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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Molding compound trends in a denser packaging world: qualification tests and reliability concerns

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 518 - 535
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1988 KB)  

    This work benchmarks the current reliability tests used by the electronics industry, examines those tests that affect and are affected by molding compounds, discusses the relevance of accelerated testing, and addresses the major reliability issues facing current molding compound development efforts. Six compound-related reliability concerns were selected: moldability; package stresses; package cracking; halogen-induced intermetallic growth at bond pads; moisture-induced corrosion; and interfacial delamination. Causes of each failure type are surveyed and remedies are recommended View full abstract»

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  • Exact maximum likelihood estimation using masked system data

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 631 - 635
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    This work estimates component reliability from masked series-system life data, viz, data where the exact component causing system failure might be unknown. The authors extend the results of Usher and Hodgson (1988) by deriving exact maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) for the general case of a series system of three exponential components with independent masking. Their previous work shows that closed-form MLE are intractable, and they propose an iterative method for the solution of a system of three nonlinear likelihood equations View full abstract»

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  • Reliability evaluation of plastic encapsulated parts

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 536 - 540
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)  

    This work compares the failure rates of several families of plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) using both field and test data (test data are converted to device failure rates for field conditions using common acceleration equations) and Mil-Hdbk-217 calculations. Calculated failure rates are obtained from the Mil-Hdbk-217F for both plastic encapsulated and ceramic hermetic class-B microcircuits. Comparisons show that the results from Mil-Hdbk-217 are misleading and that the US military and Government part-selection methods should not be burdened by this -217 methodology View full abstract»

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  • Multiprocessor performability analysis

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 579 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    Performability models of multiprocessor systems and their evaluation are presented. Two cases in which hierarchical modeling is applied are examined. Modified stochastic Petri net (MSPN)-based fault models of processor arrays, and a fault handling model to account for near coincident, permanent, transient, and intermittent faults are discussed. Performability results based on capacity-based reward assignments are reported. A simple MSPN-based model for multiprocessor systems, is introduced, and a closed queuing network to derive performance rewards is discussed. Several multiprocessor configurations are compared View full abstract»

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  • Bayes estimation of the extreme-value reliability function

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 641 - 644
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    The authors obtain Bayes estimates of the reliability function of the extreme value distribution by using two Bayes approximation procedures: Lindley (1980), and Tierney and Kadane (1986). These estimates were compared to maximum-likelihood estimates (MLE) based on a Monte Carlo simulation study. Jeffreys invariant prior was used in the comparison for both Bayes procedures. The MLE are superior to either of the Bayes estimates, except for small values of t. The simpler Lindley Bayes procedure gives estimates with smaller root-mean-square error than estimates obtained by the Tierney and Kadane procedure except for large values of t. From a practical standpoint, the ML method is easiest to use and more accurate for the extreme value distribution than the two Bayes approximation procedures. Both Bayes procedures seem to perform equally. However, the Lindley method is easier to use with little loss of accuracy View full abstract»

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  • (τ, k) block replacement policy with idle count

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 561 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    The authors propose a new block replacement policy for a group of nominally identical units. Each unit is individually replaced on failure during a specified time interval. Beyond the failure replacement interval, failed units are left idle until a specified number of failures occur, then a block replacement is performed. The average cost rate for this two-phase block replacement policy is derived and analyzed. The policy yields lower cost rate than two block replacement policies published previously. Numerical examples demonstrate the results View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of electronics-reliability assessment approaches

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 542 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    Two general approaches available for assessing the reliability of electronics during design are device failure rate prediction, and physics-of-failure. This work broadly compares these two approaches in a way that is readily understandable by the wide range of readers concerned with the design, manufacture, and support of electronic equipment View full abstract»

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  • Modeling repairable systems with failure rates that depend on age and maintenance

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 566 - 571
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    A general repairable system model that includes age and preventive maintenance (PM) dependent failure rates is proposed. This model introduces the concept of system availability as a random variable, leading to availability measures for individual realizations, rather than for the average over many trials. Thus this model generalizes the classical definition, and serves as a performance index for system design. A design scheme suggested to maximize the probability of achieving a specified stochastic cycle availability with respect to the duration of the operating interval between PMs. Numerical computations of the results for Weibull-like distributions illustrate the design criteria. Asymptotic behavior of the performance with no PM has been studied. Extension to other distributions is straightforward View full abstract»

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  • Examples of Monte Carlo methods in reliability estimation based on reduction of prior information

