity of O(n log (n)). This is achieved by firstly using partial Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to approximate the solution of LRSS, secondly utilizing Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) to build a sparse affinity graph that encodes the subspace memberships, and finally adopting a fast Normalized Cut (NCut) algorithm to produce the final segmentation results. Besides of high efficiency, our algorithm also has comparable effectiveness as the original LRSS method. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering (TKDE) informs researchers, developers, managers, strategic planners, users, and others interested in state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice activities in the knowledge and data engineering area.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Jian Pei
Simon Fraser University

Associate Editor-in-Chief
Xuemin Lin
University of New South Wales

Associate Editor-in-Chief
Lei Chen
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology