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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2014

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C1 - 1345
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C2
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  • Fast-Framing Optical Imaging of Plasma Formation in Resonant Microwave Pulse Compressor

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1346 - 1352
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasma evolution in the interference switch of an S-band pulse compressor operating in the frequency of 2.766 GHz, with input pulses of 200-450-kW power and duration of 2.4 μs, was studied experimentally and in numerical simulations. The system was filled with dry air at 2 × 105-3 × 105-Pa pressure. The plasma discharge that switches the phases of the compressor operation from energy storage to release was initiated by a Surelite laser. The evolution of the light emission from the plasma was studied using fast-framing optical imaging with a 4QuikE camera. From the obtained typical size of the plasma and its velocity of expansion along the electric field, the density of the plasma was estimated, and the influence of its evolution on the power and waveform of microwave output pulses observed in the experiments was determined in simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Steepening of Density Profile by Intense Laser Radiation in Collisional Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1353 - 1357
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    The interaction between a high-power electromagnetic wave with an inhomogeneous underdense plasma is studied by considering the ohmic heating caused by laser radiation. Considering the plasma inhomogeneity and ohmic heating, the nonlinear dielectric permittivity is obtained in the collisional regimes. The wave equation is numerically solved and the electromagnetic fields, electron density, electron temperature, and dielectric permittivity profiles are achieved. These profiles show that in the presence of three density profiles, by increasing the laser energy flux, the modified electron density deviates from background electron density and its structure near the critical density becomes highly peaked. Finally, it is found that the amplitude of electron density distribution decreases by increasing the laser wavelength. View full abstract»

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  • An Original Method for Spot Detection and Analysis for Large Surveys of Videos in JET

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1358 - 1366
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    An original spot detection method for large surveys of videos in Joint European Torus (JET) is presented. The method can be used for the automatic identification of spots in JET infra-red (IR) videos and for the assessment of the long-term trends in their evolution. This method has been applied to the analysis of a large database of JET IR images collected during the last campaigns of operation with the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wall. The evolution of the spots and their properties, such as size and distribution, can be correlated with macroscopic events, in particular series of intentional disruptions. On the other hand, care must be taken in the interpretation of the results because there is some evidence of toroidal asymmetries in the spot distribution. View full abstract»

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  • Erosion Model of Trigger Electrode Based on the Theory of Microexplosion

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1367 - 1372
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    This paper discusses the normal working mechanism of trigatron gap which leads to the erosion of trigger electrode. The theory of microexplosion is based on the gas discharge theory, explosive electron emission theory and thermodynamical theory, and the erosion model of trigger electrode can be obtained by microexplosion theory. The specific action is an important physical quantity in the theory of microexplosion, which could be determined by current density and phase-transition time. The model demonstrates that the erosion of trigger electrode is related to material parameters, discharge current waveform, and charge transfer. Due to the results of experiments, there exists no erosion under the action of trigger current, while under the action of main current, the measured erosion height is 0.51 mm after 4000 shots. Based on the theoretical analysis, it can be calculated that after 4000 shots, the erosion height is 0.54 mm. experimental and numerical results match within 5%. View full abstract»

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  • High-Voltage Modular Switched Capacitor Pulsed Power Generator

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1373 - 1379
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    Utilization of power electronics converters in pulsed power applications introduced a new series of reliable, long life, and cost-effective pulse generators. However, these converters suffer from the limited power ratings of semiconductor switches, which necessitate introduction of a new family of modular topologies. This paper proposes a modular power electronics converter based on voltage multiplier as a high voltage pulsed power generator. This modular circuit is able to generate flexible high output voltage from low input voltage sources. Circuit topology and operational principles of proposed topology are verified via experimental and simulation results as well as theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • A New Method for Synthesis of Beam-Shaping Mirrors for Off-Axis Incident Gaussian Beams

