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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C2
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  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1101
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  • Transformation Electromagnetics Devices Based on Printed-Circuit Tensor Impedance Surfaces

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1102 - 1111
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2399 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method for designing transformation electromagnetics devices using tensor impedance surfaces is presented. The method is first applied to idealized tensor impedance boundary conditions (TIBCs), and later to printed-circuit tensor impedance surfaces (PCTISs). A PCTIS is a practical realization of a TIBC. It consists of a tensor impedance sheet, which models a subwavelength patterned metallic cladding, over a grounded dielectric substrate. The method outlined in this paper allows anisotropic TIBCs and PCTISs to be designed that support tangential wave vector distributions and power flow directions specified by a coordinate transformation. As an example, beam-shifting devices are designed, using TIBCs and PCTISs, that allow a surface wave to be shifted laterally. The designs are verified with a commercial full-wave electromagnetic solver. This work opens new opportunities for the design and implementation of anisotropic and inhomogeneous printed-circuit or graphene-based surfaces that can guide or radiate electromagnetic fields. View full abstract»

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  • The Unified-FFT Algorithm for Fast Electromagnetic Analysis of Planar Integrated Circuits Printed on Layered Media Inside a Rectangular Enclosure

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1112 - 1121
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The unified fast Fourier transform (UFFT) methodology is proposed for fast method of moments analysis of dense integrated circuits embedded in layered media inside perfectly electric conducting or perfectly magnetic conducting enclosures of rectangular cross section. The pre-corrected fast Fourier transform (FFT) method is modified to handle the dyadic Green's function (DGF) of shielded layered media through factorization of the DGF into four convolution/correlation terms enabling fast matrix solve operations (MSOs). Calculation of the impedance matrix elements in the form of an infinite series of waveguide modes is cast into the form of a 2-D discrete Fourier transform allowing for fast FFT-accelerated matrix fill operations (MFOs). Fast FFT-enhanced MSOs and MFOs used in conjunction form the UFFT method. The computational complexity and memory requirements for the proposed UFFT solver scale as O(NlogN) and O(N), respectively, where N is the number of unknowns in the discrete approximation of the governing integral equation. New criteria specific to shielded circuits for the projection of the current expansion functions on a uniform FFT grid are developed. The accuracy and efficiency of the solver is demonstrated through its application to multiple examples of full-wave analysis of large planar circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband FDTD-Based Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Dispersive Electromagnetic Structures

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1122 - 1134
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    We propose a wideband adjoint variable method for sensitivity analysis of dispersive structures utilizing finite difference time domain (FDTD). Using only one extra FDTD simulation, the sensitivities of the desired response are estimated over the frequency band of interest with respect to all the design parameters. The presented theory is based on direct discretization of Maxwell's equations. We derive the equations of the adjoint system for problems with different types of dispersion profiles including the Lorentz, Drude, and Debye models. The validation of our approaches is done through comparison with the expensive finite-difference approach applied at the response level. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel Space-Mapping Approach to EM Optimization

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1135 - 1148
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    Space mapping (SM) is a recognized method for speeding up electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Existing SM approaches are mostly based on sequential computation mechanism. This paper proposes a parallel SM method for EM optimization. In the proposed method, the surrogate model developed in each iteration is trained to match the fine model at multiple points simultaneously. Multi-point training and SM enables the surrogate model to be valid in a larger neighborhood than that in standard SM. The proposed formulation of multi-point surrogate model training is inherently suited to and implemented through parallel computation. This includes multiple fine model evaluation in parallel and multi-point surrogate training using a parallel algorithm. Our proposed method further reduces the number of SM iterations and speeds up the optimization process in comparison with the standard SM. This technique is illustrated by three microwave filter examples. View full abstract»

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  • Rotary Traveling-Wave Oscillator With Differential Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1149 - 1161
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    A methodology for the harmonic-balance analysis and design of rotary-traveling wave oscillator is presented. Two different implementations are compared. The first one is the standard configuration based on a distributed transmission lines. The second one is a new configuration based on a differential nonlinear transmission line (NLTL), which enables the generation of square waveforms with reduced number of stages, while still maintaining the capability to produce multiphase signals. The possible coexistence of oscillation modes is investigated with a detailed bifurcation analysis versus practical parameters such as the device bias voltage. The phase-noise spectrum is predicted from the variance of the common phase deviation. The parameters that determine this variance are identified with the conversion-matrix approach. The two prototypes, based on a distributed transmission line and a differential NLTL, have been manufactured and characterized experimentally, obtaining very good agreement between simulations and measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Multi-Stub Loaded Resonators and Their Applications to Various Bandpass Filters

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1162 - 1172
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3013 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new class of multi-stub loaded resonators with flexibly controlled resonance modes, which are suitable for both tunable and nontunable filter applications. The proposed resonators, modified from a basic tri-mode resonator, include two quad-mode ones and a six-mode one. One of the quad-mode resonators is utilized to design a reconfigurable dual-band filter with tunable lower passband and fixed upper passband. The other quad-mode resonator is applied to design a bandpass filter (BPF) with very high skirt selectivity. The six-mode resonator is suitable for tri-band BPFs with individually controllable passband frequencies and bandwidths. All three circuits are theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Comparisons of the measured and simulated results are presented to verify various applications of the resonators. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Bandpass Filters by Using Cavity-Loaded Dielectric Resonators in a Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1173 - 1182
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents novel bandpass filters by using a triple-mode dielectric resonator (DR) implemented in a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). The resonant frequency and unloaded Q-factor of the DR were first calculated and simulated by Ansoft HFSS. The dimensions of the DR were then determined. A single triple-mode SIW loaded with a DR filter with tuning elements was designed, simulated, and measured. Spurious suppression with source and load couplings, as well as fabrication tolerance, was analyzed. A six-mode filter that uses two DRs was also proposed and measured. These filters exhibit close agreements between the simulation and measurement results and have the advantages of low insertion loss, compact configuration, and easy integration with other planar circuits. The proposed concept is very attractive for designing low cost, low insertion loss, and miniaturized filters for wireless communication systems. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Design of Broadband Microwave Baluns Using Single-Layer Planar Circuit Technology

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1183 - 1191
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new design methodology is presented for the planar implementation of a classical Marchand balun. A novel intuitive analysis shows that the Marchand configuration can be designed optimally to eliminate the phenomenon of “trace separation,” which is frequently observed in planar implementations. The new theory shows that this unbalancing effect is caused by the parasitic transmission line formed between the inner strip and ground, which is not considered in Marchand's original coaxial structures. Compact design equations are derived, based on which a new innovative structure is proposed and fabricated. This demonstrates the elimination of trace separation and achieves flat equal port split over a double octave bandwidth, performing up to 10 GHz, using an industry standard single-layer thin-film process having a continuous unpatterned ground plane. Popular planar variants of Marchand's original structures are also designed and fabricated to verify the new design equations. These structures are compared in terms of bandwidth, trace separation, and balanced port impedances. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband In-Phase and Out-of-Phase Balanced Power Dividing and Combining Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1192 - 1202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3119 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two new wideband in-phase and out-of-phase balanced power dividing/combining networks are proposed in this paper. Based on matrix transformation, the differential-mode and common-mode equivalent circuits of the two wideband in-phase and out-of-phase networks can be easily deduced. A patterned ground-plane technique is used to realize the strong coupling of the shorted coupled lines for the differential mode. Two planar wideband in-phase and out-of-phase balanced networks with bandwidths of 55.3% and 64.4% for the differential mode with wideband common-mode suppression are designed and fabricated. The theoretical and measured results agree well with each other and show good in-band performances. View full abstract»

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  • Coupled Loops for High-Frequency Chip-to-Antenna Interconnection at 24 GHz

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1203 - 1211
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the use of two coupled loops as an alternative method of connection for high-frequency signals between passive elements on microwave laminates and integrated circuits (ICs) replacing traditional interconnect methods such as wire bonds and solder bumps, which require costly post back-end-of-line processing. The loops harness both electric and magnetic fields in order to create the interconnection. Additionally, they can be placed around the perimeter of the IC where they would not occupy space that may be required for other components such as spiral inductors. In order to test the chip-to-antenna system, the interconnect was fabricated with one metallic loop on a low-loss microwave laminate and another on a 0.13- μm CMOS IC. These loops were then stacked in order to couple the signal from an IC onto a planar antenna array (printed on the laminate). This antenna-to-chip system was measured to have a center frequency near 23 GHz, with fractional bandwidth of 15%, and a peak antenna gain over 5 dBi; the transmission loss in the loop coupling is estimated to be 0.5 dB at 19 GHz (89% power transfer). The radiation pattern from the antenna (a four-element uniform array of bow-tie dipoles) has a 3-dB beamwidth of 16 ° in the elevation plane and 90 ° in the azimuth plane, making it potentially useful for application in mass-produced automotive radar systems, where harsh conditions create demand for a more robust interconnect method than wire bonding. View full abstract»

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  • A Harmonic Termination Technique for Single- and Multi-Band High-Efficiency Class-F MMIC Power Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1212 - 1220
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a harmonic termination technique for single- and multi-band high-efficiency class-F monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs). The harmonic termination network (HTN), realized with the minimum possible number of elements, can be used to terminate an arbitrary number of harmonics in a single-band PA or harmonics of multiple frequencies in a concurrent multi-band PA. The drain and gate bias lines are embedded in the HTNs to obviate the need for RF chokes and reduce the chip area. A single- and a dual-band MMIC PA are designed using the proposed technique and implemented in a 0.25- μm AlGaAs-InGaAs pHEMT technology. The single-band 5.5-GHz PA provides 27.5 dBm of output power with 70% power-added efficiency (PAE). This PAE level is achieved by terminating the first five harmonics at the output as well as the first three harmonics at the input of PA. The dual-band PA, operating at 5 and 12 GHz, delivers the output power of 28.0 and 26.7 dBm with PAE of 58% and 51%, at the two frequency bands, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A 2.7-mW 1.36–1.86-GHz LC-VCO With a FOM of 202 dBc/Hz Enabled by a 26%-Size-Reduced Nano-Particle-Magnetic-Enhanced Inductor

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1221 - 1228
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports the first LC voltage-controlled oscillator (LC-VCO) in CMOS utilizing a novel nontraditional compact inductor with integrated vertical nano particles magnetic core (Ni-Zn-Cu) to improve the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the VCO circuit. The new magnetic-enhanced inductor, fabricated in an integrated-circuit back-end using a CMOS-compatible process, improves inductance density ( L-density) and quality factor ( Q-factor) up to 7 GHz. A 1.36-1.86-GHz VCO with a nano-ferrite-integrated inductor was fabricated in a 180-nm RF CMOS. Measurements show that the magnetic-cored inductor improves the L-density and Q-factor by 49.8% and 59.2% at 1.8 GHz, respectively, while reducing the size by 26%. The VCO achieves reduced power consumption of 2.7 mW at a 1.8-V supply, low phase noise of less than -121, and -126 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz and 1-MHz frequencies offset, and a high FOM of 202 dBc/Hz. This prototype VCO demonstrates that the new vertical-nano-magnetic-cored inductor technology is a potential solution to high-performance low-cost compact RF systems-on-chip. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Noise and High-Linearity Wideband CMOS Receiver Front-End Stacked With Glass Integrated Passive Devices

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1229 - 1238
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    This paper presents a stacked RF front-end (RFE) package for wideband receiver applications. While having a power consumption of 18 mW, the flipped CMOS chip consisting of a low-noise amplifier and a quadrature down-conversion mixer stacks on a glass integrated passive device (GIPD) substrate, subsequently achieving a noise figure of 2.2-2.8 dB and a conversion gain of 23-25 dB over 1-6 GHz. Moreover, the RFE package uses a GIPD balun with a high common-mode rejection ratio and a post-distortion linearizer in the CMOS mixer, subsequently resulting in an IIP2 of 57-68 dBm and an IIP3 of -5.2- -3.5 dBm over the entire operating band. This paper also elucidates how coupling between the flipped CMOS chip and GIPD balun affects the RFE linearity. Fabricated with 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the flipped CMOS chip is packaged on the GIPD substrate with a footprint area of 1.8×1.8 mm2. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum-setting and calibration procedures for heterodyne measurements of amplitude and phase noise in high-frequency amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1239 - 1248
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    An overview of several calibration stages has been studied and developed to obtain an optimum setting for phase and amplitude noise measurements through heterodyne techniques, which allows to measure white and flicker noise from amplifiers in the presence of a carrier signal. A technique to obtain a reliable calibration of phase and gain conversion of the measuring blocks is also presented, where the calibration of conversion factors and null conditions, using amplitude and phase modulators for each, phase and amplitude noise levels, have been fully characterized to suppress uncertainties in the measuring process. Furthermore, we introduce a procedure to measure noise of amplifiers in the presence of carrier signal based on a reference noise source and a known lossy line, which allows to determine the noise delivered from the source generator, and the contribution of the setup required for the measurement. We have found a good correlation of the measurements in small signal in comparison with the Y-factor. White noise of matched passive components was measured with the technique presented, obtaining an error of ±0.15 dB. Measurements of an SiGe-HBT amplifier designed for low phase noise are also reported. The technique has also been applied for flicker noise measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Indoor Ranging by Broadband Harmonic Generation in Passive NLTL Backscatter Tags

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1249 - 1261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2516 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Millimeter-precision meter-distance real-time indoor ranging capability is challenging due to multipath reflections in a rich scattering environment. Traditional continuous wave (CW) phase-based ranging methods, although simple and flexible, are vulnerable to phase offsets and interferences. We improve the previous CW approach by passive broadband harmonic nonlinear-transmission-line (NLTL) tags. Since phase information is now contained within the second harmonic rather than the fundamental frequency, interferences and phase errors caused by direct reflections of the interrogating signal are greatly reduced. By the broadband property of NLTL, a heuristic multi-frequency CW method is formulated to resolve the phase integer ambiguity and to further improve ranging accuracy and robustness even under large phase errors. We present theoretical and simulation analyses, followed by experimental verification. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on power amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1262
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  • 2014 IEEE membership application

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1263 - 1264
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques information for authors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org