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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March-April 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 77
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C1 - 943
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C2
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  • Recognition of 2013 Transactions and Magazine Papers Reviewers

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 944 - 958
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  • Parameter Identification of Linear Induction Motor Model in Extended Range of Operation by Means of Input-Output Data

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 959 - 972
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a technique for the off-line estimation of the electrical parameters of the equivalent circuit of linear induction machines (LIM), taking into consideration the end effects, and focuses on the application of an algorithm based on the minimization of a suitable cost function involving the differences of measured and computed by simulation inductor current components. This method exploits an entire start-up transient of the LIM to estimate all the 4 electrical parameters of the machine (Rs, Ls, σLs, Tr). It proposes also a set of tests to be made to estimate the variation of the magnetic parameters of the LIM versus the magnetizing current as well as the magnetizing curve of the machine. Moreover, a methodology for the estimation of the mechanical parameters of the model is proposed as well. The proposed methodology has been verified experimentally on suitably developed test set-up. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Improvement in Flux-Switching PM Machines Using Flux Diverters

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 973 - 978
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several schemes for mechanical (as against electrical) flux weakening in permanent-magnet (PM) machines have been proposed in recent literature. Although the detailed arrangements differ depending upon whether the magnets are mounted on the rotor or the stator, the principle remains broadly the same. A movable piece of magnetic steel is used to “short” or divert the magnet flux such that the amount of flux crossing the airgap can be varied between a maximum and a minimum level. While previous work on mechanical flux weakening in flux-switching PM machines has emphasized performance improvement achieved mainly through enhanced operating speed range, this paper, based on both analytical and experimental results, demonstrates performance improvement in three other areas, namely, reduction in electromotive force at maximum speed, reduction in open-circuit loss, and enhancement in efficiency under light load. View full abstract»

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  • Interior PM Machines Using Ferrite to Replace Rare-Earth Surface PM Machines

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 979 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since the cost of rare-earth permanent magnets (PMs), such as NdFeB and SmCo, is more and more increasing, there is a great interest in designing PM machines without adopting such rare-earth PMs, i.e., replacing them with cheaper ferrite magnets. Referring to the interior PM (IPM) machines, the expected performance reduction is limited owing to the anisotropic structure: The reluctance (REL) torque component compensates for the use of low-energy PMs. This paper investigates the convenience of adopting ferrite magnets in an IPM machine (sometimes also referred to as PM-assisted synchronous REL machine), instead of a rare-earth surface-mounted PM machine. It is shown that, even though a lengthening of the stack length is required, the anisotropic PM machine that adopts ferrite magnets may represent a valid competitor of a surface PM machine with rare-earth PMs. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of the Fault Characteristics of IPM-Type and SPM-Type BLDC Motors Under Inter-Turn Fault Conditions Using Winding Function Theory

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 986 - 994
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the characteristics of brushless dc (BLDC) motors were compared and analyzed according to the types and control methods under the inter-turn fault (ITF) condition. The shorted windings produced by the ITF were modeled by the winding function theory (WFT) based on the distributed constant circuit method. We also introduced the inductance calculated by the WFT to the voltage equation and analyzed the effect of the ITF using the characteristics of the input and output parameters. The increase rate of torque ripple, increase rate of input current, and the circulating current of the surface permanent-magnet (PM) and interior PM motors under healthy and ITF conditions were compared to determine which motor type is more efficient in preventing the ITF. We also analyzed the fault characteristics by applying the advanced angle control. In this paper, the analysis results are validated by the finite-element method and experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Comparison of Machine and Converter Losses for PWM and PAM in High-Speed Drives

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 995 - 1006
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    For variable-speed drives, the interaction of the machine and the converter is becoming increasingly important, especially for high-speed applications, mainly due to the effect of the converter modulation on the machine losses. The allocation of the losses to different components of the drive system needs to be known in order to choose the ideal machine and modulation combination. In this paper, individual models are introduced for calculating the rotor, copper, and core losses of the machine as well as the inverter losses, taking the modulation type into account. These models are developed by considering two typical high-speed permanent-magnet synchronous motor topologies (slotted and slotless machines) driven by pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) and pulsewidth modulation (PWM) converters. The models are applied to two off-the-shelf machines and a converter operating with either PAM or PWM. The test bench used to experimentally verify the models is also described, and the model results are compared to the measurements. The results show that PAM produces a higher overall efficiency for the high-speed machines considered in this paper. However, PWM can be used to move the losses from the rotor to the converter at the expense of decreasing the overall drive efficiency. The possible benefits of these results are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Electromechanical Actuator for Helicopter Rotor Damper Application

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1007 - 1014
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2114 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Development trends in aeronautics involve a better employment of electric motors also in safety critical hazardous applications until now covered by mechanical systems. The electromechanical actuators (EMAs) are gaining a growing interest owing to their force and power density capability and the high dynamical performance by electronic control. Hence, very compact and high-efficiency drives can be designed, with satisfactory characteristics from the reliability point of view. This paper refers to a rotor damper system for helicopter application, using specifically designed permanent-magnet motors as EMAs. Design criteria and details will be presented focused on the integration of the electrical machine inside such specific application. Reports of analyses and tests carried out on the motor prototypes are included to confirm the capabilities and the performances of the proposed solution. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Evaluation of a Variable-Flux Flux-Intensifying Interior Permanent-Magnet Machine

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1015 - 1024
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1865 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a design approach for interior permanent-magnet (IPM) machines with variable-flux characteristics using low-coercive-force magnets for improved efficiency and extended operating speed range. A flux-intensifying IPM type with is used in the design due to positive Id operation and reduced loaded Iq effects. Design considerations of machine structures and variable-flux machine attributes are discussed. In addition, leakage flux in a rotor is particularly designed to also obtain another flux-varying capability. Evaluation of the designed machine is provided by finite-element analysis simulations and experiments on a proof-of-principle machine. The designed machine shows benefits in increasing efficiency and speed range in a low-torque region when variable magnetization control of the low-coercive-force magnets or the design of the leakage flux proposed in this paper is implemented. View full abstract»

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  • Aerodynamic Fluid Bearings for Translational and Rotating Capacitors in Noncontact Capacitive Power Transfer Systems

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1025 - 1033
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is commonly accomplished with magnetic (inductive) techniques for a wide range of applications. Electrostatic or capacitive power transfer (CPT) approaches to WPT have had limited exposure primarily due to lower achievable power density when compared to inductive WPT techniques. Recently, high-frequency (in kilohertz to megahertz) power electronics have reintroduced capacitive techniques as an option for WPT over short distances ( <; 2 mm) for applications such as slip ring replacement. To further the practicality of CPT, capacitive coupling must be maximized in an effective manner, i.e., the volumetric capacitance density of rotating/translational capacitors must be significantly increased. This paper proposes the use of aerodynamic fluid bearings to maximize capacitive coupling between stationary and moving surfaces, by minimizing their separation distance, allowing for greater surface area per unit volume. The technique allows micrometers of separation distance between moving surfaces while maintaining manufacturability and mechanical robustness. Coupling capacitance is increased up to 100 times greater than rigid plate rotating and translational CPT systems. Additional benefits include the estimation of mechanical system parameters such as speed. Operational characteristics and design highlights are presented and corroborated with experimental results for general slip ring replacement applications. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Supply Voltage Distortion on the Energy Efficiency of Line-Start Permanent-Magnet Motors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1034 - 1043
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Similar to standard three phase direct on line induction motors are three phase line-start permanent-magnet machines (LSPMMs) susceptible to grid voltage distortion. Although straight forward adaptation of harmonic loss mechanisms for standard squirrel-cage induction motors to LSPMMs seems appropriate, this study will indicate that harmonic loss calculations of induction machines are unsuitable to give accurate or even reasonable estimations of the influence of supply voltage distortion on the energy efficiency of LSPMMs. This research will specifically address the interaction of rotor-induced harmonic currents. Finite-element modeling is used in order to address the effect of supply voltage distortion on the segregated losses of an LSPMM. Finite-element modeling (FEM) allocates the majority of the harmonic loss to the rotor and shows shifting the relative phase angle between identical magnitudes of superimposed supply distortion of fifth and seventh order can result in a 30% reduction of rotor loss and 0.5 percentage points in overall energy efficiency. The results obtained by FEM are validated by practical measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Scaling Rules for Brushless PM Synchronous Machines Based on Optimal Design Studies for a Wide Range of Power Ratings

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1044 - 1052
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A large-scale unitary study for a generic topology of surface-mounted permanent-magnet brushless motors operated from sine-wave current-regulated drives is described. A parametric motor model employing eight independent variables is introduced. A wide range of power ratings, from 1 kW to 1 MW, and a large spread of physical dimensions, with a stator inner (air-gap) diameter as low as 50 mm and as high as 500 mm, were considered. A sensitivity analysis based on the response surface method was performed, and a differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the optimal solutions for different power ratings. A computationally efficient finite-element analysis ultrafast technique was employed in order to calculate the performance of approximately 30 000 candidate machine designs within a reasonable time. The study provides rules for scaling the machine main design parameters with the power rating in order to achieve minimum active material cost per point of efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Loss Minimization Using Improved Deadbeat-Direct Torque and Flux Control for Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1053 - 1065
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Direct torque control (DTC) has become a widely acceptable alternative to field-oriented control. Deadbeat-direct torque and flux control (DB-DTFC) is a significant improvement over the classical DTC methods and provides opportunities for fast torque control and dynamic loss minimization control. The existing high-switching DB-DTFC solution is based on approximate discrete-time models. This paper presents a more accurate model so that, even at low switching frequencies, proper DB-DTFC control can be achieved. The instantaneous dynamic loss model, which is a function of volt-second selection in each switching period, containing nonlinear effects such as minor hysteresis loops is theoretically derived and evaluated by both FEA simulation and experiments. With this calibrated dynamic loss model, deadbeat dynamic loss minimization control is implemented and integrated in DB-DTFC. Finally, the dynamic loss minimization control is evaluated experimentally and compared with the existing steady-state loss minimization control. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation Schemes to Compensate for Inverter Nonlinearity Based on Trapezoidal Voltage

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1066 - 1073
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1852 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Trapezoidal voltages can be used to compensate for the inverter nonlinearity. In particular, the modulating shape of these voltages facilitates the adaptation of the compensation to various operating conditions. In this paper, practical implementation schemes are proposed to improve the performance of the compensation method based on the trapezoidal voltage. After the implementation schemes are detailed, their effectiveness is discussed with experimental results. It has been proved that the proposed schemes are useful for the robust compensation. View full abstract»

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  • Control of Three-Phase Inverter for AC Motor Drive With Small DC-Link Capacitor Fed by Single-Phase AC Source

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1074 - 1081
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    If a small dc-link capacitor is used in the dc link fed by a single-phase ac source, then the dc-link voltage severely fluctuates at twice of the source frequency. To handle this fluctuation, the concept of “average voltage constraint” is proposed in this study. On the basis of this concept, a flux-weakening scheme, generating the d-axis current reference (idsr*) for the interior permanent-magnet synchronous machine, is devised. The q-axis current reference (iqsr*) is modified for the unity power factor operation in the viewpoint of an ac source without an additional sensor. The proposed scheme has been applied to the inverter-driven 1-kW compressor of an air conditioner. From the experimental results, it has been verified that the compressor operates well at the required operating condition, regardless of the severe fluctuation of dc-link voltage, because of the reduced dc-link capacitance. The frequency spectrum of the ac source current reveals that the harmonics of the source current meet the regulation of IEC 61000-3-2 Class A and that the overall power factor is above 96% without any additional circuit, such as an input filter and a power factor correction circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Boost-Derived Hybrid Converter With Simultaneous DC and AC Outputs

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1082 - 1093
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2597 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a family of hybrid converter topologies which can supply simultaneous dc and ac loads from a single dc input. These topologies are realized by replacing the controlled switch of single-switch boost converters with a voltage-source-inverter bridge network. The resulting hybrid converters require lesser number of switches to provide dc and ac outputs with an increased reliability, resulting from its inherent shoot-through protection in the inverter stage. Such multioutput converters with better power processing density and reliability can be well suited for systems with simultaneous dc and ac loads, e.g., nanogrids in residential applications. The proposed converter, studied in this paper, is called boost-derived hybrid converter (BDHC) as it is obtained from the conventional boost topology. The steady-state behavior of the BDHC has been studied in this paper, and it is compared with conventional designs. A suitable pulse width modulation (PWM) control strategy, based upon unipolar sine-PWM, is described. A DSP-based feedback controller is designed to regulate the dc as well as ac outputs. A 600-W laboratory prototype is used to validate the operation of the converter. The proposed converter is able to supply dc and ac loads at 100 V and 110 V (rms), respectively, from a 48-V dc input. The performance of the converter is demonstrated with inductive and nonlinear loads. The converter exhibits superior cross-regulation properties to dynamic load-change events. The proposed concept has been extended to quadratic boost converters to achieve higher gains. View full abstract»

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  • Control and Fault Handling in a Modular Series-Connected Converter for a Transformerless 100 kV Low-Weight Offshore Wind Turbine

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1094 - 1105
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1797 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A transformerless wind power generator concept with the potential to achieve 100 kV dc output is proposed in this paper. In this paper, the modular ac/dc converter system suitable for such a high-voltage generator is analyzed for normal operation and fault-tolerant modes. The control synthesis is addressed, based on an assumption that the control can be designed modularly. Additionally, the investigated control system can facilitate fault-tolerant operation without changing the main structure. The robustness of the module control system is analyzed, and the limits for fault-tolerant operation are investigated. The theoretical studies are supported by transient analysis through simulations of the turbine in EMTDC/PSCAD. Finally, the generator/converter solution is verified experimentally. The laboratory results were obtained using a 45 kW prototype with three generator segments and three converter units in series. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Hybrid Converters by Average Models

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1106 - 1113
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1412 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A behavioral average-circuit model that analyzes hybrid converters that include a switched inductor and switched capacitors is presented. The model can be used to calculate or to simulate the average static, dynamic, and small-signal responses of hybrid converters. The model is valid for all operation modes of the switched capacitor converters (SCCs) operating in the continuous and discontinuous conduction modes of the switched inductor converter and is compatible with circuit simulators that include dependent sources. The model was verified with simulations and experimentally. The experimental converter included a boost converter followed by a ×3 SCC. Good agreement was found between the behavior of the proposed average model, full circuit simulations, and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Peak Power Shaving of an Electric Injection Molding Machine With Supercapacitors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1114 - 1120
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose the control method of a peak shaving system for an electric injection molding machine (EIMM). The peak power shaver consists of a multiphase bidirectional dc-dc converter and supercapacitors (SCs), and is connected to a dc link of the inverter fed injection motor drive system of the EIMM. In the proposed control method, electric power is stored in the SCs through the multiphase bidirectional dc-dc converter with a pulsewidth-modulation rectifier while the injection motor is at rest. When the injection motor is accelerating, the stored power in the SCs together with the power from the distribution feeders is supplied to the injection motor. Thus, the peak power can be shaved. The basic principle of the proposed control method is discussed in detail, then confirmed by digital computer simulation and experimental setup. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the peak power is shaved by 70% using the peak power shaving system. View full abstract»

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  • Small-Signal Modeling and Networked Control of a PHEV Charging Facility