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 645 - 649
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)  

    Following the proposal of Tanaka, Kumamoto and Inoue (1989), Monte Carlo methods are constructed based on less prior information, and yield estimators with smaller standard deviation. The first application derives a variant of the sequential destruction method. The second application obtains the traditional importance sampling Monte Carlo method for static reliability problems, starting with a dynamic reliability problem; a class of systems is given, where standard-deviation reduction can be guaranteed before any Monte Carlo trials View full abstract»

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  • Plastic packaged microcircuits: quality, reliability, and cost issues

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 513 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    Plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) find their main application in commercial and telecommunication electronics. The advantages of PEMs in cost, size, weight, performance, and market lead-time, have attracted 97% of the market share of worldwide microcircuit sales. However, PEMs have always been resisted in US Government and military applications due to the perception that PEM reliability is low. This work surveys plastic packaging with respect to the issues of reliability, market lead-time, performance, cost, and weight as a means to guide part selection and system design View full abstract»

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  • Failure mechanism models for cyclic fatigue

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 548 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)  

    This work illustrates design situations where mechanical fatigue under cyclic loading, of one or more components, can compromise system performance. In this failure mechanism, damage accumulates with each load cycle, thereby causing a physical wearout failure mechanism. Phenomenological continuum length-scale models, based on micromechanical considerations, are presented to predict the onset (or initiation) of fatigue cracking in ductile materials. Fatigue crack propagation is modeled with continuum fracture mechanics principles. The number of load cycles required to cause failure is predicted based on these models. Approaches for modeling creep fatigue interactions are briefly discussed. Analytic physics-of-failure method and examples are presented for designing against wearout failure due to cyclic fatigue. These models can be implemented in an engineering design environment. The associated stress analysis requires numerical finite element techniques in many cases. The associated material property characterization techniques have matured since the 1950s and are specified in engineering handbooks View full abstract»

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  • A heuristic method for solving redundancy optimization problems in complex systems

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 572 - 578
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    The authors present a heuristic method for solving constrained redundancy optimization problems in complex systems. The proposed method allows excursions over a bounded infeasible region, which can alleviate the risks of being trapped at a local optimum. Computational results show that the method performs consistently better than other heuristic methods in terms of solution quality. If solution quality is of more concern and if one is willing to accept a moderate increase in computing time for better solutions, then the authors believe that this method is an attractive alternative to other heuristic methods View full abstract»

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  • Bayes estimation of the linear hazard-rate model

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 636 - 640
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  

    In life testing, the failure-time distributions are often specified by choosing an appropriate hazard-rate function. The class of life-time distribution characterized by a linear hazard-rate includes the one-parameter exponential and Rayleigh distributions. Usually the parameters of the linear hazard-rate model are estimated by the method of least squares. This work is concerned with Bayes estimation of the two-parameters from a type-2 censored sample. Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare the Bayes risk of the regression estimator with the minimum Bayes risk. Discrete mixtures of decreasing failure rate distributions are known to have decreasing failure rates. The authors prove that the result holds for continuous mixtures as well View full abstract»

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  • Estimating the parameters of a non-homogeneous Poisson-process model for software reliability

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 604 - 612
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    A stochastic model (G-O) for the software failure phenomenon based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) was suggested by Goel and Okumoto (1979). This model has been widely used but some important work remains undone on estimating the parameters. The authors present a necessary and sufficient condition for the likelihood estimates to be finite, positive, and unique. A modification of the G-O model is suggested. The performance measures and parametric inferences of the new model are discussed. The results of the new model are applied to real software failure data and compared with G-O and Jelinski-Moranda models View full abstract»

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  • Condition-based predictive maintenance by multiple logistic function

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 556 - 560
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    For complex systems, the system failures exhibit an exponential nature, negating the benefit of traditional, time-based preventive maintenance. Under this circumstance, the condition-based predictive maintenance (CbPM) is more appropriate where the system condition can be monitored from the surface of running machinery, and maintenance is performed only when needed as the failure prognosis dictates. The author presents a cost optimal prognostic criterion for CbPM using a multiple logistic function of risk variables to be monitored, which fluctuate randomly according to a certain probability distribution. A numerical example demonstrates the procedure and utility of the method View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of threshold stress in accelerated life-testing