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1380 - 1384
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    In quasi-optical transmission systems, it is usually required to transform a certain Gaussian beam into another one characterized by a different set of parameters. Mirrors with quadratic surface contour functions, such as paraboloidal, ellipsoidal, and toroidal mirrors, are widely used for such a transformation. However, quadratic surface contours do not provide sufficient conversion efficiencies needed for the transformation of off-axis Gaussian beams into desired Gaussian millimeter-wave field distributions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new method for the transformation of off-axis Gaussian beams. This paper presents such a method for the synthesis of beam-shaping mirrors for off-axis Gaussian beam transformation. Based on this new method, a matching optics unit consisting of two mirrors has been designed to transform a Gaussian-mode-like field distribution into a Gaussian beam with desired parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Plasma Formation in a Xenon Theta-Pinch

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1385 - 1392
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    Analyses of xenon spectral emission data in the IR range from excited neutral xenon transitions and estimations of electron temperature are performed on a theta-pinch test article. Estimations are based on a collisional-radiative model originally written for Hall-effect thrusters utilizing apparent collisional cross-sections. Tests performed on a pulsed xenon plasma at an energy of 80 J, neutral back-fill pressures of 10-100 mtorr, and vacuum discharge frequency of 462 kHz yield time-averaged electron temperatures of 6.4-11.2 eV for spectra integrated over the entire 20 μs. Time-resolved Te estimations are done using charge coupled device gate widths of 0.25 μs and yield estimates of up to 68 eV during peak spectral activity. Results show that back-fill pressures of 30 and 50 mtorr appear to generate plasma earlier and remain cooler than 10 and 100 mtorr. Poor signal-to-noise ratios produce substantial fluctuation in time-resolved intensities and thus estimation errors, while not quantified here, are assumed high for the time-resolved studies. Additionally, spectra acquired in the UV band verify: 1) the presence of second-order diffraction in the near-IR band from singly ionized xenon transitions and 2) the absence of air (contaminant) spectra. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of Electrode Erosion of Trigatron in Microsecond Arc Discharge Process

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1393 - 1399
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    Trigatrons have been widely used in many fields. However, the performance of trigatrons typically degrades as operational time increases. Among many influence factors, electrode erosion is a primary cause of trigatrons failure. In this paper, the peak current and pulsewidth of trigatrons are in the order of kiloampere (kA) and microsecond (μs), respectively, with an electrode size in the order of millimeters (mm). The discharge images show that the arc appearance looks filamentary in shape during the early period of the discharge. As the discharge process progresses, the arc expands and moves radially to the side surface of the anode. Simultaneously, electrode erosion experiments are conducted on the trigatrons in an atmospheric environment. Experimental results show that the erosion level becomes more serious with an increase of gap distance and discharge current. The weight loss of Mo and W electrodes with erosion times are very close to a linear distribution, however, weight loss rate of W-Cu electrodes increases more dramatically with an increase of erosion times. The erosion of WCu electrode is more pronounced than Mo and W electrodes the volume erosion rate of W is smaller than Mo, but the mass erosion rate of W is higher than Mo. Many cracks always appear on the W and Mo electrode surfaces, which are due to frequent and intensive interaction between the expansion and shrinkage of the electrode material. View full abstract»

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  • Coupling Discharge Between Keyhole Plasma and Arc Plasma in Laser-Arc Welding of Mg Alloy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1400 - 1406
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    This paper describes investigations on the coupling discharge process between laser keyhole plasma and arc plasma during laser-arc welding. The characteristics of single arc plasma and hybrid arc plasma in different locations were comparably estimated by spectral diagnosing. Together with the plasma behavior observation, the particle exchanges between laser keyhole plasma and arc plasma were analyzed. During laser-arc welding, the keyhole plasma acts as an excellent connector between arc plasma and workpiece, resulting in a concentration of electron flows. Coupling discharge leads to the difference in the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state along the column of the hybrid arc plasma. The keyhole part of the hybrid arc plasma possesses the smallest deviation from absolute LTE state, which benefits the transfer from electric energy to heat during welding. View full abstract»

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  • Buoyant-MHD Flows in HCLL Blankets Caused by Spatially Varying Thermal Loads

