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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 60
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 990
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • A Magnetic-Field Resonant Probe With Enhanced Sensitivity for RF Interference Applications

    Page(s): 991 - 998
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    High-sensitive field probes are highly desirable for radio-frequency (RF) interference studies, where ultralow noise levels are of interest. By incorporating an LC resonant circuit in a differential-loop probe, together with a Marchand balun, a magnetic-field probe with enhanced sensitivity is developed. Its equivalent circuit model and design methodology are established. The design is validated by measurements. The measured relative sensitivity in terms of |S21| of the proposed probe increases by approximately 8.63 dB at the resonant frequency of 1.575 GHz compared to that of a conventional design. The advantage of the proposed probe is validated through its application in the measurement of a microstrip trace and a real-world cell phone design. View full abstract»

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  • On the Broadband Reflector-Backed Dipole Antennas With Wide Beamwidth for the EMC Tests of Large Equipment Above 1 GHz

    Page(s): 999 - 1006
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    In this paper, we introduce the concept that the antenna beamwidths should match the physical dimensions of equipment under test when performing the radiated emission and radiated susceptibility experiments, and for the first time, we propose the usage of reflector-backed dipole antennas (RBDAs). The coverage requirements are categorized into several groups according to the typical dimensions of several large platforms for the horizontal and vertical polarizations. The directivities and achievable electric field strengths of RBDAs are estimated and discussed. An approximate current distribution is proposed for the RBDAs with an infinite reflector, which can predict the radiation patterns for a given dimension and facilitate the design procedure. In addition, the usage of nonplanar dipole elements is briefly introduced to increase the E-plane beamwidth. The array techniques are utilized to reduce the beamwidth flexibly in the E- or H-plane for the EUTs with a large length-to-height ratio. Design examples are presented and numerically evaluated to verify the proposed solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Characterization, and Application of Fast, Broadband, High-Dynamic Range, Three-Axis Field Strength Probes

    Page(s): 1007 - 1014
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    Conventional field strength sensors use different detection methods, each having advantages and disadvantages. Modern signals in, for instance, wireless communication systems and radars use very complex modulation. Other signals, such as the ones often measured in reverberation chambers with mode stirring, are fast-varying with high dynamic range. Conventional probes struggle to give reliable measurement data in these situations, while the more expensive solutions based on optical-electric conversion and heterodyne receiver, are so costly that often only one component of the field is measured. The impact of conventional field strength probes when measuring (complex) modulated signals is discussed. Furthermore, this paper describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of fast, broadband, three-axis, and high-dynamic range probes. They have been designed for mapping the fast-changing electric field strength in complex electromagnetic environments such as reverberation chambers under mode-stirring operation. View full abstract»

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  • Fast, Broadband, and High-Dynamic Range 3-D Field Strength Probe

    Page(s): 1015 - 1021
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    Electromagnetic fields are conventionally measured using diode detectors or thermocouple detectors. The diode is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is important when considering modern pulsed wireless systems with a high peak-average ratio or crest factor. The thermocouple is too slow to measure fast changing fields, such as the ones created by the pulse-modulated wireless system, and in reverberation chambers. In modern mobile phones, a radio signal strength indicator circuit, with a logarithmic amplifier, is used to measure, and via a feedback circuit, control the output power. Devices with a frequency range up to 10 GHz, a dynamic range of more than 80 dB and response time less than 50 ns are available. Three orthogonal monopole antennas connected to three logarithmic amplifiers result in a fast, broadband, and high-dynamic range field strength probe. The concept is described and simulation results are shown. Prototype probes have been built, and the design data and results of experiments are given. Possible applications and additional features of the probes are described. View full abstract»

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  • Uncertainty From Choice of Mode-Stirring Technique in Reverberation-Chamber Measurements

    Page(s): 1022 - 1030
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    We develop methods for assessing the component of measurement uncertainty arising from various combinations of mode-stirring techniques in reverberation-chamber measurements. We first develop a components-of-variance model that describes this component of uncertainty in terms of physical mechanisms related to the chamber. We illustrate the use of the model in conjunction with measurements to identify the optimal mode-stirring sequence for a measurement of received power. View full abstract»

