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Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 64
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2
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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Systems publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Energy and Reserve Scheduling Under a Joint Generation and Transmission Security Criterion: An Adjustable Robust Optimization Approach

    Page(s): 3 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach for energy and reserve scheduling in electricity markets subject to transmission flow limits. Security is imposed by guaranteeing power balance under each contingency state including both generation and transmission assets. The model is general enough to embody a joint generation and transmission n-K security criterion and its variants. An adjustable robust optimization approach is presented to circumvent the tractability issues associated with conventional contingency-constrained methods relying on explicitly modeling the whole contingency set. The adjustable robust model is formulated as a trilevel programming problem. The upper-level problem aims at minimizing total costs of energy and reserves while ensuring that the system is able to withstand each contingency. The middle-level problem identifies, for a given pre-contingency schedule, the contingency state leading to maximum power imbalance if any. Finally, the lower-level problem models the operator's best reaction for a given contingency by minimizing the system power imbalance. The proposed trilevel problem is solved by a Benders decomposition approach. For computation purposes, a tighter formulation for the master problem is presented. Our approach is finitely convergent to the optimal solution and provides a measure of the distance to the optimum. Simulation results show the superiority of the proposed methodology over conventional contingency-constrained models. View full abstract»

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  • Capability Chart for Distributed Reactive Power Resources

    Page(s): 15 - 22
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    The ubiquity of synchronous generation should not be assumed in highly renewable power systems. Various problems may consequently arise, not least of which are the difficulties entailed in maintaining regional reactive power balance. Offering a potential solution to such problems, modern renewable generator technologies offer controllable reactive power resources. As many of these generators will be embedded in distribution networks, their incorporation into transmission system operational and planning activities appears challenging. An extension of the capability chart concept offers insight here: for a given active power exchange between the transmission system and a distribution network section, the range of controllable reactive power typically available is of interest. This aggregate capability depends on the innate machine capabilities of the distributed generators and on the prevailing conditions within the distribution network. Novel optimisation techniques are useful in addressing the latter point, offering a means to identify the combination of power flow profiles within the distribution system most restrictive to reactive power provision. The capability chart thus derived gives the dependable range of reactive power available, under the assumption that each generator is operated to locally maximize its own reactive power contribution. Such a description can be applied in transmission system planning or to quantify the effects of modifications to the distribution system. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Subgradient-Based Coordination of Multiple Renewable Generators in a Microgrid

    Page(s): 23 - 33
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    For a microgrid with high renewable energy penetration to work autonomously, it must maintain its own supply-demand balance of active power. Maximum peak power tracking algorithms, which emphasize high renewable energy utilization, may cause a supply-demand imbalance when the available renewable generation is more than demanded, especially for autonomous microgrids. Currently, droop control is one of the most popular decentralized methods for sharing active and reactive loads among the distributed generators. However, conventional droop control methods suffer from slow and oscillating dynamic response and steady state deviations. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes a distributed subgradient-based solution to coordinate the operations of different types of distributed renewable generators in a microgrid. By controlling the utilization levels of renewable generators, the supply-demand balance can be well maintained and the system dynamic performance can be significantly improved. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control solution. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of Multi-Terminal VSC HVDC Systems With Distributed DC Voltage Control

    Page(s): 34 - 42
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    This paper discusses the extension of electromechanical stability models of voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC HVDC) to multi-terminal (MTDC) systems. The paper introduces a control model with a cascaded DC voltage control at every converter that allows a two-terminal VSC HVDC system to cope with converter outages. When extended to an MTDC system, the model naturally evolves into a master-slave set-up with converters taking over the DC voltage control in case the DC voltage controlling converter fails. It is shown that the model can be used to include a voltage droop control to share the power imbalance after a contingency in the DC system amongst the converters in the system. Finally, the paper discusses two possible model reductions, in line with the assumptions made in transient stability modeling. The control algorithms and VSC HVDC systems have been implemented using both MatDyn, an open source MATLAB transient stability program, as well as the commercial power system simulation package EUROSTAG. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission-Capacity Expansion for Minimizing Blackout Probabilities

    Page(s): 43 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this paper is to determine an optimal plan for expanding the capacity of a power grid in order to minimize the likelihood of a large cascading blackout. Capacity-expansion decisions considered in this paper include the addition of new transmission lines and the addition of capacity to existing lines. We embody these interacting considerations in a simulation optimization model, where the objective is to minimize the probability of a large blackout subject to a budget constraint. The probability of a large-scale blackout is estimated via Monte Carlo simulation of a probabilistic cascading blackout model. Because the events of interest are rare, standard simulation is often intractable from a computational perspective. We apply a variance-reduction technique within the simulation to provide results in a reasonable time frame. Numerical results are given for some small test networks including an IEEE 14-bus test network. A key conclusion is that the different expansion strategies lead to different shapes of the tails of the blackout distributions. In other words, there is a tradeoff between reducing the frequency of small-scale blackouts versus reducing the frequency of large-scale blackouts. View full abstract»

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  • A Marginal Equivalent Decomposition Method and Its Application to Multi-Area Optimal Power Flow Problems

    Page(s): 53 - 61
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    This paper presents a “marginal equivalent” decomposition algorithm that partitions a linear programming problem into subproblems and coordinates their solutions by exchanging the information of free variables and binding constraints. Convergence of the algorithm is proven. The method is applied to a multi-area optimal power flow problem in a market environment. Numerical testing of a large-scale two-area system demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Capacity Expansion in Imperfectly Competitive Power Markets

    Page(s): 62 - 71
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2101 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a mathematical model for transmission planning in an environment where there is imperfect competition in electricity supply industry. The model is developed based on the concept of the leader-followers game in applied mathematics. The leader of the game is the transmission planner and the followers are the strategic electricity producing firms. The reaction of the strategic electricity producing firms to the transmission planning decision is modeled using the introduced concept of the worst-Cournot-Nash equilibrium. The worst-Cournot-Nash equilibrium can handle the multiple Nash equilibria problem. The whole mathematical formulation is a bilevel mixed-integer linear programming problem. This formulation is achieved using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions and a binary mapping approach. The application of the proposed approach to the three-node example system and the modified six-node Garver's example system are studied. The transmission planning with perfect competition is formulated and used as the benchmark. The numerical results show that the proposed approach in this paper can efficiently allocate the additional transmission capacity to the transmission grid such that it reduces the market power cost in the electricity supply industry. However, further studies should be carried out to scale up the proposed approach to the larger case studies. View full abstract»

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  • Electromechanical Transient Modeling of Modular Multilevel Converter Based Multi-Terminal HVDC Systems

    Page(s): 72 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies the techniques for modeling modular multilevel converter (MMC) based multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) systems in the electromechanical transient mode. Firstly, the mathematical model of the MMC and its corresponding equivalent circuit are established, which are similar to those of the two level converters. Then, a power flow calculation method for AC/DC systems containing MMC-MTDC systems is developed. Two dynamic models for MMC-MTDC systems are developed in the paper. One is the detailed model, taking into account of the AC side circuit, the inner controllers, the modulation strategies, the outer controllers and the MTDC circuit. The other is the simplified model, which only reserves the outer controllers and partial dynamics of the MTDC circuit based on a quantitative analysis of the detailed model's dynamic processes, and it can be used in electromechanical transient simulation with a larger step size. Both the detailed and the simplified models are implemented on PSS/E and compared with the accurate electromagnetic transient models on PSCAD in a four terminal MMC-MTDC system; the result proves the validity of the developed models. Lastly, a stability study of a modified New England 39-bus system is executed, and the result shows that the AC fault can be isolated well in an MMC-MTDC asynchronously connected AC grid. View full abstract»

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  • A Parallel Reduced-Space Interior Point Method With Orthogonal Collocation for First-Swing Stability Constrained Emergency Control

    Page(s): 84 - 92
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    First-swing stability constrained emergency control (FSCEC) enhances power system transient stability during large disturbances, but is difficult to solve for larger systems because of its computational complexity. The method proposed in this work guarantees first swing transient stability by using a parallel reduced-space interior point method (IPM) with orthogonal collocation to solve FSCEC problems. This novel algorithm discretizes differential-algebraic equations using orthogonal collocation, which leads to a relatively low problem dimension, and accelerates the optimization process through a reduced-space technique by utilizing the property of small degrees of freedom after numerical discretization. Furthermore, a two-level parallelism is explored in reduced-space IPM (RIPM) algorithm and implemented with state-of-the-art parallelization techniques. The proposed approach was benchmarked on a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU cores to show its excellent computational efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Homotopy-Enhanced Power Flow Methods for General Distribution Networks With Distributed Generators

    Page(s): 93 - 100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1159 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The issue of power flow divergence when dispersed generations are modeled as P-V nodes needs to be addressed. To address this issue, this paper presents a homotopy-enhanced numerical power flow method. Several numerical aspects of the implementation were discussed. To evaluate its reliability and effectiveness, the proposed method is applied to several standard test systems, a practical 1101-node distribution network and the IEEE 8500-node test system. The evaluation results were very promising. In addition, one distinguished feature of the homotopy-enhanced numerical power flow method is that it is applicable to several existing power flow methods. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Assessing Congestion Induced Wind Curtailment

    Page(s): 101 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1637 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the installed wind generation capacity has grown remarkably over the past decades, percentage of wind energy in electricity supply portfolio is still relatively low. Due to the technical limitations of power system operations, considerable wind generation cannot integrate into the grid but gets curtailed. Among various factors, transmission congestion accounts for a significant portion of wind curtailment. Derived from DC power network, an analytical approach is proposed to efficiently assess the congestion induced wind curtailment sensitivity without iterative simulation. Compared to empirical simulation-based wind curtailment studies, the proposed approach offers the following advantages: 1) computational efficiency, 2) low input information requirement, and 3) robustness against uncertainties. This approach could benefit system operators, wind farm owners as well as wind power investors to better understand the interactions between wind curtailment and power system operations and can further help for curtailment alleviation. Numerical experiments of a modified IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (RTS) as well as a practical 5889-bus system are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement-Based Load Modeling Using Transfer Functions for Dynamic Simulations

    Page(s): 111 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2178 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Measurement-based load modeling is a promising approach to reliably represent load behavior in dynamic simulations of large power systems. This paper presents a methodology that starts with the acquisition of voltages and currents from power quality monitoring systems and highlights the issues associated with selecting, processing and resampling the data to estimate the relationship between the power deviations as a function of the voltage deviations. The load model mathematical structure chosen is a second-order transfer function, whose parameters are estimated using a genetic algorithm (GA) as the optimization technique that minimizes the error between the real data that are measured and the data that are simulated with the proposed models. Some insights were achieved regarding the appropriate search space choice. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Optimal Power Flow for Active Distribution Networks

    Page(s): 121 - 131
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    Active Network Management is a philosophy for the operation of distribution networks with high penetrations of renewable distributed generation. Technologies such as energy storage and flexible demand are now beginning to be included in Active Network Management (ANM) schemes. Optimizing the operation of these schemes requires consideration of inter-temporal linkages as well as network power flow effects. Network effects are included in optimal power flow (OPF) solutions but this only optimizes for a single point in time. Dynamic optimal power flow (DOPF) is an extension of OPF to cover multiple time periods. This paper reviews the generic formulation of DOPF before developing a framework for modeling energy technologies with inter-temporal characteristics in an ANM context. The framework includes the optimization of nonfirm connected generation, principles of access for nonfirm generators, energy storage, and flexible demand. Two objectives based on maximizing export and revenue are developed and a case study is used to illustrate the technique. Results show that DOPF is able to successfully schedule these energy technologies. DOPF schedules energy storage and flexible demand to reduce generator curtailment significantly in the case study. Finally, the role of DOPF in analyzing ANM schemes is discussed with reference to extending the optimization framework to include other technologies and objectives. View full abstract»

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  • A Tri-Level Model of Centralized Transmission and Decentralized Generation Expansion Planning for an Electricity Market—Part I

    Page(s): 132 - 141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop a tri-level model of transmission and generation expansion planning in a deregulated power market environment. Due to long planning/construction lead times and concerns for network reliability, transmission expansion is considered in the top level as a centralized decision. In the second level, multiple decentralized GENCOs make their own capacity expansion decisions while anticipating a wholesale electricity market equilibrium in the third level. The collection of bi-level games in the lower two levels forms an equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraints (EPEC) that can be approached by either the diagonalization method (DM) or a complementarity problem (CP) reformulation. We propose a hybrid iterative solution algorithm that combines a CP reformulation of the tri-level problem and DM solutions of the EPEC sub-problem. View full abstract»

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  • A Tri-Level Model of Centralized Transmission and Decentralized Generation Expansion Planning for an Electricity Market—Part II

    Page(s): 142 - 148
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study a tri-level integrated transmission and generation expansion planning problem in a deregulated power market environment. The collection of bi-level sub-problems in the lower two levels is an equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraints (EPEC) that can be approached by either the diagonalization method (DM) or a complementarity problem (CP) reformulation. This paper is a continuation of its Part I, in which a hybrid iterative algorithm is proposed to solve the tri-level problem by iteratively applying the CP reformulation of the tri-level problem to propose solutions and evaluating them in the EPEC sub-problem by DM. It focuses on the numerical results obtained by the hybrid algorithm for a 6-bus system, a modified IEEE 30-bus system, and an IEEE 118-bus system. In the numerical instances, the (approximate) Nash equilibrium point for the sub-problem can be verified by examining local concavity. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple Time Resolution Unit Commitment for Short-Term Operations Scheduling Under High Renewable Penetration

    Page(s): 149 - 159
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2934 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces the idea of unified unit commitment and economic dispatch modeling within a unique tool that performs economic dispatch with up to 24-hour look-ahead capability. The tool provides financially binding dispatch and ex-ante locational marginal prices (LMPs) for the next 5-min interval and advisory commitment, dispatch schedule and prices for the remaining scheduling horizon. Variable time resolution and variable modeling complexity are used in order to reduce computational requirements. A finer time resolution and detailed modeling are used during the first hours of the scheduling horizon while coarser time resolution and simplified modeling during the last ones. The viability of the method for medium-sized systems is demonstrated through its application to the Greek power system. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Scheduling of Operating Reserves in Co-Optimized Electricity Markets With Wind Power

    Page(s): 160 - 171
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    We propose a probabilistic methodology to estimate a demand curve for operating reserves, where the curve represents the amount that a system operator is willing to pay for these services. The demand curve is quantified by the cost of unserved energy and the expected loss of load, accounting for uncertainty from generator contingencies, load forecasting errors, and wind power forecasting errors. The methodology addresses two key challenges in electricity market design: integrating wind power more efficiently and improving scarcity pricing. In a case study, we apply the proposed operating reserve strategies in a two-settlement electricity market with centralized unit commitment and economic dispatch and co-optimization of energy and reserves. We compare the proposed probabilistic approach to traditional operating reserve rules. We use the Illinois power system to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed reserve market modeling approach when it is combined with probabilistic wind power forecasting. View full abstract»

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  • Studies on Economic Feasibility of an Autonomous Power Delivery System Utilizing Alternative Hybrid Distributed Energy Resources

    Page(s): 172 - 181
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An economic evaluation of a network of distributed energy resources (DERs) forming an autonomous power delivery system in an Indian scenario has been made. The mathematical analysis is based on the application of a real valued cultural algorithm (RVCA). The RVCA-evaluated total annual costs for the autonomous microgrid system utilizing both solar module and fuel cells as DERs and solar module and bio-mass gassifier unit as DERs have been compared. Different types of consumers together form a microgrid with the optimal supply of power from DERs. The optimal power generation conditions have been obtained pertaining to minimum cost of microgrid system. The results for different loading scenarios, using hybrid solar-biomass gassifier unit are found to be more cost competitive. A reduction of 8.1% in the annual cost is obtained using solar module-biomass gassifier unit to that using solar module-fuel cell for the same load demand in microgrid operation. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution Voltage Control Considering the Impact of PV Generation on Tap Changers and Autonomous Regulators

    Page(s): 182 - 192
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The uptake of variable megawatts from photovoltaics (PV) challenges distribution system operation. The primary problem is significant voltage rise in the feeder that forces existing voltage control devices such as on-load tap-changers and line voltage regulators to operate continuously. The consequence is the deterioration of the operating life of the voltage control mechanism. Also, conventional non-coordinated reactive power control can result in the operation of the line regulator at its control limit (runaway condition). This paper proposes an optimal reactive power coordination strategy based on the load and irradiance forecast. The objective is to minimize the number of tap operations so as not to reduce the operating life of the tap control mechanism and avoid runaway. The proposed objective is achieved by coordinating various reactive power control options in the distribution network while satisfying constraints such as maximum power point tracking of PV and voltage limits of the feeder. The option of voltage support from PV plant is also considered. The problem is formulated as constrained optimization and solved through the interior point technique. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated in a realistic distribution network model. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized \pi Fortescue Equivalent Admittance Matrix Approach to Power Flow Solution

    Page(s): 193 - 202
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    This paper develops a generalized admittance matrix approach in Fortescue coordinate system to solve unbalanced/unsymmetrical distribution networks including different number of phases. This generalized Fortescue π equivalent is defined in this paper for solving the heterogeneous phase, and thus Fortescue, network model. The performance of the approach is demonstrated in different model networks with number of nodes ranging between 168 and 14200. It is found that the current iteration method exploiting the decoupling in admittance matrix in Fortescue coordinate is substantially faster than the typical unbalanced three-phase solution in phase domain. The method has a significant potential for application in real time active power network management. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Management

    Page(s): 203 - 211
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    This paper presents an integrated distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method designed to alleviate congestion induced by electric vehicle (EV) loads in future power systems. In the proposed approach, the distribution system operator (DSO) determines distribution locational marginal prices (DLMPs) by solving the social welfare optimization of the electric distribution system which considers EV aggregators as price takers in the local DSO market and demand price elasticity. Nonlinear optimization has been used to solve the social welfare optimization problem in order to obtain the DLMPs. The efficacy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by using the bus 4 distribution system of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and Danish driving data. The case study results show that the integrated DLMP methodology can successfully alleviate the congestion caused by EV loads. It is also shown that the socially optimal charging schedule can be implemented through a decentralized mechanism where loads respond autonomously to the posted DLMPs by maximizing their individual net surplus. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Allocation of Energy Storage System for Risk Mitigation of DISCOs With High Renewable Penetrations

    Page(s): 212 - 220
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    Along with the increasing penetration of renewable energy, distribution system power flow may be significantly altered in terms of direction and magnitude. This will make delivering reliable power, on demand, a major challenge. In this paper, a novel battery energy storage system (BESS) based energy acquisition model is proposed for the operation of distribution companies (DISCOs) in regulating price or locational marginal price (LMP) mechanisms, while considering energy provision options within DISCO controlled areas. Based on this new model, a new battery operation strategy is proposed for better utilization of energy storage system (ESS) and mitigation operational risk from price volatility. Meanwhile, optimal sizing and siting decisions for BESS is obtained through a cost-benefit analysis method, which aims at maximizing the DISCO's profit from energy transactions, system planning and operation cost savings. The proposed energy acquisition model and ESS control strategy are verified on a modified IEEE 15-bus distribution network, and risk mitigation is also quantified in two different markets. The promising results show that the capacity requirement for ESS can be reduced and the operational risk can also be mitigated. View full abstract»

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  • Electric Vehicle Battery Charging/Swap Stations in Distribution Systems: Comparison Study and Optimal Planning

    Page(s): 221 - 229
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric vehicle (EV) is a promising technology for reducing environmental impacts of road transport. In this paper, a framework for optimal design of battery charging/swap stations in distribution systems based on life cycle cost (LCC) is presented. The battery charging/swap station models are developed to compare the impacts of rapid-charging stations and battery swap stations. Meanwhile, in order to meet the requirements of increased power provided during the charging period, the distribution network should be reinforced. In order to control this reinforcement cost, stations should be placed at appropriate places and be scaled correctly. For optimal cost-benefit analysis and safety operation, the LCC criterion is used to assess the project and a modified differential evolution algorithm is adopted to solve the problem. The proposed method has been verified on the modified IEEE 15-bus and 43-bus radial distribution systems. The results show that battery swap station is more suitable for public transportation in distribution systems. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Covers the requirements, planning, analysis, reliability, operation, and economics of electric generating, transmission, and distribution systems for general industrial, commercial, public, and domestic consumption.

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Editor-in-Chief
Antonio J. Conejo
The Ohio State University