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1407 - 1412
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    In the helium-cooled lead lithium (HCLL) blanket concept convective phenomena caused by nonuniform thermal conditions due to bulk neutron volumetric heating can occur. Buoyancy can become very important and modify the velocity distribution and related heat transfer performance of the blanket. A numerical study has been performed to investigate liquid metal flows driven by buoyant forces in a breeder unit (BU) of a HCLL test blanket module (TBM) under the influence of intense uniform magnetic fields. According to the last design review, two internal cooling plates subdivide the fluid domain into three slender flow regions, which are thermally and electrically coupled through common walls. First, a uniform volumetric heat source is considered to identify the basic convective patterns that establish in the liquid metal. Results are then compared with those obtained by applying a realistic radial distribution of the power density as obtained from a neutronic analysis. This paper summarizes the main effects of spatial gradients of a neutron thermal load on velocity and temperature distribution in magnetohydrodynamic flows in a BU of a HCLL TBM. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of the Integrated Diagnostics in Equatorial Port Plug #3 of ITER for Minimal Interspace Dose Rate

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1413 - 1420
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    According to Internationa Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) integration procurement arrangements, the installment of diagnostics in a port should not increase the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in the port interspace area by no more than ~50 μSv/h above the baseline, assuming another 50 μSv/h is attributed to contribution from the port structure and other ITER in-vessel components, such that the upper SDDR limit of 100 μSv/h is not exceeded 106 s after shutdown. It was found that placing the initial design of the motional stark effect (MSE) and the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) in the equatorial port #3 resulted in an increase in the SDDR that far exceeded the limit. When we follow the optimization process discussed in this paper, substantial reduction in the port interspace SDDR was achieved. The results of this paper show that even when we combine the optimized CXRS and MSE diagnostics with a third glow discharge diagnostic, the excess of the SDDR over the baseline value did not exceed the allowed upper limit. This paper is based on utilizing the 3-D CAD-based ATTILA code for assessing the SDDR. View full abstract»

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  • EBW Technology Applied on the ICRF Antenna Component

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1421 - 1424
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    Central conductor is one of the key components of ion cyclotron ranges of heating antenna, which is usually formed by welding due to the complex structures. High level of welding seam quality and small deformation are very important to central conductor. Electron beam welding (EBW) is suggested as the central conductor welding. To meet EBW requirements and reduce the risk, complex and high level of the accuracy welding fixture have been designed for central conductor EBW. Some samples were manufactured to do test and examination for EBW qualification before central conductor welding. Based on the welding parameters, thermal analysis using finite element method for the welding seam have been carried out. One mockup of central conductor for EBW has been made for proving welding parameters. In addition, some postwelding process were employed after one central conductor EBW. Results of examination and inspection of one central conductor using EBW are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A Pulse Step Modulator High-Voltage Power Supply for Auxiliary Heating System on the HL-2A Tokamak

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1425 - 1429
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    To supply the cathode voltage for the two gyrotrons (140 GHz/1 MW/3 s) of the electron cyclotron resonant heating system on HL-2A, a high-voltage power supply (HVPS) based on pulse step modulator (PSM) with rated output of 80 kV/200 A has been built. Because the storing energy of the PSM HVPS is much lower than traditional HVPS, it is beneficial to load protection. In the PSM HVPS, there are eight dry-type multiwinding transformers; each transformer has 14 secondary windings. The main insulation of the multiwinding transformer reaches to 150 kV. There are 112 switch power supplies in the PSM HVPS; the output voltage can be regulated from 0 to 80 kV by modulating their delay time and pulsewidths. To realize two gyrotrons parallel operating and respective quick protection for the loads, two solid-state high voltage modulators (SSHVM) based on insulated gate bipolar transistor are applied in the power supply. The over-current and over-voltage protection are executed by turning off the PSM HVPS and the SSHVM. The protection time is <;10 μs. A fully digital controller based on digital signal processor and field programmable gate arrays has been developed to ensure the stability of the output voltage of the PSM HVPS. The design circuit and elements are described, and the test results of the PSM HVPS are given in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Fusion at 10 MK With Extremely Heated ^{3}{\rm He} Ions

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1430 - 1437
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    A new mechanism for plasma fusion at 10 million degree kelvin (MK) with extremely heated (100 MK or hotter) 3He ions was developed. This new mechanism involves a two-stage heating process when an electric current is driven through a multiion plasma with 3He ions. To realize thermonuclear fusion, plasmas must be heated to 100 MK and higher. The ohmic heating process is the simplest, which enables an electric current to heat plasma up to 10 MK. Values above this upper limit the resistivity in the plasma is too low for the electric current to significantly dissipate. The author's previously well-developed theory for solar 3He-rich events has indicated that current-driven electrostatic H (or proton) cyclotron waves can be easily excited at frequency levels approximately twice the 3He-cyclotron frequency, thus very efficient in heating 3He via the second harmonic resonance. The 3He temperature can be increased by a factor of 10-100 within only hundreds of the H gyro-period. This preferential heating of 3He can be applied as the second-stage heating of an ohmically preheated laboratory or tokamak plasma for fusion with 3He. As the electric current is driven through, the plasma is gradually heated up to 10 MK due to the ohmic dissipation and saturates at this level of temperature because of low loss rate. When the electric current is continuously driven up to a critical point, the electrostatic H-cyclotron waves are excited, which can further heat 3He to 100 MK and higher, at which the nuclear fusion between the extremely hot 3He and the other relative cold deuterium (D) ions can occur. In a tokamak (e.g., ITER), if the plasma is composed of e, H, D, and 3He with abundances nH>nD >>n(3He) and when 3He is preferentially heated to 100 MK and higher by the current-driven electrostatic H-cyclotron wav- s, the plasma dominant species of ions (H and D) are still around 10 MK. This new mechanism for plasma fusion at 10 MK with extremely heated 3He ions can also greatly reduce the difficulty in controlling and confining the plasma as well as avoid any explosions of the fusion device when extremely hot 3He ions fuse with relative cold D ions. View full abstract»

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  • Manufacturing and Examination for ITER Blanket First Wall Small-Scale Mockups With KoHLT-EB in Korea

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1438 - 1442
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    The ITER first wall (FW) includes beryllium armor tiles joined to a CuCrZr heat sink. The FWs are one of the critical components in an ITER machine with a surface heat flux of 4.7 MW/m2 or above. The small-scale mockup shall be a part of the qualification tests and used to validate the performance of the dominant manufacturing technologies before the production of larger scale components, and this mockup shall be equipped with a hypervapotron heat sink and manufacturing processes developed for a semiprototype design. The small-scale mockup includes 48 beryllium armor tiles (12 mm × 12 mm) capable of withstanding the specified heat flux values. The tile thickness shall be 6 mm to minimize the beryllium surface temperature and evaporation under high thermal loads. The detailed fabrication process of semiprototype small-scale mockups was developed for a qualification test in Korea. For the CuCrZr and stainless steel, the canned materials are processed into an hot isostatic pressing (HIP) device. In the case of beryllium-to-CuCrZr joining, the HIP was conducted at 580°C and 100 MPa. For nondestructive tests of the fabricated semiprototypes, visual and dimension inspections were performed whenever needed during the fabrication process, and ultrasonic tests were performed using ultrasonic probes. Destructive tests for the qualification semiprototype were performed on a small-scale mockup, which was fabricated together with semiprototypes. The Korea heat load test facility using an electron beam system was constructed with an electron gun (maximum electric power of 800 kW) for a high heat flux application with a 300-kW high-voltage power supply and maximum accelerating voltage of 60 kV. This facility was operated to evaluate the performance test of plasma facing components. A cyclic heat flux test will be performed to evaluate the ITER qualification program. View full abstract»

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  • Progress of Functional Components Design and Analysis of a Korean HCCR TBM in ITER

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1443 - 1448
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    Korea has developed a helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) for testing in a ITER, which consists of functional components to distribute the He coolant to each region such as the first wall (FW), breeding zone (BZ), side wall (SW), and back manifold (BM). In this paper, the detailed design of each component is introduced as follows: 1) FW considering cooling under a structural material temperature limit (550 °C); 2) BZ layer for obtaining tritium breeding ratio and cooling with a breeder, reflector, and multiplier pebbles; 3) SW considering the flow distribution to BZ and internal pressure; 4) BM for uniform flow to FW cooling channels; and 5) He purge line in BZ considering a purge gas distribution in BZ. From the performance analysis of each functional component using the CFD code, ANSYS-CFX with the results of nuclear heating from a neutronic analysis, the results show that the design requirements of KO HCCR TBM were satisfied. View full abstract»

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  • The WEST Project: Challenges of Diagnostic Integration

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1449 - 1456
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    The W -for tungsten- environment in steady-state tokamak (WEST) project consists in transforming the French tokamak Tore Supra into an X-point divertor one and aims at testing the ITER technology of actively cooled high heat flux tungsten components during ITER-relevant long pulses. In addition to the integration in the vacuum vessel of a lower divertor and an upper one, this metamorphosis has a strong impact on diagnostics initially present in Tore Supra. Indeed, the introduction of a divertor in the upper part of the machine leads to block the lines of sight (LOS) of diagnostics previously installed in the upper ports. Therefore, new diagnostics playing a paramount role for the safe tokamak operation need to be implemented, such as an infrared (IR) thermography diagnostic for the protection of plasma-facing components (PFCs) and heating antennas, and a visible spectroscopy system for the protection of tungsten PFCs. Besides, several existing diagnostics need to be modified to adapt their LOS to the new divertor targets and plasma shape. This paper presents the main issues linked to the integration of diagnostics deriving from the WEST project. First, the changes involved by the upgrade on the set of diagnostics currently implemented in Tore Supra are described. Then, a particular focus is put on the integration of the two new optical systems, namely the IR system and the visible spectroscopy one. These two systems being located within the vacuum vessel, a special care must be paid to their design, to allow them to withstand their harsh environmental conditions. Other new or updated fundamental diagnostics are also briefly presented. Finally, the resulting new implementation of diagnostics envisaged to reach the scientific and technological goals of the WEST project is described. View full abstract»

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  • Nuclear Aspects and Blanket Testing/Development Strategy for ST-FNSF

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1457 - 1463
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    One of the main technology missions of a fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) is to validate the performance of an integrated set of in-vessel components in prototypical fusion operating conditions prior to inclusion in demonstration and/or first-of-a-kind power plant. The FNSF developed by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory will enable such integral testing of fusion technologies. The blanket testing and development strategy requires access for a number of test blanket modules (TBMs) and a base blanket installed in the available space surrounding the TBMs and heating/CD ports. A unique feature of the proposed strategy is that the TBMs play a key role and serve as forerunners for a more advanced version of the base blanket. The maximum achievable tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the shielding of all magnets, and the radial build definition are among the numerous design issues investigated in detail. Potential means to increase the TBR were also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Decay Modes of Anode Surface Temperature After Current Zero in Vacuum Arcs-Part I: Experimental Study

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1464 - 1473
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Anode surface temperature has a significant impact on the interruption capacity of a vacuum circuit breaker. The objective of this paper is to experimentally understand the decay process of anode surface temperature after extinguishing a high-vacuum arc with a large contact gap. The anode surface temperature after current zero was measured by a two-color pyrometer and arc modes observation was recorded by a highspeed charge-coupled device. A pair of asymmetric butt type contacts (contact materials: CuCr25 and CuCr50) was subjected to an axial magnetic field in a demountable vacuum chamber. The experimental result shows that there are two modes in decay processes of anode surface temperature: Mode I and Mode II. Mode I describes the anode surface decay process after diffuse low-current extinction and Mode II corresponds to high current extinction. In addition, the decay time of anode surface temperature will last longer, if the proportion of chromium rises from 25% to 50% in anode material. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to “Production of 30-mm Wide DC-Driven Brush-Shaped Cold Plasmas and Simulation on its Discharge Process” [Jun 13 1658-1663]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1474
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    In the above-named work, the affiliation of the first author is incorrect. It is corrected herein. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on Z pinch plasmas

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1475
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  • Special issue on plasma science atmospheric pressure plasma jets and their applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1476
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  • Special issue on plasma-assisted technologies

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1477
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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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