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1121 - 1130
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    The introduction of communication systems to power system controllers has brought in another layer of complexity in their design and operation. In this paper, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging facility is studied. A linearized model of the facility is built, including both the dc/dc and dc/ac converters of the distributed energy resources. In addition, a control strategy that includes both local and networked loops is proposed to monitor and control the dc bus voltage of a local energy storage unit. This dc bus voltage is crucial to the self-sustaining capabilities of the system. A review of challenges and opportunities in networked control systems is presented, and the impacts of communication factors to the charging facility stability are analyzed. Finally, a real-time simulation platform which combines both electrical and communication networks is presented to validate the small-signal model, control strategy, and stability analysis including the communication effects. View full abstract»

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  • Experiment and Simulation of a Modular Push–Pull PWM Converter for a Battery Energy Storage System

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1131 - 1140
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a modular push-pull PWM converter (MPC) for a battery energy storage system, which is intended for grid connections to medium- or high-voltage power systems. The converter per phase consists of a center-tapped transformer and two arms based on a cascade connection of multiple bidirectional PWM chopper-cells with floating dc capacitors. This paper discusses the operating performance and control method of the MPC, focusing on voltage balancing of all the floating dc capacitors. Moreover, a comparison is made between the MPC and a modular multilevel converter (MMC), under an assumption that both are used as the same battery energy storage system. The validity of the operating performance and control method is confirmed by both computer simulation using the “PSCAD/EMTDC” software package and experiment using a three-phase, 200-V, 5-kW downscaled model. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced Bipolar Stacked Switched Capacitor Energy Buffers

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1141 - 1149
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1875 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The stacked switched capacitor (SSC) energy buffer is a recently proposed architecture for buffering energy between single-phase alternating and direct current. When used with film capacitors, it can increase the life of grid-interfaced power converters by eliminating limited-life electrolytic capacitors while maintaining comparable energy density. This paper introduces an enhanced version of the bipolar SSC energy buffer that achieves higher effective energy density and round-trip efficiency while maintaining the same bus voltage ripple ratio as the original design. Furthermore, the enhanced buffer uses fewer capacitors and switches than the original design. The enhancement in performance is achieved by modifying the control and switching patterns of the buffer switches. A prototype enhanced SSC energy buffer, designed for a 320-V bus and a 135-W load, has been built and tested. The design methodology and experimental results for the enhanced SSC energy buffer are presented and compared with the original design. This paper also presents a comparison of unipolar and bipolar SSC energy buffers. It is shown that, although bipolar designs are superior in terms of effective energy density at low ripple ratios, unipolar designs can outperform bipolar designs at high ripple ratios. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Phase to Three-Phase DC-Link Converters With Reduced Controlled Switch Count

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1150 - 1160
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents single- to three-phase dc-link converters with a reduced number of controlled switches for either usual or reduced currents in switches of the rectifier. A suitable model and a control strategy, including a synchronization approach, are developed to obtain the maximum dc-link voltage utilization. Such a synchronization method, associated with the pulse-width-modulated generation signal, forces the input current to have the same phase angle as the input voltage. The main advantage of the proposed converters along with the synchronization method is the reduction of the zero-crossing distortion normally caused by the use of diodes. Simulated and experimental results are presented to confirm the validity of the theoretical expectations. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of Partially Fallen-Out Magnetic Slot Wedges in Inverter-Fed AC Machines at Lower Load Conditions

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1161 - 1167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrical machines in the high-voltage class are usually designed with open stator slots. This wide open slots cause an increase of higher order harmonics, vibrations, noise, and temperature; thus, the machine efficiency is decreased. To counteract this disadvantage, magnetic slot wedges are applied. Due to the impact of high magnetic and mechanical forces, these wedges can fall out and may cause further serious damages. Up to now, reliable detection methods for single missing slot wedges are coupled with a disassembling of parts of the machine. In this paper, a method is investigated which provides the possibility of detection, based on the measurement of electrical terminal quantities only. View full abstract»

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The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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