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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2014

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 539 - 540
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 541 - 542
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  • A Hybrid Scheme for Authenticating Scalable Video Codestreams

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 543 - 553
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1647 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A scalable video coding (SVC) codestream consists of one base layer and possibly several enhancement layers. The base layer, which contains the lowest quality and resolution images, is the foundation of the SVC codestream and must be delivered to recipients, whereas enhancement layers contain richer contour/texture of images in order to supplement the base layer in resolution, quality, and temporal scalabilities. This paper presents a novel hybrid authentication (HAU) scheme. The HAU employs both cryptographic authentication and content-based authentication techniques to ensure integrity and authenticity of the SVC codestreams. Our analysis and experimental results indicate that the HAU is able to detect malicious manipulations and locate the tampered image regions while is robust to content-preserving manipulations for enhancement layers. Although our focus in this paper is on authenticating H.264/SVC codestreams, the proposed technique is also applicable to authenticate other scalable multimedia contents such as MPEG-4 fine grain scalability and JPEG2000 codestreams. View full abstract»

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  • A Bayesian-MRF Approach for PRNU-Based Image Forgery Detection

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 554 - 567
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphics editing programs of the last generation provide ever more powerful tools, which allow for the retouching of digital images leaving little or no traces of tampering. The reliable detection of image forgeries requires, therefore, a battery of complementary tools that exploit different image properties. Techniques based on the photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) noise are among the most valuable such tools, since they do not detect the inserted object but rather the absence of the camera PRNU, a sort of camera fingerprint, dealing successfully with forgeries that elude most other detection strategies. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect image forgeries using sensor pattern noise. Casting the problem in terms of Bayesian estimation, we use a suitable Markov random field prior to model the strong spatial dependences of the source, and take decisions jointly on the whole image rather than individually for each pixel. Modern convex optimization techniques are then adopted to achieve a globally optimal solution and the PRNU estimation is improved by resorting to nonlocal denoising. Large-scale experiments on simulated and real forgeries show that the proposed technique largely improves upon the current state of the art, and that it can be applied with success to a wide range of practical situations. View full abstract»

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  • Multitouch Gesture-Based Authentication

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 568 - 582
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates multitouch gestures for user authentication on touch sensitive devices. A canonical set of 22 multitouch gestures was defined using characteristics of hand and finger movement. Then, a multitouch gesture matching algorithm robust to orientation and translation was developed. Two different studies were performed to evaluate the concept. First, a single session experiment was performed in order to explore feasibility of multitouch gestures for user authentication. Testing on the canonical set showed that the system could achieve good performance in terms of distinguishing between gestures performed by different users. In addition, the tests demonstrated a desirable alignment of usability and security as gestures that were more secure from a biometric point of view were rated as more desirable in terms of ease, pleasure, and excitement. Second, a study involving a three-session experiment was performed. Results indicate that biometric information gleaned from a short user-device interaction remains consistent across gaps of several days, though there is noticeable degradation of performance when the authentication is performed over multiple sessions. In addition, the study showed that user-defined gestures yield the highest recognition rate among all other gestures, whereas the use of multiple gestures in a sequence aids in boosting verification accuracy. In terms of memorability, the study showed that it is feasible for a user to recall user-defined gestural passwords and it is observed that the recall rate increases over time. It is also noticed that performing a user-defined gesture over a customized background image does result in higher verification performance. In terms of usability, the study shows that users did not have difficulty in performing multitouch gestures as they all rated each gesture as easy to perform. View full abstract»

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  • Harnessing Motion Blur to Unveil Splicing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 583 - 595
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2407 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The extensive availability of sophisticated image editing tools has rendered it relatively easy to produce fake images. Image splicing is a form of tampering in which an original image is altered by copying a portion from a different source. Because the phenomenon of motion blur is a common occurrence in hand-held cameras, we propose a passive method to automatically detect image splicing using blur as a cue. Specifically, we address the scenario of a static scene in which the cause of blur is due to hand shake. Existing methods for dealing with this problem work only in the presence of uniform space-invariant blur. In contrast, our method can expose the presence of splicing by evaluating inconsistencies in motion blur even under space-variant blurring situations. We validate our method on several examples for different scene situations and camera motions of interest. View full abstract»

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  • Data Hiding in Encrypted H.264/AVC Video Streams by Codeword Substitution

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 596 - 606
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital video sometimes needs to be stored and processed in an encrypted format to maintain security and privacy. For the purpose of content notation and/or tampering detection, it is necessary to perform data hiding in these encrypted videos. In this way, data hiding in encrypted domain without decryption preserves the confidentiality of the content. In addition, it is more efficient without decryption followed by data hiding and re-encryption. In this paper, a novel scheme of data hiding directly in the encrypted version of H.264/AVC video stream is proposed, which includes the following three parts, i.e., H.264/AVC video encryption, data embedding, and data extraction. By analyzing the property of H.264/AVC codec, the codewords of intraprediction modes, the codewords of motion vector differences, and the codewords of residual coefficients are encrypted with stream ciphers. Then, a data hider may embed additional data in the encrypted domain by using codeword substitution technique, without knowing the original video content. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Furthermore, video file size is strictly preserved even after encryption and data embedding. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Attacks on Kuribayashi's Fingerprinting Scheme

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 607 - 609
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main threat against fingerprinting systems is collusion attacks. The attack most commonly assumed in the literature is a combination of averaging the collusion fingerprints and additive noise. In this correspondence, we demonstrate that the recently proposed fingerprinting scheme of Kuribayashi's is very vulnerable to certain nonlinear collusion attacks. View full abstract»

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  • Simplified MAP Detector for Binary Fingerprinting Code Embedded by Spread Spectrum Watermarking Scheme

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 610 - 623
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2212 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When a binary fingerprinting codeword is embedded into multimedia content by using a spread-spectrum (SS) watermarking scheme, it is difficult for colluders to perform a symbol-wise attack using their codewords. As discussed in regard to SS fingerprinting schemes, averaging their copies is a cost-effective attack from the signal processing point of view. If the number of colluders is known, an optimal detector can be used against an averaging attack with added white Gaussian noise. The detector first estimates the variance of additive noise, and then calculates correlation scores using a log-likelihood-based approach. However, the number of colluders is not usually known in a real situation. In this paper, we simplify the optimal detector by making statistical approximations and using the characteristics of the parameters for generating codewords. After that, we propose an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based SS watermarking scheme to embed the fingerprinting codeword into multimedia content. In a realistic situation, the signal embedded as a fingerprint is in principle attenuated by lossy compression. Because the signal amplitude in a pirated codeword is attenuated, we should adaptively estimate the parameters before calculating the scores. Different from the optimal detector, the simplified detector can easily accommodate changes in signal amplitude by examining the distorted codeword extracted from a pirated copy. We evaluate the performance of the simplified detector through simulation using digital images as well as codewords. View full abstract»

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  • When Does Relay Transmission Give a More Secure Connection in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks?

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 624 - 632
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Relay transmission can enhance coverage and throughput, whereas it can be vulnerable to eavesdropping attacks due to the additional transmission of the source message at the relay. Thus, whether or not one should use relay transmission for secure communication is an interesting and important problem. In this paper, we consider the transmission of a confidential message from a source to a destination in a decentralized wireless network in the presence of randomly distributed eavesdroppers. The source-destination pair can be potentially assisted by randomly distributed relays. For an arbitrary relay, we derive exact expressions of secure connection probability for both colluding and noncolluding eavesdroppers. We further obtain lower bound expressions on the secure connection probability, which are accurate when the eavesdropper density is small. Using these lower bound expressions, we propose a relay selection strategy to improve the secure connection probability. By analytically comparing the secure connection probability for direct transmission and relay transmission, we address the important problem of whether or not to relay and discuss the condition for relay transmission in terms of the relay density and source-destination distance. These analytical results are accurate in the small eavesdropper density regime. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • New Forensic ENF Reference Database for Media Recording Authentication Based on Harmony Search Technique Using GIS and Wide Area Frequency Measurements

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 633 - 644
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2842 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In forensic sciences, verification of digital media recordings is an important aspect. Electrical network frequency (ENF) criterion is a promising technique for media recording authentication. The ENF reference database is recorded from a single point on the power grid based on the fact that the ENF variation is the same across all points on the grid. This fact is not valid in case of system disturbances, whereas the ENF as a reference database varies in time and space. Post-disturbance ENF recorded from a single point is mismatched with the ENF extracted from media recorded at any other point on the grid. This will lead to judicial errors in the forensic examination of recordings. A new method for establishing a robust ENF reference database using geographical information system (GIS) and wide area frequency measurements is proposed. The method is based on building the ENF reference database from a number of frequency sensors deployed over multipoint on the grid rather than single point. The minimum number of sensors required is determined according to the frequency sensitivity of the ENF extraction algorithm and the estimation accuracy of the frequency sensor. The sensors locations are decided based on partitioning the power grid to a set of geographical frequency coherent areas. A novel harmony search algorithm using GIS data and wide area frequency measurements is proposed to identify the geographical frequency coherent areas for different disturbance scenarios. Results showed that the proposed method can be used to enhance the accuracy of the ENF database matching process. View full abstract»

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  • Cryptanalysis of Lightweight WG-8 Stream Cipher

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 645 - 652
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    WG-8 is a new lightweight variant of the well-known Welch-Gong (WG) stream cipher family, and takes an 80-bit secret key and an 80-bit initial vector (IV) as inputs. So far no attack on the WG-8 stream cipher has been published except the attacks by the designers. This paper shows that there exist Key-IV pairs for WG-8 that can generate keystreams, which are exact shifts of each other throughout the keystream generation. By exploiting this slide property, an effective key recovery attack on WG-8 in the related key setting is proposed, which has a time complexity of 253.32 and requires 252 chosen IVs. The attack is minimal in the sense that it only requires one related key. Furthermore, we present an efficient key recovery attack on WG-8 in the multiple related key setting. As confirmed by the experimental results, our attack recovers all 80 bits of WG-8 in on a PC with 2.5-GHz Intel Pentium 4 processor. This is the first time that a weakness is presented for WG-8, assuming that the attacker can obtain only a few dozen consecutive keystream bits for each IV. Finally, we give a new Key/IV loading proposal for WG-8, which takes an 80-bit secret key and a 64-bit IV as inputs. The new proposal keeps the basic structure of WG-8 and provides enough resistance against our related key attacks. View full abstract»

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  • On the Relation of Random Grid and Deterministic Visual Cryptography

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 653 - 665
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    Visual cryptography is a special type of secret sharing. Two models of visual cryptography have been independently studied: 1) deterministic visual cryptography, introduced by Naor and Shamir, and 2) random grid visual cryptography, introduced by Kafri and Keren. In this paper, we show that there is a strict relation between these two models. In particular, we show that to any random grid scheme corresponds a deterministic scheme and vice versa. This allows us to use results known in a model also in the other model. By exploiting the (many) results known in the deterministic model, we are able to improve several schemes and to provide many upper bounds for the random grid model and by exploiting some results known for the random grid model, we are also able to provide new schemes for the deterministic model. A side effect of this paper is that future new results for any one of the two models should not ignore, and in fact be compared with, the results known in the other model. View full abstract»

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  • A Study on Low Resolution Androgenic Hair Patterns for Criminal and Victim Identification

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 666 - 680
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Identifying criminals and victims in images (e.g., child pornography and masked gunmen) can be a challenging task, especially when neither their faces nor tattoos are observable. Skin mark patterns and blood vessel patterns are recently proposed to address this problem. However, they are invisible in low-resolution images and dense androgenic hair can cover them completely. Medical research results have implied that androgenic hair patterns are a stable biometric trait and have potential to overcome the weaknesses of skin mark patterns and blood vessel patterns. To the best of our knowledge, no one has studied androgenic hair patterns for criminal and victim identification before. This paper aims to study matching performance of androgenic hair patterns in low-resolution images. An algorithm designed for this paper uses Gabor filters to compute orientation fields of androgenic hair patterns, histograms on a dynamic grid system to describe their local orientation fields, and the blockwise Chi-square distance to measure the dissimilarity between two patterns. The 4552 images from 283 different legs with resolutions of 25, 18.75, 12.5, and 6.25 dpi were examined. The experimental results indicate that androgenic hair patterns even in low-resolution images are an effective biometric trait and the proposed Gabor orientation histograms are comparable with other well-known texture recognition methods, including local binary patterns, local Gabor binary patterns, and histograms of oriented gradients. View full abstract»

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  • Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks: Filtering out the Attacker's Impact

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 681 - 694
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    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in many applications, such as volcano and fire monitoring, urban sensing, and perimeter surveillance. In a large WSN, in-network data aggregation (i.e., combining partial results at intermediate nodes during message routing) significantly reduces the amount of communication overhead and energy consumption. The research community proposed a loss-resilient aggregation framework called synopsis diffusion, which uses duplicate-insensitive algorithms on top of multipath routing schemes to accurately compute aggregates (e.g., predicate count or sum). However, this aggregation framework does not address the problem of false subaggregate values contributed by compromised nodes. This attack may cause large errors in the aggregate computed at the base station, which is the root node in the aggregation hierarchy. In this paper, we make the synopsis diffusion approach secure against the above attack launched by compromised nodes. In particular, we present an algorithm to enable the base station to securely compute predicate count or sum even in the presence of such an attack. Our attack-resilient computation algorithm computes the true aggregate by filtering out the contributions of compromised nodes in the aggregation hierarchy. Extensive analysis and simulation study show that our algorithm outperforms other existing approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Security Notions and Advanced Method for Human Shoulder-Surfing Resistant PIN-Entry

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 695 - 708
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1969 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The personal identification number (PIN) is a well-known authentication method used in various devices, such as ATMs, mobile devices, and electronic door locks. Unfortunately, the conventional PIN-entry method is vulnerable to shoulder-surfing attacks. Consequently, various shoulder-surfing resistant methods have been proposed. However, the security analyses used to justify these proposed methods are not based on rigorous quantitative analysis, but instead on the results of experiments involving a limited number of human attackers. In this paper, we propose new theoretical and experimental techniques for quantitative security analysis of PIN-entry methods. We first present new security notions and guidelines for secure PIN-entry methods by analyzing the existing methods under the new framework. On the basis of these guidelines, we develop a new PIN-entry method that effectively obviates human shoulder-surfing attacks by significantly increasing the amount of short-term memory required in an attack. View full abstract»

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  • {\rm PROFIL}_{R} : Toward Preserving Privacy and Functionality in Geosocial Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 709 - 718
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Profit is the main participation incentive for social network providers. Its reliance on user profiles, built from a wealth of voluntarily revealed personal information, exposes users to a variety of privacy vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose to take first steps toward addressing the conflict between profit and privacy in geosocial networks. We introduce PROFILR, a framework for constructing location centric profiles (LCPs), aggregates built over the profiles of users that have visited discrete locations (i.e., venues). PROFILR endows users with strong privacy guarantees and providers with correctness assurances. In addition to a venue centric approach, we propose a decentralized solution for computing real time LCP snapshots over the profiles of colocated users. An Android implementation shows that PROFILR is efficient; the end-to-end overhead is small even under strong privacy and correctness assurances. View full abstract»

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  • Max-Ratio Relay Selection in Secure Buffer-Aided Cooperative Wireless Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 719 - 729
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1791 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the security of transmission in buffer-aided decode-and-forward cooperative wireless networks. An eavesdropper which can intercept the data transmission from both the source and relay nodes is considered to threaten the security of transmission. Finite size data buffers are assumed to be available at every relay in order to avoid having to select concurrently the best source-to-relay and relay-to-destination links. A new max-ratio relay selection policy is proposed to optimize the secrecy transmission by considering all the possible source-to-relay and relay-to-destination links and selecting the relay having the link which maximizes the signal to eavesdropper channel gain ratio. Two cases are considered in terms of knowledge of the eavesdropper channel strengths: exact and average gains, respectively. Closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability for both cases are obtained, which are verified by simulations. The proposed max-ratio relay selection scheme is shown to outperform one based on a max-min-ratio relay scheme. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security Edics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 730
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security information for authors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 731 - 732
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  • Special issue on biometric spoofing and countermeasures

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 733
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  • Special issue on signal processing for big data

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 734
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  • Special issue on spatial audio

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 735
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security covers the sciences, technologies, and applications relating to information forensics, information security, biometrics, surveillance and systems applications that incorporate these features.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mauro Barni
University of Siena, Italy