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  • Space-Frequency Analysis and Experimental Measurement of Magnetic Field Emissions Radiated by High-Speed Railway Systems

    Page(s): 1031 - 1042
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    This paper shows that in the radiated emission spectrum of high-speed railway systems, a low-frequency range exists in which the magnetic field space-frequency distribution is determined, to a large extent, by the railway infrastructure features. To prove this, electromagnetic modeling of a suitably long stretch of the railway infrastructure is developed, and an ad hoc experimental campaign is carried out for comparison. Modeling and experimental measurements refer to a 50 km stretch of the Italian 2 × 25 kV ac railway system. Infrastructure simulation is obtained by resorting to a simplified approach based on multiconductor transmission line. To this end, short segments of uniform lines are cascade-connected with lumped networks representing equipment and electrical devices placed along the line, and the radiated magnetic field is evaluated from the corresponding noise-current distributions. Since the emission source, i.e., the train, has unknown electrical properties, it is represented as a unit-current source. Thus, the proposed model provides a transfer ratio between the radiated magnetic field and the current source. As a result, the maximum values of train current corresponding to magnetic field limits provided by the International Standards can be readily derived. An optimized measurement procedure is used to show that in the frequency band 60-120 kHz, transient emissions due to random and unpredictable phenomena are negligible. In such a frequency range, where continuous and persistent emissions are present, the structure of time-frequency measurement data is readily explained, and the role of the railway infrastructure on the radiated magnetic field is unambiguously identified. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Measurement of Absorption Cross Section of the Human Body in a Reverberation Chamber

    Page(s): 1043 - 1050
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    We present broadband reverberation chamber measurements of the absorption cross section (ACS) of the human body averaged over all directions of incidence and angles of polarization. This frequency-dependent parameter characterizes the interactions between the body and the enclosures of reverberant environments such as aircraft cabins, and is, therefore, important for the determination of the overall Q-factor and, hence, the field strength illuminating equipment inside such enclosures. It also correlates directly with the electromagnetic exposure of occupants of reverberant environments. The average ACS of nine subjects was measured at frequencies over the range 1-8.5 GHz. For a 75-kg male, the ACS varied between 0.18 and 0.45 square meters over this range. ACS also correlated with body surface area for the subjects tested. The results agree well with computational electromagnetic simulations, but are obtained much more rapidly. We have used the obtained values of ACS to estimate the effect of passengers on the Q-factor of a typical airliner cabin. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Responses of Microwave Oscillators to External Illumination Predicted by an Equation-Based Collective Approach

    Page(s): 1051 - 1059
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    This paper provides a comprehensive study on and a collective prediction approach to the responses of a microstrip microwave oscillator illuminated by an external plane wave. The field-induced responses are complicated and can be divided into periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic regimes. These responses can be effectively simulated by a harmonic-balance simulator based on the newly proposed approach. The main effort of this approach is to incorporate the equation-based equivalent sources with an auxiliary source embedded in the circuit schematic, which is then solved by the circuit simulator. The equivalent sources stand for the plane-wave incidence while the auxiliary source is added to search for the nontrivial solutions. Also based on this approach, the stability property of the obtained solutions can be confirmed, and the predictions of the phase-noise degradation and the demarcation of the chaotic response are provided. A 2.5-GHz oscillator is created and simulated by this approach, and the measurement performed inside a standardized anechoic chamber is compared to the simulation with good agreement. Indeed, the oscillator is observed to have the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic responses. In the periodic regime, the oscillation may be locked or blocked by the external incidence. In the quasi-periodic regime, the oscillation frequency shifts and the phase noise varies. In the chaotic regime, the output spectrum is continuous. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization and Mitigation of RFI Signals in Radar Depth Sounder Data of Greenland Ice Sheet

    Page(s): 1060 - 1067
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    Accurate measurements of fast flowing outlet glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica are of vital importance to improve ice-sheet models that predict the ice-sheets' contribution to sea-level rise over the next century. Radars with high sensitivity and advanced processing capabilities are required to sound ice in fast-flowing glaciers. We developed the multichannel coherent radar depth sounder/imager (MCoRDS/I) for ice thickness measurements and 3-D imaging of bedrock over important areas of Greenland and Antarctica. Radio frequency interference (RFI) degrades the sensitivity of the MCoRDS/I system, thus affecting the quality of the data collected. Data from the 2010 Greenland field season exhibited a degraded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), requiring extensive RFI analysis, investigation, and mitigation for the MCoRDS/I system. Measurements were taken in an electromagnetic interference (EMI) chamber on individual sections of the MCoRDS/I system to isolate the sources of RFI. Then, RFI mitigation techniques were implemented for the offending sections and EMI chamber measurements verified the integrity of the solution prior to the 2011 Greenland deployment. Recorded data from the 2011 Greenland field season also verified that the RFI mitigation resulted in more than 20 dB improvement in the SNR compared to the 2010 Greenland data. The reduction of EMI emissions has also been beneficial to data collection in subsequent deployments. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Analysis and Optimal Design of the Adaptive Interference Cancellation System

    Page(s): 1068 - 1075
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    A time-domain model of the analog adaptive interference cancellation system (AAICS) involving both the interference and the desired signal is proposed. The stability, interference cancellation ratio, and convergence time of the AAICS are analyzed in detail. In addition, the desired signal cancellation ratio is taken into account in order to evaluate the system performance and optimize the AAICS more accurately. It is found that the parameters including the loop gain and the time constant of the negative feedback control loop need to be set reasonably so as to reduce a great distortion to the desired signal. The rules of parameter optimization are obtained for the AAICS operating in high frequency. Experiments are carried out to demonstrate the system's performance varying with parameters, and experimental results are in agreement with theoretical analysis, which is of great value for the optimization design of the AAICS. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Design of Electromagnetic Wave Absorber Using the Taguchi Method

    Page(s): 1076 - 1083
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    This paper presents a robust design approach that not only optimizes the absorption efficiency of an electromagnetic wave absorber over a wide bandwidth, but also reduces the sensitivity of the optimized performance to a number of hard-to-control variables. The optimizable object is a planar multilayer electromagnetic absorber. The important design variables are identified, and the influence of each variable on the performance is analyzed. A robust design of the absorber is realized by employing the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Shielding Analysis of Multiply Bent Slots Using Generalized Scattering Matrices

    Page(s): 1084 - 1092
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    Analytic formulations based on the Fourier transforms and the generalized scattering matrices are derived to analyze the shielding performances of multiply bent slot geometries, which model joints or seams frequently used in electronic systems. The formulation can accommodate arbitrarily bent structures by decomposing into cascades of simple slots with different widths and lengths. Fourier transforms are used to air-to-slot interface modeling and scattering matrices are used for arbitrarily bent slots. The formulations are numerically efficient and capable of predicting accurately shielding or penetration phenomena of multiply bent slots loaded with lossless or lossy materials. Calculations show that addition of bends in the slot loaded with lossy material has strong positive effect on shielding effectiveness. The results of this study provide guidelines for improved bent slot designs against electromagnetic interference. View full abstract»

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  • Electrooptic Inspection of Vector Leakage in Radiofrequency Multichip Modules

    Page(s): 1093 - 1099
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    This paper demonstrates a new approach for the measurement of vector electromagnetic leakage within tightly integrated electronic subsystems. Specifically, the effect of shielding and encapsulation techniques commonly used in radiofrequency (RF) multichip modules is investigated using an electrooptic (EO) near-field measurement system. The test vehicle used for this study is a single-chip 50-W microwave power amplifier integrated into a multilayer low-temperature cofired ceramic module. The measured near-field data show power intensity at 2.5 GHz with up to 0.2-mm resolution for each of the three x-, y-, and z-directed electric field vectors. The resulting images illustrate 1) the polarization-dependent shortcomings of the ubiquitous “via-fence” shielding technique and 2) the formation of surface waves in microstrip substrates due to impedance mismatch. These results are evidence of the applicability of the EO technique to the diagnosis of electromagnetic compatibility issues within compact RF multichip modules. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and Demonstration of Narrowband Bent Hairpin Filters Integrated With AC-Coupled Plasma Limiter Elements

