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Review of Scientific Instruments

Issue 4 • Date Apr 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 111
  • Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    Page(s): 043101 - 043101-9
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    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers. View full abstract»

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  • Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases

    Page(s): 043102 - 043102-13
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    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold 87Rb and 39K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 104 87Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold 39K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems. View full abstract»

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  • Freestanding sample holder for ultrafast optical spectroscopy at low temperatures

    Page(s): 043103 - 043103-3
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    Ultrafast optical spectroscopy techniques are often employed to gain information about samples that are liquid at room temperature and frozen at cryogenic temperatures. However, the measurements suffer from the presence of unwanted, non-resonant signals originating in the sample cell walls. Most of these artifacts can be avoided in the measurements performed at room temperature by using liquid jet systems, i.e., by removing the sample cell. However, these systems cannot be used in low temperature measurements, when the sample is frozen. Herein we describe a freestanding sample holder that allows low temperature ultrafast spectroscopy measurements free of artifacts caused by the sample cell. View full abstract»

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  • Calibration of a gated flat field spectrometer as a function of x-ray intensity

    Page(s): 043104 - 043104-6
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    We present an experimental determination of the response of a gated flat-field spectrometer at the Shenguang-II laser facility. X-rays were emitted from a target that was heated by laser beams and then were divided into different intensities with a step aluminum filter and collected by a spectrometer. The transmission of the filter was calibrated using the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The response characteristics of the spectrometer were determined by comparing the counts recorded by the spectrometer with the relative intensities of the x-rays transmitted through the step aluminum filter. The response characteristics were used to correct the transmission from two shots of an opacity experiment using the same samples. The transmissions from the two shots are consistent with corrections, but discrepant without corrections. View full abstract»

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  • Direct inversion methods for spectral amplitude modulation of femtosecond pulses

    Page(s): 043105 - 043105-6
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    In the present work, we applied an amplitude-spatial light modulator to shape the spectral amplitude of femtosecond pulses in a single step, without an iterative algorithm, by using an inversion method defined as the generalized retardance function. Additionally, we also present a single step method to shape the intensity profile defined as the influence matrix. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both methods. View full abstract»

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  • An ultra-high vacuum electrochemical flow cell for in situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopy study

    Page(s): 043106 - 043106-7
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    An in situ flow electrochemical cell has been designed and fabricated to allow better seal under UHV chamber thus to achieve a good signal to noise ratio in fluorescence yield detection of X-ray absorption spectra for spectroelectrochemical study. The cell also stabilizes the thin silicon nitride membrane window in an effective manner so that the liquid cell remains intact during X-ray absorption experiments. With the improved design of the liquid cell, electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry have been performed for 10 cycles with a good stability of sample window. Also an operando electrochemical experiment during photoelectrochemistry has been performed on n-type hematite electrode deposited on silicon nitride window. The experiment allows us to observe the formation of two extra electronic transitions before pre edge of O K-edge spectra. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

    Page(s): 043107 - 043107-4
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    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range. View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    Page(s): 043108 - 043108-9
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    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm2 focal spot source with full polarization control. View full abstract»

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  • Optical fiber Sagnac interferometer for sensing scalar directional refraction: Application to magnetochiral birefringence

    Page(s): 043109 - 043109-7
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    We present a setup dedicated to the measurement of the small scalar directional anisotropies associated to the magnetochiral interaction. The apparatus, based on a polarization-independent fiber Sagnac interferometer, is optimized to be insensitive to circular anisotropies and to residual absorption. It can thus characterize samples of biological interests, for which the two enantiomers are not available and/or which present poor transmission. The signal-to-noise ratio is shown to be limited only by the source intensity noise, leading to a detection limit of Δϕ = 500 nrad Hz−1/2. It yields a limit on the magnetochiral index nMC < 4 × 10−13 T−1 at 1.55 μm for the organic molecules tested. View full abstract»

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  • Open-loop correction for an eddy current dominated beam-switching magnet

    Page(s): 043301 - 043301-4
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    A beam-switching magnet and the pulsed power supply it requires have been developed for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. To switch bunched proton beams, the dipole magnetic field must reach its maximum value within 40 ms. In addition, the field flatness should be less than 5 × 10−4 to guide each bunched beam to the designed orbit. From a magnetic field measurement by using a long search coil, it was found that an eddy current in the thick endplates and laminated core disturbs the rise of the magnetic field. The eddy current also deteriorates the field flatness over the required flat-top period. The measured field flatness was 5 × 10−3. By using a double-exponential equation to approximate the measured magnetic field, a compensation pattern for the eddy current was calculated. The integrated magnetic field was measured while using the newly developed open-loop compensation system. A field flatness of less than 5 × 10−4, which is an acceptable value, was achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Empirical assessment of the detection efficiency of CR-39 at high proton fluence and a compact, proton detector for high-fluence applications

    Page(s): 043302 - 043302-7
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    CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, and under ideal conditions these detectors have 100% detection efficiency for ∼0.5–8 MeV protons. When the fluence of incident particles becomes too high, overlap of particle tracks leads to under-counting at typical processing conditions (5 h etch in 6N NaOH at 80 °C). Short etch times required to avoid overlap can cause under-counting as well, as tracks are not fully developed. Experiments have determined the minimum etch times for 100% detection of 1.7–4.3-MeV protons and established that for 2.4-MeV protons, relevant for detection of DD protons, the maximum fluence that can be detected using normal processing techniques is ≲3 × 106 cm−2. A CR-39-based proton detector has been developed to mitigate issues related to high particle fluences on ICF facilities. Using a pinhole and scattering foil several mm in front of the CR-39, proton fluences at the CR-39 are reduced by more than a factor of ∼50, increasing the operating yield upper limit by a comparable amount. View full abstract»

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  • University of Lodz an electron spectrometer—A new conversion-electron spectrometer for “in-beam” measurements

    Page(s): 043303 - 043303-7
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    The designed and constructed at the University of Lodz an electron spectrometer is devoted to “in-beam” measurements. The apparatus is characterized by high efficiency up to 9%, good energy resolution (FWHM = 5 keV at 482 keV) and, what is very important good suppression of delta electrons, positrons, and photons emitted by the targets. This achievement was obtained using a combination of magnetic field in two different layouts: perpendicular and parallel to the axis of the spectrometer being orthogonal to the beamline. The conversion-electron spectrometer coupled to the EAGLE array was successfully tested in an “in-beam” measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Design, development, and acceleration trials of radio-frequency quadrupole

    Page(s): 043304 - 043304-10
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    A deuteron radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested at BARC, which will be used for neutron generation. The RFQ operates at a frequency of 350 MHz and needs an inter-vane voltage of 44 kV to accelerate the deuteron beam to 400 keV within a length of 1.03 m. The error analysis shows that the offset of two opposite vanes in the same direction by 100 μm leads to a change in resonant frequency by 1.3 MHz and a significant change of fields in the quadrants (∼±40% with respect to average field). From the 3D analysis, we have observed that the unwanted dipole mode frequencies are very near to the quadrupole mode frequency which will make structure sensitive to the perturbations. In order to move the dipole modes away from the quadrupole modes, we have used the dipole stabilizer rods. The 5 wire transmission line theory was used to study the perturbative analysis of the RFQ and based on this a computer program has been written to tune the cavity to get required field distribution. Based on these studies, a 1.03 m long RFQ made of OFE copper has been fabricated and tested. Even though the RFQ was designed for deuteron (D+) beam, we tested it by accelerating both the proton (H+) and D+ beams. The RFQ was operated in pulsed mode and accelerated both H+ and D+ beams to designed values of 200 and 400 keV, respectively. The measured parameters are in good agreement with the designed values validating our simulations and fabrication processes. In this paper, simulations, RF measurements, and beam commissioning results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Improved spectral data unfolding for radiochromic film imaging spectroscopy of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Page(s): 043305 - 043305-12
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    An improved method to unfold the space-resolved proton energy distribution function of laser-accelerated proton beams using a layered, radiochromic film (RCF) detector stack has been developed. The method takes into account the reduced RCF response near the Bragg peak due to a high linear energy transfer (LET). This LET dependence of the active RCF layer has been measured, and published data have been re-interpreted to find a nonlinear saturation scaling of the RCF response with stopping power. Accounting for the LET effect increased the integrated particle yield by 25% after data unfolding. An iterative, analytical, space-resolved deconvolution of the RCF response functions from the measured dose was developed that does not rely on fitting. After the particle number unfold, three-dimensional interpolation is performed to determine the spatial proton beam distribution for proton energies in-between the RCF data points. Here, image morphing has been implemented as a novel interpolation method that takes into account the energy-dependent, changing beam topology. View full abstract»

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  • A compact fast ionization gauge for in situ measurement of high-density neutral flow dynamics

    Page(s): 043501 - 043501-6
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    A compact ionization gauge has been developed to carry out in situ measurements of high density (1020–1022 m−3) neutral gas flow dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution. Key design aspects are discussed including gauge sensitivity and time response scaling with decreased probe dimensions, high-pressure operation, improved driver circuit bandwidth, and techniques for constructing a miniaturized probe head. Gas adsorption was discovered to significantly alter emission current and gauge sensitivity over timescales of several seconds. This effect must be taken into consideration when making time-resolved, high-density measurements. Over short timescales gauge response was predicted by scaling the sensitivity of a nominal Bayard-Alpert gauge to account for variations in probe dimensions and species-dependent ionization cross-section. Time-resolved neutral density profiles have been acquired in the Magnetized Shock Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory, providing data on the initial conditions of the ionization, plasmoid formation, and translation processes. It is shown that the desired density profiles can be achieved using a dynamic gas fill and that density can be scaled independently of the spatial profile. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical compensation of axisymmetric equilibrium fluxes picked up by locked mode detectors in tokamaks

    Page(s): 043502 - 043502-7
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    In the detection of locked modes using saddle loops, the problem of how to remove the axisymmetric equilibrium flux picked up by the loops has still to be solved. The problem becomes more difficult when there are conductive structures located near the saddle loops. In this paper, we present an analytical model based on lumped eddy current circuits and use it to interpret the measured equilibrium flux and the corresponding eddy current fluxes. Using this model, precise compensation for fluxes induced by the horizontal field coils and the toroidal field coils, with relative errors of less than 1%, has been realized for the saddle loops in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak. This paper also presents a new method to compensate for the detection of equilibrium flux by the locked mode detector. View full abstract»

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  • Second generation fusion neutron time-of-flight spectrometer at optimized rate for fully digital data acquisition

    Page(s): 043503 - 043503-9
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    The progress on high-rate event recording of data is taken as starting point to revisit the design of fusion neutron spectrometers based on the TOF (time-of-flight) technique. The study performed was aimed at how such instruments for optimized rate (TOFOR) can be further developed to enhance the plasma diagnostic capabilities based on measurement of the 2.5 MeV dd neutron emission from D plasmas, especially the weak spectral components that depend on discrimination of extraneous events. This paper describes a design (TOFOR II) adapted for use with digital wave form recording of all detector pulses providing information on both amplitude (pulse height) and timing. The results of simulations are presented and the performance enhancement is assessed in comparison to the present. View full abstract»

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  • Monochromatic short pulse laser produced ion beam using a compact passive magnetic device

    Page(s): 043504 - 043504-5
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    High-intensity laser accelerated protons and ions are emerging sources with complementary characteristics to those of conventional sources, namely high charge, high current, and short bunch duration, and therefore can be useful for dedicated applications. However, these beams exhibit a broadband energy spectrum when, for some experiments, monoenergetic beams are required. We present here an adaptation of conventional chicane devices in a compact form (10 cm × 20 cm) which enables selection of a specific energy interval from the broadband spectrum. This is achieved by employing magnetic fields to bend the trajectory of the laser produced proton beam through two slits in order to select the minimum and maximum beam energy. The device enables a production of a high current, short duration source with a reproducible output spectrum from short pulse laser produced charged particle beams. View full abstract»

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  • Inversion of infrared imaging bolometer based on one-dimensional and three-dimensional modeling in HL-2A

    Page(s): 043505 - 043505-6
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    Linear regularization has been applied to the HL-2A infrared imaging bolometer to reconstruct local plasma emission with one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling under the assumption of toroidal symmetry. In the 3D modeling, a new method to calculate the detector point response function is introduced. This method can be adapted to an arbitrarily shaped pinhole. With the full 3D treatment of the detector geometry, up to 50% of the mean-squared error is reduced compared with the 1D modeling. This is attributed to the effects of finite detector size being taken into account in the 3D modeling. Meanwhile, the number of the bolometer pixels has been optimized to 20 × 20 by making a trade-off between the number of bolometer pixels and the sensitivity of the system. The plasma radiated power density distributions have been calculated as a demonstration using 1D modeling and 3D modeling, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Single crystal diamond detector measurements of deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium neutrons in Joint European Torus fusion plasmas

    Page(s): 043506 - 043506-8
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    First simultaneous measurements of deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium neutrons from deuterium plasmas using a Single crystal Diamond Detector are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed at JET with a dedicated electronic chain that combined high count rate capabilities and high energy resolution. The deposited energy spectrum from DD neutrons was successfully reproduced by means of Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response function and simulations of neutron emission from the plasma, including background contributions. The reported results are of relevance for the development of compact neutron detectors with spectroscopy capabilities for installation in camera systems of present and future high power fusion experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    Page(s): 043507 - 043507-10
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    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r2 decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm2 and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects. View full abstract»

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  • A new method for determining the plasma electron density using optical frequency comb interferometer

    Page(s): 043508 - 043508-9
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    A new method of plasma electron density measurement using interferometric phases (fractional fringes) of an optical frequency comb interferometer is proposed. Using the characteristics of the optical frequency comb laser, high density measurement can be achieved without fringe counting errors. Simulations show that the short wavelength and wide wavelength range of the laser source and low noise in interferometric phases measurements are effective to reduce ambiguity of measured density. View full abstract»

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  • A spatially resolved retarding field energy analyzer design suitable for uniformity analysis across the surface of a semiconductor wafer

    Page(s): 043509 - 043509-6
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    A novel retarding field energy analyzer design capable of measuring the spatial uniformity of the ion energy and ion flux across the surface of a semiconductor wafer is presented. The design consists of 13 individual, compact-sized, analyzers, all of which are multiplexed and controlled by a single acquisition unit. The analyzers were tested to have less than 2% variability from unit to unit due to tight manufacturing tolerances. The main sensor assembly consists of a 300 mm disk to mimic a semiconductor wafer and the plasma sampling orifices of each sensor are flush with disk surface. This device is placed directly on top of the rf biased electrode, at the wafer location, in an industrial capacitively coupled plasma reactor without the need for any modification to the electrode structure. The ion energy distribution, average ion energy, and average ion flux were measured at the 13 locations over the surface of the powered electrode to determine the degree of spatial nonuniformity. The ion energy and ion flux are shown to vary by approximately 20% and 5%, respectively, across the surface of the electrode for the range of conditions investigated in this study. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-frequency range, dynamic matching network and power system for the “Shoelace” radio frequency antenna on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Page(s): 043510 - 043510-10
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    A wide-frequency range (50–300 kHz) power system has been implemented for use with a new RF antenna – the “Shoelace” antenna – built to drive coherent plasma fluctuations in the edge of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. A custom, dynamically tunable matching network allows two commercial 1 kW, 50-Ω RF amplifiers to drive the low-impedance, inductive load presented by the antenna. This is accomplished by a discretely variable L-match network, with 81 independently selected steps available for each of the series and parallel legs of the matching configuration. A compact programmable logic device provides a control system that measures the frequency with better than 1 kHz accuracy and transitions to the correct tuning state in less than 1 ms. At least 85% of source power is dissipated in the antenna across the operational frequency range, with a minimum frequency slew rate of 1 MHz/s; the best performance is achieved in the narrower band from 80 to 150 kHz which is of interest in typical experiments. The RF frequency can be run with open-loop control, following a pre-programmed analog waveform, or phase-locked to track a plasma fluctuation diagnostic signal in real time with programmable phase delay; the amplitude control is always open-loop. The control waveforms and phase delay are programmed remotely. These tools have enabled first-of-a-kind measurements of the tokamak edge plasma system response in the frequency range and at the wave number at which coherent fluctuations regulate heat and particle transport through the plasma boundary. View full abstract»

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  • Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10–130 Å on the large helical device

    Page(s): 043511 - 043511-12
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    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10–130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Zeff and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 1013 cm−3, when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3–2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10–18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer- system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength response of the used filters are also presented with performance of the present spectrometer system. View full abstract»

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Review of Scientific Instruments, published by the American Institute of Physics, is devoted to scientific instruments, apparatus, and techniques.

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Albert T. Macrander
Argonne National Laboratory