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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Fuzzy controller for inverter fed induction machines

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 78 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  

    An induction machine operated with a direct self controller (DSC) shows a sluggish response during startup and under changes of torque command. Fuzzy logic is used in conjunction with direct self control to minimize these problems. A fuzzy logic controller chooses the switching states based on a set of fuzzy variables. Flux position, error in flux magnitude and error in torque are used as fuzzy state variables. Fuzzy rules are determined by observing the vector diagram of flux and currents. The operation of the direct self controller becomes difficult at low speeds due to the effect of change in stator resistance on the flux measurements. To improve the system performance at low speeds a fuzzy resistance estimator is proposed to eliminate the error due to the change in stator resistance. At constant flux and torque commands any change in stator resistance of the induction machines causes an error in stator current. This error is utilized by the fuzzy resistance estimator to correct the stator resistance used by the controller to match the machine resistance. Both a fuzzy controller and fuzzy resistance estimator are simulated for a 3 HP induction motor. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance.<> View full abstract»

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  • Increasing the dynamic torque per ampere capability of induction machines

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 146 - 153
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    The objective of this paper is to present a novel means of increasing the dynamic torque per ampere capability of induction machines. The method developed is based on use of an indirect field oriented controller (IFOC) for the induction machine. It is well known that IFOC allows the rotor flux amplitude to be controlled by the d-axis component of stator current. It is also well established that the flux-producing component of the stator current may be controlled independent of the torque-producing component of the stator current. The principal constraint, however, is that the amplitude of the peak current (the vector amplitude) is limited by the power electronic switch ratings. This constraint implies that optimal partitioning of the current components should be possible. Previously used methods have optimized steady state efficiency or steady state torque per ampere. This paper identifies a dynamic method which achieves transient torques over 35% greater than the prior methods. The limitations of the method and its sensitivity to detuning is also examined View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of slip energy recovery induction motor drive behavior using the equivalent circuit

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 154 - 163
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    A transformer-type equivalent circuit model for the calculation of the steady state performance of a slip energy recovery induction motor drive with a step down chopper in the DC link is described. Experimental data of RMS currents, power, reactive power and overall efficiency satisfactorily correlate with calculations over most of the operating speed range. Also, detailed calculations of rotor, stator and supply harmonic currents due to the rectifier and inverter actions are performed using the conventional version of the equivalent circuit. The computed and measured instantaneous current waveforms show satisfactory agreement except at a slip of 1/6 where significant deviations appear. This effect is adequately catered for by using a more rigorous model View full abstract»

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  • Numerical simulation of the electric field distribution in tribo-powder coating of conducting cylindrical objects

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 215 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    The successful implementation of powder coating technology requires detailed investigation of different factors, which can improve, or disturb, the process. The two most important are the air entrainment force and the electric deposition force acting on the powder particles. The authors present a numerical model for predicting the electric field distribution between a tribe gun and a cylindrical object. It is assumed, that the particle distribution is governed primarily by the air flow and that the only source of the electric field is the space charge of the tribocharged particles. Simplified models for the field lines and design configuration have been assumed and the electric field is determined by means of the charge simulation method View full abstract»

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  • Effect of fill pipe on transient decay of surface potential in a cylindrical vessel containing charged liquid

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 205 - 209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    Transient decay of surface potential in an upright cylindrical vessel with a central fill pipe is investigated. The transient problem is solved analytically for the ideal case of the fill pipe extending fully to the vessel bottom. For the practical case when the fill pipe does not reach to the vessel bottom, this problem is studied by numerical calculation. In both solutions, constant ohmic resistivity is assumed and a surface conduction mechanism is introduced for the dissipation of surface charge. It is revealed that the existence of a fill pipe beyond the liquid surface increases modestly the relaxation rate of surface potential. However, for the case when the fill pipe is located just above the liquid surface, decay of surface potential is dramatically slowed View full abstract»

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  • Review of CI pamphlet no. 139: electrical safety in Chlor-Alkali cell facilities

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 188 - 192
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    This paper describes the rewrite of The Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 139, “Electrical Safety in Chlor-Alkali Cell Facilities”. The steps taken by the task group in rewriting the pamphlet are described. The survey of electrical incidents in cell facilities is summarized. The major changes to the pamphlet are discussed from both the technical and safety points of view View full abstract»

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  • Predicting liquid filled transformer loading capability

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 170 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    The IEEE Transformer Loading Guide equations use the top oil temperature rise over ambient to determine the winding hottest spot temperature during an overload. Recent investigations by the author and others have shown that during overloads there is a time lag between the top oil temperature rise and the oil temperature rise in the winding cooling ducts. This phenomena results in winding hottest spot temperatures greater than predicted by the current (1981) IEEE Loading Guide equations. Accurate predictions of the winding hottest spot temperature requires the use of the temperature of the oil entering and exiting the winding cooling ducts. Low flammability liquids such as silicone or high temperature hydrocarbons are not covered in the present Loading Guide. Resistance change with temperature and liquid viscosity are not considered in current Loading Guide equations. Loading Guide equations also assume a constant ambient air temperature during a load cycle. Improved loading equations based on analysis and testing are presented in this paper. The improved equations consider type of liquid, cooling mode, winding duct oil temperature rise, resistance and viscosity changes, and ambient temperature and load changes during a load cycle. A PC BASIC computer program to perform the calculations was developed and will be included in the next edition of the IEEE Loading Guide for Mineral Oil Immersed Transformers View full abstract»

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  • New modulation encoding techniques for indirect rotor position sensing in switched reluctance motors

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (65)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    Rotor position information is essential in switched reluctance machines (SRMs) in order to generate the phase excitation pulses for optimum control of the motor. In this paper, two new methods of indirect rotor position sensing are presented. These methods are based on the modulation techniques which are commonly used in communication systems. The instantaneous phase inductance of a nonconducting phase is extracted in an encoded form using a modulator consisting of electronic circuitry. The signal is then decoded to obtain the instantaneous inductance from which the shaft position is determined. An analysis of these modulation techniques along with the implementation scheme using a microcontroller is presented in this paper View full abstract»

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  • Pulse-split concept in series resonant DC link power conversion for induction motor drives

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 45 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    Three phase simultaneous current pulse control for a high frequency series resonant DC link converter was achieved by utilizing a previously developed pulse trimming method and current peak limiting with a saturable core. Each resonant pulse is split to flow in three phases almost at the same time so that a very smooth sinusoidal output current waveform is attained. The duality of the series resonant DC link with the parallel resonant DC link is discussed. Simulation and the basic experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • Current regulated PWM-CSI induction motor drive system without a speed sensor

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 116 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    This paper deals with a current source inverter-induction motor drive system without a speed sensor, and the speed estimation with only sense of the motor voltage is investigated. The input DC link current which is kept constant by a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) converter with sinusoidal input current is supplied to the PWM inverter. The inverter output current with sinusoidal wave is directly regulated by employing the modulation index control of the PWM strategy. The motor is driven by a slip frequency/current regulation control. The motor speed is estimated by using the measured voltage and current, or using the measured voltage and the estimated current. The filter capacitor which is installed in the inverter circuit is taken into consideration for the current estimation. A digital signal processor is employed for calculation. As the PWM pulse of the inverter is calculated by an online real-time system, the quick regulation of the sinusoidal output current is achieved. The experiments show that the high performance steady state behavior and the acceleration/deceleration characteristics with smooth drives and low noise of the motor is obtained View full abstract»

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  • Synchronous motor field controllers and their application

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 201 - 204
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    Over the past several years, solid state technology has made motor field regulation techniques cost effective. Here, the effects of field voltage, field current, power factor, and VAr controllers on a cement mill power system are discussed View full abstract»

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  • An optimum modulation strategy for a novel "notch" commutated 3-Φ PWM inverter

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 52 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)  

    The introduction of soft switching features in medium power static converters promises improved semiconductor utilization and higher switching frequencies. In this paper a DC-side commutated zero voltage switching (ZVS) PWM 3-Φ VSI topology is discussed. This topology consists of a typical six-switch bridge with the addition of a simple DC bus commutating subcircuit which can provide, on demand, the necessary soft switching zero-volts interval across the inverter DC bus. The objective of this paper is to identify a specific PWM technique which, in combination with the proposed ZVS scheme, can provide optimum overall converter switching performance. Moreover, the combination of the inverter topology and the modulation strategy proposed here yields a soft switching environment at the lowest possible switching frequency. Reduction in switching losses is further enhanced by increasing the effective and reducing the actual switching frequency. Finally, this paper includes a detailed analysis and design procedure for the proposed notch commutated inverter topology. Simulation and experimental results are also presented to verify key predicted results. View full abstract»

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  • On the design of high-performance surface-mounted PM motors

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 134 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    This paper considers the major design factors which constrain the maximum acceleration capability of surface-mounted neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnet motors as used in servo drives. Expressions are derived for typical achievable values of the air-gap flux density and the linear current density around the stator periphery. For applications with small values of the duty factor, the stator linear current density is limited by the need to avoid demagnetization. For larger values of duty factor, the constraint is the ability of the cooling system to remove the heat losses within the magnet and insulation temperature limits. The paper derives general approximate expressions for maximum torque and acceleration limits, and shows graphs from which the range of acceleration capability of a permanent magnet motor in a given application can be assessed. The constraints involved in matching the motor design to an inverter with given maximum voltage capability are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • A PWM strategy for reducing torque-ripple in inverter-fed induction motor

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 71 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    A new PWM strategy suitable for an inverter-fed induction motor is described. The output waveforms in the proposed PWM inverter are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Although the output waveform is a nonsinusoidal waveform, the induction motor driven by the proposed modulating signal produces approximately constant torque. A modulating signal for the three-phase PWM inverter is obtained by superposing a rectangular wave on the specific trapezoidal wave whose flat portion is 120 degrees. By using the proposed modulating signal, the amplitude of the fundamental component is increased by about 17 percent more than that of a conventional sine wave inverter. The new system reduces the torque ripple as well as achieving the effective utilization of the DC supply voltage for the inverter View full abstract»

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  • The universal field oriented controller

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 92 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    This paper synthesizes and develops a universal field oriented (UFO) controller for induction machines. The UFO controller decouples flux and torque in an arbitrary flux reference frame. Due to its high degree of generality the UFO controller lends itself to be fully compatible with all existing field oriented controllers, indirect as well as direct field orientation. As a consequence, the digital implementation of the UFO scheme is identical for all induction motor drives enabling the usage of identical hardware and software. Examples of UFO control block diagrams for different field oriented controllers are presented. The execution time of the UFO algorithm is compared with the classical rotor flux field orientation method when using a high speed digital signal processor. Further, this paper indicates that the flexibility of changing the flux reference frame can extend the stability region of the drive especially at high speed during flux weakening. Detuning problems in field orientation are handled in an optimal manner for each field oriented controller by proper selection of the model of the induction machine and its reference frame View full abstract»

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  • A fuzzy set theory based control of a phase-controlled converter DC machine drive

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 34 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (75)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)  

    Fuzzy logic or fuzzy set theory is getting increasing emphasis in process control applications. The paper describes application of fuzzy logic in a speed control system that uses a phase-controlled bridge converter and a separately excited DC machine. The fuzzy control is used to linearize the transfer characteristics of the converter in discontinuous conduction mode occurring at light load and/or high speed. The fuzzy control is then extended to the current and speed control loops, replacing the conventional proportional-integral (PI) control method. The compensation and control algorithms have been developed in detail and verified by digital simulation of a drive system. The simulation study indicates the superiority of fuzzy control over the conventional control methods View full abstract»

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  • Design, development and application of smart fuses-part 1

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 164 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    A smart fuse that simulates conventional current limiting characteristics during high current faults and has the inherent intelligence to self monitor and the capability to be triggered from an external source has been developed. The smart fuse provides a new and interesting concept in both substation transformer and secondary conductor overcurrent protection. The design, development and application of the smart fuse in medium voltage distribution systems and equipment protective schemes is described View full abstract»

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  • Velocity probe for hydrocarbon liquid laminar flows using the convection of the electrical diffuse layer

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 210 - 214
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    A probe has been perfected which establishes a relation between the velocity of a laminar flow of a dielectric liquid and the current due to the convection of a part of the electrical diffuse layer. In the first part of the paper, the theoretical diffuse layer appearing on a flat plate and for a liquid at rest is computed. Then, when the liquid is moving the electric charge convected and the potential difference between two points of the plate are obtained. The second part of the paper describes the probe, and a series of experiments performed all along a cross section View full abstract»

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  • A diagnostic testing program for large lead acid storage battery banks

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 193 - 200
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    This paper presents a justification for the need and a discussion of the methods to perform capacity discharge and intercell resistance tests on large storage industrial battery banks in standby applications. Reliability and economic data are presented that help demonstrate battery bank criticality, consequence and cause of failure, and the need for comprehensive battery maintenance programs, which include battery diagnostic testing. Recommended test frequencies, and replacement criteria are included along with the equipment required to perform these tests, as well as the capability to maintain a standby power source during testing View full abstract»

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  • A new algorithm for sensorless operation of permanent magnet motors

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 126 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (94)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB)  

    In this paper, the authors propose and investigate a new algorithm for shaft position sensorless operation of permanent magnet motors, based on flux linkage and line current estimation. Measured line current and terminal voltage are used to estimate the flux linkage of the motor. The algorithm has a two current-loop structure, with the outer loop used to correct the position, and the inner loop utilised to correct the estimated flux linkage. The theoretical basis of the algorithm and individual definition of the system blocks is explained. Dependencies on motor parameters and measurement errors are discussed to show the effectiveness of the method using real data. As well as giving a detailed explanation of the new algorithm, the paper presents a wide range of computed and experimental results, demonstrating the reliability of the method even during acceleration of the motor from rest View full abstract»

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  • Inverter nonlinearities and discrete-time vector current control

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 62 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    This paper studies all-digital discrete-time vector current control loops containing a voltage fed invertor in series with a permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Normal operation of the typical pulse width modulating voltage fed inverter introduces nonlinear distortion into the voltage and the current waveforms of the motor. This paper focuses on both the causes and the attenuation of these disturbances using all-digital control. An effective, fully-digital current controller is developed and experimental results from a Motorola 68020 microprocessor based system are presented View full abstract»

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  • Cylindrical linear pulse motor with interior permanent magnet mover

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 141 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)  

    The advantages of the conventional cylindrical linear pulse motor (C-LPM), which has a ring permanent magnet between the A- and B-phase stators, are its simple magnet shape and small motor diameter; the disadvantages are the thrust imbalance resulting from the magnetic flux path of the outer poles being longer than that of the inner poles. This thrust imbalance decreases the pull-in thrust and increases the positioning error. In this paper, a new C-LPM with an interior permanent magnet mover which reduces this thrust imbalance is proposed. Steady and dynamic thrust are also examined and a magnetic equivalent circuit is discussed. It is shown that a C-LPM with an interior permanent magnet mover effectively improves the thrust imbalance and the dynamic thrust View full abstract»

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  • Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modeling using IG-SPICE

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 24 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    A physics-based model for the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is implemented into the widely available circuit simulation package IG-SPICE. Based on analytical equations describing the semiconductor-physics, the model accurately describes the nonlinear junction capacitances, moving boundaries, recombination, and carrier scattering, and effectively predicts the device conductivity modulation. In this paper, the procedure used to incorporate the model into IG-SPICE and various methods necessary to ensure convergence are described. The effectiveness of the SPICE-based IGBT model is demonstrated by investigating the static and dynamic current sharing of paralleled IGBTs with different device model parameters. The simulation results are verified by comparison with experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Safe work practices: a real world implementation

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 179 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)  

    New regulations require electrical safety training for virtually everyone except secretaries and janitors. A program that has been successfully used for nonelectrical, nonengineer personnel is described. The types of hazards are identified. The reasons, concerns, fears, and alternatives are presented with case histories and common pitfalls. The equipment terminology and hands-on experience provide insight into a real world environment View full abstract»

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  • Minimization of acoustic noise in variable speed induction motors using a modified PWM drive

    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 111 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    This paper describes an effective way of reducing acoustic noise in a motor supplied from an adjustable speed PWM drive. The PWM patterns are selected to eliminate the most acoustically sensitive harmonics in the motor's vibration spectra. This permits the PWM drive to use more economical yet slower switching devices while maintaining quiet operation. This method is applicable to both voltage source and current source inverters since the current waveform is used as the basis for eliminating the objectionable harmonics View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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