    Page(s): 1100 - 1106
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    A novel narrowband filter with integral high-power microwave limiter behavior is proposed to protect cost-sensitive microwave systems. The filter-limiter consists of a third-order microstrip bent hairpin filter with encapsulated gas plasma limiters, designed for operation at 870 MHz. An equivalent circuit model is presented for the ac-coupled plasma-shell components used in this study, and parameter values were extracted from measured results and electromagnetic simulation. The theory of operation of the proposed filter-limiter was experimentally validated and key predictions were demonstrated including two modes of operation in the on-state: a constant output power mode and constant attenuation mode at relatively higher power. The filter-limiter operates passively from incident microwave energy, and can also use an external priming voltage source to reduce the limiter turn-on power threshold and reduce output power variation during limiting. View full abstract»

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  • Conducted EMI Prediction of the PFC Converter Including Nonlinear Behavior of Boost Inductor

    Page(s): 1107 - 1114
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    A conducted EMI prediction model for an interleaved power factor correction (PFC) converter including the nonlinearity of the boost inductors is presented. The Jiles-Atherton (J-A) technique is adopted to handle the nonlinear behavior of the interleaved boost inductors. The conventional conducted EMI prediction model without including the nonlinear effect of the boost inductors tends to underestimate the true conducted EMI level. With the proposed model, conducted EMI can be predicted with higher accuracy so that the correct EMI filter can be designed to meet the required EMI regulatory limits. View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic Balance Surrogate-Based Immunity Modeling of a Nonlinear Analog Circuit

    Page(s): 1115 - 1124
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    A novel harmonic balance surrogate-based technique to create fast and accurate behavioral models predicting, in the early design stage, the performance of nonlinear analog devices during immunity tests is presented. The obtained immunity model hides the real netlist, reduces the simulation time, and avoids expensive and time-consuming measurements after tape-out, while still providing high accuracy. The model can easily be integrated into a circuit simulator together with additional subcircuits, e.g., board and package models, as such allowing to efficiently reproduce complete immunity test setups during the early design stage and without disclosing any intellectual property. The novel method is validated by means of application to an industrial case study, being an automotive voltage regulator, clearly showing the technique's capabilities and practical advantages. View full abstract»

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  • Estimating Radio-Frequency Interference to an Antenna Due to Near-Field Coupling Using Decomposition Method Based on Reciprocity

    Page(s): 1125 - 1131
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    In mixed radio-frequency (RF) and digital designs, noise from high-speed digital circuits can interfere with RF receivers, resulting in RF interference issues such as receiver desensitization. In this paper, an effective methodology is proposed to estimate the RF interference received by an antenna due to near-field coupling, which is one of the common noise-coupling mechanisms, using decomposition method based on reciprocity. In other words, the noise-coupling problem is divided into two steps. In the first step, the coupling from the noise source to a Huygens surface that encloses the antenna is studied, with the actual antenna structure removed, and the induced tangential electromagnetic fields due to the noise source on this surface are obtained. In the second step, the antenna itself with the same Huygens surface is studied. The antenna is treated as a transmitting one and the induced tangential electromagnetic fields on the surface are obtained. Then, the reciprocity theory is used and the noise power coupled to the antenna port in the original problem is estimated based on the results obtained in the two steps. The proposed methodology is validated through comparisons with full-wave simulations. It fits well with engineering practice, and is particularly suitable for prelayout wireless system design and planning. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Modeling of a Transient Current Flowing Along the Horizontal Grounding Electrode

    Page(s): 1132 - 1139
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    This paper deals with an analytical solution of the time domain Pocklington integro-differential equation for the transient current flowing along the horizontal grounding electrode of finite length. The electrode is excited with an equivalent current source representing the lightning strike current. Presence of the earth-air interface is taken into account through the formulation, via simplified reflection coefficient arising from the modified image theory. The analytical solution is carried out using the Laplace transform and the Cauchy residue theorem, respectively. Results obtained by the analytical solution are compared to those calculated using numerical solution of the corresponding frequency domain Pocklington equation in conjunction with the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform. The results obtained via different methods agree satisfactorily. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling Radiated Emissions Through Shielding Boxes Based on the Tangential Electrical Field Samplings Over Openings

    Page(s): 1140 - 1146
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    The radiation from radiators such as PCBs inside an enclosed shielding box with ventilation slots is an important issue for electromagnetic compatibility or interference characterizations. In this paper, a two-step process is proposed based on the equivalence principle and the electric field integral equation method to complete the radiation prediction. The tangential electric fields over the slots on shielding boxes are first sampled to be the equivalent magnetic currents radiated from internal PCBs. In the second step, to avoid the computation of complex nonanalytical dyadic Green's functions when the field radiation is computed directly from the equivalent source, the surface current induced by the equivalent magnetic current is calculated by the method of moments. As a result, the total radiated emission is the superposition of both equivalent magnetic current source and induced current. To prove the validity and accuracy of the proposed approach, near-field and far-field radiations from PCBs in enclosed environments are benchmarked and compared with simulated references. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Time-Domain Reflection Coefficient Function: TM Case

    Page(s): 1147 - 1153
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    In determining electromagnetic transient response of structure placed above the half space, the half space properties can be taken into account via the reflection coefficient (RC) approximation. The choice of an RC function used in RC approximation is often important with regards to accuracy and computational efficiency of the overall method. In this paper, a new time-domain RC function for the case of TM polarization is presented. The function is derived using Gaver-Stehfest algorithm for numerical inverse Laplace transform and does not require the use of Bessel functions. The resulting formulation is rather simple, and, as the results indicate, accurate and computationally efficient. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Multi-Element Probabilistic Collocation Method for Statistical EMC/EMI Characterization

    Page(s): 1154 - 1168
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    An adaptive multi-element probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method for quantifying uncertainties in electromagnetic compatibility and interference phenomena involving electrically large, multi-scale, and complex platforms is presented. The method permits the efficient and accurate statistical characterization of observables (i.e., quantities of interest such as coupled voltages) that potentially vary rapidly and/or are discontinuous in the random variables (i.e., parameters that characterize uncertainty in a system's geometry, configuration, or excitation). The method achieves its efficiency and accuracy by recursively and adaptively dividing the domain of the random variables into subdomains using as a guide the decay rate of relative error in a polynomial chaos expansion of the observables. While constructing local polynomial expansions on each subdomain, a fast integral-equation-based deterministic field-cable-circuit simulator is used to compute the observable values at the collocation/integration points determined by the adaptive ME-PC scheme. The adaptive ME-PC scheme requires far fewer (computationally costly) deterministic simulations than traditional polynomial chaos collocation and Monte Carlo methods for computing averages, standard deviations, and probability density functions of rapidly varying observables. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are demonstrated via its applications to the statistical characterization of voltages in shielded/unshielded microwave amplifiers and magnetic fields induced on car tire pressure sensors. View full abstract»

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  • N-Conductor Passive Circuit Modeling for Power Converter Current Prediction and EMI Aspect

    Page(s): 1169 - 1177
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    This paper proposes a method to study the impact of passive circuits such as filters, loads, and board layout on conducted electromagnetic emissions. The method is dedicated to power converters with N-active conductors and a ground conductor, followed by passive circuits. A sophisticated use of impedance matrices allows high-frequency current prediction. The power system is divided into functional circuits called blocks. Each passive block is modeled by an impedance matrix. A fast matrix calculation permits association of those matrices to obtain a compact model represented by an impedance matrix. Knowing the converter output voltages and the resulting impedance matrix, currents are calculated to study the influence of each passive block on high-frequency current spectrum, and so the electromagnetic interference. This will help to filter and board layout design for a given load. After presenting the general use of the method, the validation is performed on a differential Class-D audio amplifier used in cell phone applications. The practical application on a two-active conductor system validates the method up to 110 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Effective Permittivity of Shielding Composite Materials for Microwave Frequencies

    Page(s): 1178 - 1186
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    Due to mass constraints, composite materials are possible candidates to replace metal alloys for electromagnetic shielding applications. The design of standard metallic shielding enclosures often relies on finite-element calculations. But in the case of composite materials, the strong dependence on the shielding properties to the microstructure makes the finite-element approach almost impossible. Indeed meshing the microstructure would imply a huge number of elements, incompatible with usual computational resources. We propose in this paper to develop homogenization tools to define the effective electromagnetic properties of composite materials at microwave frequencies. The ratio between the characteristic size of the microstructure and the wavelength is shown to be a key parameter in the homogenization process. The effective properties can then be used as an input for electromagnetic compatibility standard tools, designed for homogeneous media. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch