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# IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

## Issue 1  Part 1 • Feb. 2014

This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2  | Part 3

## Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
• ### frontcover

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s): C1
| PDF (97 KB)
• ### IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s): C2
| PDF (137 KB)

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):1 - 2
| PDF (165 KB)
• ### Optical Simulation of Dual-Ended Readout of Axially-Oriented 100 mm Long LYSO Crystals for Use in a Compact PET System

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):3 - 13
| | PDF (2140 KB) | HTML

Monte Carlo simulations of optical photon transport were performed using DETECT2000 for detectors using dual-ended readout of axially-oriented 100 mm long LYSO crystals. In order to modulate the light transport in the crystals and improve the axial-positioning resolution, systematic etched band patterns were simulated on the long surfaces of the crystals. Roughed surface bands with a width of 1 mm... View full abstract»

• ### Modeling of Single Photon Avalanche Diode Array Detectors for PET Applications

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):14 - 22
Cited by:  Papers (12)
| | PDF (1312 KB) | HTML

We developed a configurable model of single photon avalanche diodes (SPAD) array photodetectors with intelligent control and active quenching. In this model individual components can be simulated independently and subsequently linked to provide the overall detector response. The model enables the simulation of the entire detector and analysis of performance, including photon detection efficiency, ... View full abstract»

• ### Silicon Photomultipliers Electrical Model Extensive Analytical Analysis

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):23 - 34
Cited by:  Papers (19)
| | PDF (2767 KB) | HTML

The present work aims to address a comprehensive analytical analysis of a new accurate equivalent electrical model of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors. The proposed circuit model allows to truthfully reproduce the output signal waveform generated by the light sensors apart from the specific technology adopted for the fabrication process, and can also be profitably exploited to perform reli... View full abstract»

• ### Multiplexing Approaches for a 12 x 4 Array of Silicon Photomultipliers

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):35 - 43
Cited by:  Papers (11)
| | PDF (1791 KB) | HTML

Two resistor network multiplexing circuits for a 12 × 4 array of SiPMs were constructed and tested. Both circuits encode the position and energy information from 48 SiPM pixels in only 4 analog channels. The two circuits differ in that one buffers each SiPM output with a non-inverting voltage-feedback operational amplifier before multiplexing, whereas the second one connects the output of t... View full abstract»

• ### A $780 times 800~{mu}hbox{m}^2$ Multichannel Digital Silicon Photomultiplier With Column-Parallel Time-to-Digital Converter and Basic Characterization

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):44 - 52
Cited by:  Papers (6)
| | PDF (1726 KB) | HTML

This paper presents a digital silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) partitioned in columns, whereas each column is connected to a column-parallel time-to-digital converter (TDC), in order to improve the timing resolution of single-photon detection. By reducing the number of pixels per TDC using a sharing scheme with three TDCs per column, the pixel-to-pixel skew is reduced. We report the basic characteri... View full abstract»

• ### X’tal Cube PET Detector Composed of a Stack of Scintillator Plates Segmented by Laser Processing

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):53 - 59
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (1317 KB) | HTML

We have developed a three-dimensional (3-D) position-sensitive radiation detector named X'tal cube, which can be applied to a PET detector. The X'tal cube is composed of a scintillation crystal block and multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). The crystal block is segmented three-dimensionally into small cubes by optical discontinuity (3-D segmentation) and no reflector is inserted inside. Scintillat... View full abstract»

• ### CaLIPSO: An Novel Detector Concept for PET Imaging

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):60 - 66
Cited by:  Papers (4)
| | PDF (605 KB) | HTML

The CaLIPSO project focuses on the development of an innovative energetic-photon detector. The detector uses a “heavy” organometallic liquid: the TriMethyl Bismuth (TMBi), 82% by weight of Bismuth. TMBi efficiently converts through the photo-electric effect photons of energies below 1 MeV. The ionisation signal and light produced in the liquid are both detected. Beyond the measuremen... View full abstract»

• ### Design Considerations for DOI-encoding PET Detectors Using Phosphor-Coated Crystals

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):67 - 73
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (1009 KB) | HTML

Driven by a need for high and uniform spatial resolution, as well as depth correction to improve time-of-flight PET, the design of PET detectors with depth-of-interaction (DOI) information is of great interest. To combine the advantages of continuous DOI information with a single-ended readout of the crystal, we have proposed a solution based on the use of phosphor-coated crystals. Here we build o... View full abstract»

• ### Using a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for Monitoring Multileaf Collimator Positions in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):74 - 78
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1100 KB) | HTML

To enable in-vivo monitoring of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) with minimal attenuation of the treatment field, an upstream camera system based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) has been developed. This system has been used to precisely reconstruct the position of the Multileaf Collimators (MLC) that are used to shape the treatment field. The results show the position of a MLC is... View full abstract»

• ### A Building Block for Nuclear Medicine Imaging Systems Data Acquisition

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):79 - 87
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (3866 KB) | HTML

Adapting acquisition electronics to new detector designs has often led to complications and compromises. As we developed depth-of-interaction detector designs based on both discrete crystal arrays (dMiCE) and monolithic crystals (cMiCE) concepts, we found that our previous electronics design was inadequate to the task and launched a design effort we have termed our Phase II electronics. The system... View full abstract»

• ### Evaluation of a Modular PET System Architecture with Synchronization over Data Links

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):88 - 98
| | PDF (1578 KB) | HTML

A DAQ architecture for a PET system is presented that focuses on modularity, scalability and reusability. The system defines two basic building blocks: data acquisitors and concentrators, which can be replicated in order to build a complete DAQ of variable size. Acquisition modules contain a scintillating crystal and either a position-sensitive photomultiplier (PSPMT) or an array of silicon photom... View full abstract»

• ### A Linear Time-Over-Threshold Digitizing Scheme and Its 64-channel DAQ Prototype Design on FPGA for a Continuous Crystal PET Detector

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):99 - 106
Cited by:  Papers (9)
| | PDF (844 KB) | HTML

We propose a practical general method, called the linear time-over-threshold (linear TOT) scheme, for nuclear pulse amplitude digitization aiming at providing a high degree of integration for a high-channel count detector system. The most critical technique in the scheme is that for a different particle detector and diverse pulse shaping, how to produce the time-varying dynamic threshold voltage, ... View full abstract»

• ### Time-to-Digital Converter Based on FPGA With Multiple Channel Capability

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):107 - 114
Cited by:  Papers (13)
| | PDF (1237 KB) | HTML

This contribution describes an accurate approach implementing a Time-to-Digital Converter using a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device. Time differences with a FWHM better than 100 ps for 24 pairs of channels working simultaneously have been achieved. This was possible through the proper management of FPGA internal resources and by an accurate device calibration process minimizing the effec... View full abstract»

• ### Whole Body PET Imaging Using Variable Acquisition Times

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):115 - 120
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1250 KB) | HTML

Whole Body PET scans are typically performed as a series of image sets acquired at discrete axial positions to cover most or all of the body. The acquisition time at each axial position is typically kept fixed for all positions although the total imaging time is typically adjusted according to the patient's weight. Because of the varying amount of attenuation for different sections of the body, it... View full abstract»

• ### Sensitivity Improvement of Time-of-Flight (ToF) PET Detector Through Recovery of Compton Scattered Annihilation Photons

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):121 - 125
Cited by:  Papers (8)
| | PDF (1051 KB) | HTML

In PET detector designs, the scintillator material can be partitioned such that a block of crystals share timing/energy readout electronics. A fraction of the incident 511 keV photons produce simultaneous events in two adjacent block readout channels due to Compton scattering of photons from the primary block into an adjacent block. These inter-block Compton scatter events are typically not proces... View full abstract»

• ### Advantages of Improved Time Resolution for TOF PET at Very Low Statistics

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):126 - 133
Cited by:  Papers (11)
| | PDF (1469 KB) | HTML

In this paper, Monte Carlo generated data are used to simulate a time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with improving time resolution, down to 200-ps time resolution. TOF and non-TOF ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstructions were compared in terms of contrast recovery and signal-to-noise ratio, with the purpose of characterizing the differences of TO... View full abstract»

• ### MCPS - an MCNPX Based Simulation Tool for Modeling the Physical Behavior of PET Systems

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):134 - 141
| | PDF (887 KB) | HTML

Monte Carlo simulation is an effective tool for modeling imaging equipment of nuclear medicine such as PET systems. The aim of this paper is to present a novel simulation tool called MCPS (Monte Carlo for PET Systems) to demonstrate that MCNPX can be made capable of performing PET system simulations. The general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNPX serves in many cases as reference. It has numerous adva... View full abstract»

• ### Implementation of Cascade Gamma and Positron Range Corrections for I-124 Small Animal PET

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):142 - 153
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (2156 KB) | HTML

Small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) should provide accurate quantification of regional radiotracer concentrations and high spatial resolution. This is challenging for non-pure positron emitters with high positron endpoint energies, such as I-124: On the one hand the cascade gammas emitted from this isotope can produce coincidence events with the 511 keV annihilation photons leading to ... View full abstract»

• ### Evaluation of PET Imaging Resolution Using 350 $muhbox{m}$ Pixelated CZT as a VP-PET Insert Detector

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):154 - 161
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (902 KB) | HTML

A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector with 350 μm pitch pixels was studied in high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications. The PET imaging system was based on coincidence detection between a CZT detector and a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based Inveon PET detector in virtual-pinhole PET geometry. The LSO detector is a 20 ×20 array, with 1.6 mm pitches... View full abstract»

• ### Superiorization of the ML-EM Algorithm

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):162 - 172
Cited by:  Papers (14)
| | PDF (2226 KB) | HTML

A reconstructed image in positron emission tomography (PET) should be such that its likelihood, assuming a Poisson model, is high given the observed detector readings. The expectation maximization (EM) methodology leads to an iterative algorithm, called ML-EM, that converges in the limit to an image that maximizes this likelihood. An undesirable property of the algorithm is that it produces images... View full abstract»

• ### Reconstruction Scheme for Accelerated Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction: The Patchwork Structure

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):173 - 181
Cited by:  Papers (7)
| | PDF (3486 KB) | HTML

Convergence of iterative algorithms can be improved by updating groups of voxels sequentially rather than updating the whole image simultaneously. The optimal way is to choose groups of uncoupled voxels, i.e. voxels spread over the reconstruction volume. While this is most efficient for convergence reasons, updating groups of spread voxels is less efficient regarding memory access and computationa... View full abstract»

• ### Effects of Piecewise Spatial Smoothing in 4-D SPECT Reconstruction

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):182 - 191
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1602 KB) | HTML

In nuclear medicine, cardiac gated SPECT images are known to suffer from significantly increased noise owing to limited data counts. Consequently, spatial (and temporal) smoothing has been indispensable for suppressing the noise artifacts in SPECT reconstruction. However, recently we demonstrated that the benefit of spatial processing in motion-compensated reconstruction of gated SPECT (aka 4-D) c... View full abstract»

## Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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