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 650 - 657
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    The author presents a method that uses accelerated life-test data to estimate the mean life at the service stress and the threshold stress below which a failure is unlikely to occur. The relation between stress and mean-life at that stress is assumed to follow an inverse power law that includes a threshold stress. The failure times at a given stress are assumed to follow a Weibull distribution in which the shape parameter varies with the stress. This model extends the well-known Weibull inverse power law model. If only the mean life but not a specific percentile point at a service stress is sought, the maximum likelihood method is useful for parameter estimation. This is a tradeoff in the parametric approach. For adoption of an appropriate probability model, the likelihood ratio test as well as the Akaike Information Criterion are used. Type I right censored data are considered. Extensions of the method are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Approximate 1-sided tolerance limits for future observations for the Rayleigh distribution, using regression

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 625 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    Two types of tolerance limits are derived for future values of a response variable which has the Rayleigh distribution whose parameter depends on a set of fixed explanatory variables. The Fisher Scoring method is used to approximate maximum likelihood estimates of the regression parameters. Simulation results show the adequacy of the approximation. A real data-set illustrates the computations in finding the tolerance limits. The computations can be handled using software that allows matrix arithmetic and has a programming capability View full abstract»

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  • Reliability of 2-dimensional consecutive-k-out-of-n:F systems

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 658 - 661
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    The authors derive lower and upper reliability bounds for the two-dimensional consecutive k-out-of-n:F system (Salvia Lasher, 1990) with independent, but not necessarily identically distributed, components. A Weibull limit theory is proven for system time-to-failure for i.i.d. components View full abstract»

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  • High-reliability fault-tolerant 16-MBit memory chip

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 596 - 603
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB)  

    A combination of redundant circuits and error-correcting-code circuits have been implemented on a 16-Mb memory chip. The combination of these circuits results in a synergistic fault-tolerance scheme that makes this chip immune to a high level of manufacturing and reliability defects. Experiments have been performed with highly defective chips to test the error-correction capability of this chip and to determine models for the tradeoff between manufacturing yields and reliability. Additional experiments have been done with accelerated protons to investigate the soft-error sensitivity of this chip. Results show no soft-error reliability failures, including those caused by cosmic-particle radiation. Negative binomial distributions were used to evaluate the experiments. The correlation between manufacturing-faults and stress-failures were modeled with a bivariate negative-binomial distribution View full abstract»

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  • On the quasi-stationary distribution of the residual lifetime

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 623 - 624
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    This work establishes the sufficiency conditions for the existence of the conditional limit distribution of the residual lifetime for arbitrary systems. Explicit expressions are derived View full abstract»

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  • A formal investigation of checking the input to critical systems

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 588 - 595
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    Safe reliable systems must be able to detect component failure. Checks in software can be effective for detecting hardware and sensor failure as well as for detecting errors in the software itself. This work develops a formal theory of checking in which the nature and structure of checks are investigated. Important to the theory is the notion of independence, which can be defined in terms of n-ary relations. The utility of the theory is illustrated by analyses of checks on input in various software contexts. In particular, sensor input to the NASA Guidance and Control Software is analyzed View full abstract»

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  • Properties of a multivariate survival distribution generated by a Weibull and inverse-Gaussian mixture

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 618 - 622
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    The authors consider the influence of the work environment on a system of nonrenewable components. The failure times for the components are Weibull distributed and the work environment has an inverse Gaussian distribution. A multivariate Weibull and inverse Gaussian mixture distribution is derived. Several pertinent properties for this multivariate distribution are discussed that shed some light on the nature of the distribution. The authors account for the operating environment and its changing nature by averaging over a parameter corresponding to the environment. The distribution is applied to find the mean number of components working at some mission time and the reliability for k-out-of-n components View full abstract»

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  • Nonhomogeneous Poisson process software-debugging models with linear dependence

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 613 - 617
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    Past research in software reliability concentrated on reliability growth of one-version software. This work proposes models for describing the dependency of N-version software. The models are illustrated via a logarithmic Poisson execution-time model by postulating assumptions of dependency among nonhomogeneous Poisson processes (NHPPs) of debugging behavior. Two-version, three-version, and general N-version models are proposed. The redundancy techniques discussed serve as a basis for fault-tolerant software design. The system reliability, related performance measures, and parameter estimation of model parameters when N=2 are presented. Based on the assumption of linear dependency among the NHPPs, two types of models are developed. The analytical models are useful primarily in estimating and monitoring software reliability of fault-tolerant software. Without considering dependency of failures, the estimation of reliability would not be conservative View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong