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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2014

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C1 - 285
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C2
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  • Energy Distribution Along the Focal Axis of a Metallic Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector Covered With a Plasma Layer

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 286 - 292
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    The deviation of the energy distribution along the focal axis of a long metallic cylindrical parabolic reflector, which on its surface contains a uniform cold collisionless plasma, is investigated. In addition, the effects of some physical parameters such as the plasma and wave frequencies and the thickness of plasma layer on this energy distribution and the reflected and the transmitted electromagnetic fields are studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the reflected intensity increases by increasing the incident wave frequency and by decreasing the plasma layer thickness and the plasma frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a 0.6-THz Second Harmonic Gyrotron With Gradually Tapered Cavity

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 293 - 299
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    The mode competition and beam wave interaction in a gradually tapered cavity are studied for achieving high efficiency of a 0.6-THz second harmonic (SH) gyrotron. In order to obtain high power and stable radiation, the TE32,5 mode is selected as the operating mode of the desired gyrotron to realize a single-mode oscillation. The issues of studying the high-order mode gyrotron are solved effectively by transforming the generalized telegraphist's equations. The efficiency and the output power of the gyrotron under different conditions have been calculated by the code, which is based on the transformed equations. The results show that a single-mode SH radiation with a power of over 100 kW at frequency of 0.6 THz could be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Design and Experimental Study of Pulse Transformers With Fast Rise Time and Large Pulse Duration

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 300 - 306
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    Pulsed power systems often use a pulse transformer to generate high voltage pulses in some application such as radar systems, linear accelerators, and klystron modulators. Parasitic parameters include leakage inductance and capacitances are crucial for output waveform of pulse transformers. To ensure a rectangular pulse shape with a fast rise time, a required small overshoot and an acceptable voltage droop, theoretical calculation based on MATLAB is studied to optimize the design of the pulse transformer in this paper. Based on the theoretical calculation results, Finite Element Method simulations of magnetic and electric fields are carried out to obtain a more precise model for designing the transformer. Additionally, as the pulse transformer related in this paper works on the single forward state, a dc reset circuit, which can improve the utilization of the core material is implemented. Finally, accurate simulations of the pulse system equivalent circuit based on SABER are implemented. Meanwhile, output waveforms of pulse systems with different parasitic parameters and variable load are discussed. The simulation and experiment results showed that the optimum design of pulse transformer based on MATLAB programming and SABER simulation is effective to reduce the rise time of rectangular pulse shape to 1.5 μs while the pulse duration is as large as 200 μs. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigations on Low-Energy Discharge in {\rm SF}_{6} Under Low-Moisture Conditions

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 307 - 314
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    The detection of gas decomposition products is widely used to diagnose the inner condition of SF6-insulated electrical equipment for its anti-interference ability and high sensitivity. A discharge chamber with Teflon coating inside was designed, with adjustable defect parameters and the volume nearly the same as real ones in gas-insulated switchgear. With the assistance of newly developed dual gas chromatography detection system, this paper investigated the influences of relatively low moisture on the discharge characteristics and gas decomposition under corona and mild spark in SF6. Considering notable hydrolysis reactions in the main gas volume and on the vessel walls, SO2F2, SO2, and S2OF10 were selected as typical gas decomposition products. The average discharge capacity and its fluctuation were found to decrease with the increase of moisture content within research scope, which is related to the electronegativity of water molecule. The concentration of typical decomposition products under various moisture conditions was observed in detail. The results show that in mild spark, O atom in S2OF10 mainly originated from oxygen rather than water vapor in SF6. To diagnose internal insulation condition by only monitoring, the magnitude of discharge capacity is proved unreliable. A new parameter, the concentration ratio of SO2/S2OF10, was proposed to group moisture content and discharge types. View full abstract»

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  • The Selective Characterization of Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on Treatment of Human Breast Cancer and Normal Cells

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 315 - 322
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on human breast cancer and normal cells. High voltage, dc-pulsed power supply was used to generate low temperature helium plasma in atmospheric pressure. In this paper, cancer and normal cells were exposed to plasma during four time steps. For further exploration, Doxorubicin as common chemotherapy drug was employed to compare the efficacy of plasma treatment with convectional cancer therapy. Also, the Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay was obtained to reveal the death process of cancer and normal cells. The results of MTT and apoptosis assay showed that the plasma treatment has drastically reduced the viability of breast cancer cells, while it has no significant damage to the normal cells. In addition, after plasma treatment three different zones were formed in the plate, which will represent the detachment of cells from plate surface. Moreover, adding 5% oxygen to the helium plasma will lead to enhancement of cancer cells viability reduction. In addition, the outcome of this paper has verified that the plasma treatment successfully overcomes drug treatment in inhibition of the cancer cells viability, while decreases the adverse effect of drug treatment. View full abstract»

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  • Significance of Armature Resistivity and Deformation in Modeling Coilgun Performance

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 323 - 329
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    We have performed 2-D axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations for a single stage induction coilgun system and validated the results against in-house experiments. The simulations, besides computing the currents and electromagnetic forces, also capture the associated hydrodynamic phenomena. This paper highlights the importance of appropriate material strength for handling hydrodynamic phenomena and temperature-dependent electrical resistivity model for self-consistent electromagnetic calculations. These are very essential for accurate prediction of armature dynamics and velocity. Inappropriate resistivity model, even in case of no deformations, produced velocity deviation of up to 50% as compared with experiments. Inclusion of appropriate models shows average deviation when compared with experiments for known armature material (Al6061-T6). For higher energies, predicted armature deformations appear to be in a good agreement with experiments. If material deformation is ignored, velocities get over-estimated. Finally, subsequent to our validation at low energies, an optimized armature profile and dimensions are reported that have allowed our armatures to achieve velocity with single stage operation and 300 m/s with two-stage operations of the coilgun. This paper shows that accurate modeling of Joule heating and armature deformation, along with self-consistent evolution of currents, is essential for coilgun modeling. Although the system is not presently optimized for efficient energy conversion ( ~ 1.5%), the performance of induction accelerator at moderate velocity of armature (50-300 m/s) is not only useful for validating our code, but can act as an effective catapult for impact testing of materials. View full abstract»

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  • Vacuum Surface Flashover of High Gradient Insulators Under Nanosecond Pulse

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 330 - 335
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    Vacuum surface flashover of the high gradient insulator (HGI), which consists of many alternative layers of conductors and insulators, was found to generally start from one or several dielectric layers adjacent to the anode under nanosecond pulse by using the fast photography. A simple model is proposed to explain the experimental observations. The secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) along the dielectric surface adjacent to the anode will be greatly enhanced due to the upstream SEEA starting from the traditional and the intermediate cathode triple junctions. The 15-mm-thick HGI samples with different numbers of dielectric layers were tested and the samples with six and eight dielectric layers showed the best performance. The experimental result proves that as the number of dielectric layers reaches a certain level, the performance of the HGI will decrease as the number of dielectric layers increases. View full abstract»

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  • Peaking Capacitor Parameter Evaluation With Transfer Function Model

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 336 - 339
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    A transfer function model is developed using which the peaking capacitor parameter is estimated. The inverse of peaking capacitor has been chosen as the gain of the open-loop transfer function. Root locus tool is used to find the variation of peaking capacitor on the performance of pulse-generation system. This tool can be used to select the parameter of peaking capacitor to achieve the required over shoot. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics Study of Multigaps Gas Switch With Corona Discharge for Voltage Balance

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 340 - 345
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    A multigaps gas switch (MGS) with corona discharge for voltage balance is developed. The self-breakdown characteristics of the switch under different gas pressures and the volt-ampere characteristics of corona discharge are studied. The experiment results show that to increase the shot times can improve the self-breakdown voltage stability of the switch. After conditioning the switch self-breakdown voltage relative standard deviation is less than 2%, the voltage balance has a good effect; the volt-ampere characteristics of multigaps corona discharge is similar to single gap. The delay time and jitter of the MGS with corona discharge for voltage balance in different conditions have been tested. The trigger stability is fine when switch charging at ±100 kV. View full abstract»

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  • Study on the Terahertz Denisov Quasi-Optical Mode Convertor

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 346 - 349
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (577 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Considering the backward waves, the coupled-mode theory for the dimpled-wall Denisov launcher has been developed. The 140-GHz TE28,8 mode was recalculated with this method and the results are consistent with those reported by Thumm's team. With the coupled-mode theory, the Denisov-type quasi-optical mode convertor for 220-GHz TE14,4 mode gyrotron has been investigated, of which the maximal relative power of the backward waves at the launcher cut is just about 0.7%, the power-conversion efficiency is about 95%, and the scalar Gaussian mode contents are 98% at the output window. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Study on Efficient Triggering Circuit for Reversely Switched Dynistor

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 350 - 357
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    The main characteristics of reversely switched dynistor (RSD) are infinite series, long lifetime, turning on in microseconds to nanoseconds, high-current rise rate (100 kA/μs), and ability of passing through large current (several kiloamperes). With these advantages, RSD has a great potential of application in repetition rate pulsed power technology and the future HVdc field. To resolve the problem of residual voltage of RSD caused by insufficient precharge, which leads to nonuniform turn-on of RSD, this paper, based on the conduction mechanism of RSD devices, describes precharge circuit design requirements and establishes a second order circuit model to study the resonant triggering circuit of RSD. It is found that reducing precharge inductor can effectively increase precharge current, resulting in reducing the turn-on voltage of RSD. Finally, design for three improved circuit topologies (full-bridge, intense pulsed, and two-step triggering circuit) are presented and experiments show that these improved circuit topologies can enhance the precharge efficiency and reduce the turn-on voltage of RSD. View full abstract»

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  • Review on the History, Research, and Applications of Electrohydrodynamics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 358 - 375
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    Corona discharge refers to the phenomenon when the electric field near a conductor is strong enough to ionize the dielectric surrounding it but not strong enough to cause an electrical breakdown or arcing between conductors or other components. This phenomenon is unwanted and dangerous in high-voltage systems; however, a controlled corona discharge may be used to ionize a fluid and induce motion by directly converting the electrical energy into kinetic energy. Phenomena that involve the direct conversion of electrical energy into kinetic energy are known as electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and have a variety of possible applications today. This paper contains a literature review of the research regarding the EHD effects associated with corona discharges, from the first observation of the phenomenon to the most recent advancements on its mathematical modeling, as well as the advancements on specific applications, such as thrust, heat transfer improvement, boundary layer enhancement, drying, fluid pumping, and cooling. View full abstract»

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  • Breakdown Voltage and Recovery Rate Estimation of a Supercritical Nitrogen Plasma Switch

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 376 - 383
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    Supercritical fluid (SCF), characterized by high pressure and high density, combines the advantages of gas and liquid: high ability of mass transfer and high heat transfer. SCF has a high potential as an electrical switching medium owing to its high breakdown strength and fast dielectric recovery capability after electrical breakdown. One other significant characteristic of SCF as insulating medium is its low impact to the environment, hence it is proposed as an ideal substitute for SF6-an extreme greenhouse gas in power system circuit breakers. In this paper, the thermodynamic characteristics of SCF are introduced by the review of references. An experimental analysis of electrical breakdown phenomena of a supercritical (SC) plasma switch with pressure up to 180 bar is presented, focusing on the breakdown voltage variation as a function of the fluid pressure, gap width of the electrodes, and fluid flow rate through the gap. A thermodynamic model for recovery rate analysis of a gas insulated switch is proposed and its feasibility is discussed. The model is used to predict the recovery rate of an SC switch. View full abstract»

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  • Charging and Arcing Test on Semiconductive Coated Solar Coupon Panel

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 384 - 390
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    Two types of semiconductive antimony tin oxide (ATO) coating (single and multiple layers) have been applied on solar cells and a charge accumulation test has been performed under high-energy electron beams simulating a geostationary earth orbit environment and ECR plasma simulating a low earth orbit environment. No charge has been accumulated on the coated solar cells whereas a high charge has built up on the noncoated solar cells, confirmed by a noncontacting surface potential probe. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing has also been performed on both the coated and noncoated solar cells; however, no ESD has been detected on the coated solar cells. Therefore, ATO coating on solar cells can be used for charging mitigation. The performance of coated and noncoated solar cells onboard the HORYU-II, the high voltage (300 V) technology demonstration satellite made by the students of Kyushu Institute of Technology, has also been tested in a ground plasma chamber. After launching the HORYU-II, high voltage generation was confirmed. However, so far, we have not conducted arcing mitigation technology tests on orbit. In spite of the charging mitigation feature of ATO coating, the current-voltage characteristic of coated solar cells shows a power decrease, which needs to be studied along with ATO coated layer degradation due to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, energetic protons, thermal cycling, and so on. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on plasma-assisted technologies

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 391
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  • Special issue on basics and applications of plasma technology

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 392 - 393
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  • Special issue on Z pinch plasmas

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 394
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  • Technology insight on demand on IEEE.tv

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 395
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  • IEEE Member digital library

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 396
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C4
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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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