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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12  Part 3 • Date Dec. 2013

 This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 1  | Part 2 

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Nonplanar Dust-Ion Acoustic Solitary Waves in Warm Plasma With Superthermal Electrons

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3589 - 3593
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using the reductive perturbation technique, a cylindrical/spherical Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived for dust-ion acoustic solitary wave (DIASW) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma, whose constituents are adiabatic ion fluid, superthermal electrons, and negatively charged static dust particles. The solution of modified KdV equation in nonplanar geometry is numerically analyzed. The change of the DIASW structure due to the effect of the geometry, superthermal parameter, dust density, and ion temperature is investigated by numerical calculation of the cylindrical/spherical KdV equation. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Pulse Emission From Surface Obliquely Irradiated by Z Pinch-Generated X-Rays

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3594 - 3598
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current pulses flowing along a metallic target obliquely irradiated by Z pinch-generated X-rays are measured. The leading interaction mechanism shows a strong dependence on incident X-ray intensity in addition to photon energy. Photoelectric effect expected to explain the observed current is not vital in the case of intense irradiation used in our experiments. The measured results are attributed to Compton current and thermocurrent on the same level. Simple analytical modeling of radiation demonstrates that obliquely incident X-ray-metal interaction is an effective method for generating directional electromagnetic pulse with its energy and intensity being of interest for practical purposes. View full abstract»

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  • Recognizing Coherence Effects in Microwaves

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3599 - 3603
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper offers a simple method to recognize the coherence effect that is responsible for the pulse shortening in microwave devices. To apply this method, it is necessary to observe the experimental fast Fourier transform curve and the experimental waveform and compare these data with the PSPICE simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation Study and Preliminary Experiments of a Coaxial Vircator With Radial Dual-Cavity Premodulation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3604 - 3610
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Numerical and experimental studies on a coaxial vircator with radial dual-cavity premodulation are presented. The physics of mechanisms on microwave frequency determination and effects on microwave generating efficiency are discussed. It is proved that the microwave frequency is mainly determined by the modulation frequency, while the optimum operating frequency is determined by the intrinsic frequency of the beam itself. When the two frequencies match, the maximum efficiency is yielded. A structure capable of generating 6.0 GW microwave, 17% efficiency, and 50% frequency tuning bandwidth has been obtained by numerical simulations. The preliminary experiments were carried out on the MC55 accelerator. A 2.0 GW output microwave was experimentally obtained and the corresponding device efficiency is about 7%. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding Microwave Generation Produced in Air

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3611 - 3618
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we observe the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with high-speed electrons arising from the corona and spark discharges in the cavity. With the low level of the high-speed electron in the cavity, the initial frequency set by the cavity is being split mainly into a lower and higher frequency in comparison to the initial frequency. With the high level of the high-speed electron in the cavity, the system yields a good microwave generation in air at the single frequency, even at low voltages. The high level of the high-speed electrons is due to the corona discharges that are producing in situ generated electron beams on the helix, which is made of copper wire that is 1.25 mm in diameter. Two models are presented to account for the waveform of the radiation and its FFT. View full abstract»

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  • Relativistic Magnetron Priming by Loading the Resonators Through Dielectric Rods

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3619 - 3623
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (755 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 3-D particle-in-cell code MAGIC 3-D has been used to study the output performance improvement of a relativistic magnetron through electric field priming by insertion of dielectric rods in the side resonators. The side resonators of the resonant structure have been loaded symmetrically at an angle of 120 ° with a low-loss dielectric rod to implement the electric field priming. All the simulations have been performed for 2π-mode of operation on the well-known A6 relativistic magnetron. The results show that single 2π-mode operation with 43% improvement in radiated output power can be achieved through electric field priming by insertion of low-loss dielectric rods with optimized radius in the three-symmetrical side resonators. View full abstract»

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  • Expansion of a Surface Flashover Plasma

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3624 - 3633
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1679 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A strong electric field applied parallel to the surface of a dielectric in vacuum can lead to the formation of a vacuum surface flashover discharge, which will produce light, neutral gas, and plasma. Plasma formed in this way can be used for a number of applications, including as a source of electrons, but the plasma's expansion away from the discharge site will impact its usefulness for those applications. Here, we report measurements on the expansion of a surface flashover plasma generated from a pulsed discharge in vacuum, using electric fields on the order of 10 MV/m applied across a Plexiglas sample. Expansion velocity and energy distribution measurements were made using a moveable, biased detector probe. The temporal structure of the plasma arriving at the probe was found to have a characteristic shape, indicating the presence of three different components of the plasma having different velocities in the range of 1-9 cm/μs. The pulser charging voltage was found to have a noticeable effect on the plasma energy distributions, but only a small effect on the plasma expansion velocity. View full abstract»

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  • Decomposition of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Water Using Multiple Plasma Generation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3634 - 3639
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (883 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can be decomposed using dc plasma generated within gas bubbles in water. However, the decomposition rate is extremely reduced by increasing the amount of treatment solution, because PFOA is decomposed only on the gas-liquid interface of the bubbles. In this paper, we carried out the degradation of PFOA using multiple plasma sources. A sawtooth-wave voltage was applied to a speaker to generate a pressure wave in a reactor and control bubble formation. Then, a pulsed voltage synchronized with the bubble formation was applied to the reactor to generate multiple plasmas within the bubbles. For the treatment of a 200-mL PFOA solution at an initial concentration of 44.9 mg/L, 10 plasmas were generated. The PFOA concentration decreased to 5.00 mg/L after 140 min, while exhibiting the same decomposition efficiency as a conventional single plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Ion Current Density on the Properties of Vacuum Arc-Deposited TiN Coatings

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3640 - 3644
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of ion current density on the thickness of coatings deposited in a vacuum arc setup has been investigated to optimize the coating porosity. A planar probe was used to measure the ion current density distribution across plasma flux. A current density from 20 to 50 A/m2 was obtained, depending on the probe position relative to the substrate center. TiN coatings were deposited onto the cutting inserts placed at different locations on the substrate, and SEM was used to characterize the surfaces of the coatings. It was found that low-density coatings were formed at the decreased ion current density. A quantitative dependence of the coating thickness on the ion current density in the range of 20-50 A/m2 were obtained for the films deposited at substrate bias of 200 V and nitrogen pressure 0.1 Pa, and the coating porosity was calculated. The coated cutting inserts were tested by lathe machining of the martensitic stainless steel AISI 431. The results may be useful for controlling ion flux distribution over large industrial-scale substrates. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation and Experiment on the Sliding Electrical Contact of the Solid Armature and Rails Interface

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3645 - 3650
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1158 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The solid armature of an electromagnetic rail launcher (EMRL) works in a time-varying multiphysical environment. To study the sliding electrical contact problem of the armature and rails interface (ARI), numerical simulation and sliding experiment are applied to describe the interfacial contact state. With the mechanical analysis of solid armature, the electrical contact model of an EMRL is built in this paper. The dynamic response state of the whole structural body and the contact state of the ARI are numerically simulated. The simulation results show that: 1) the high stress and little deformation occur in the armature throat, whereas the low stress and large deformation happen in the armature arm; 2) the contact pressure distributions of the ARI under the respective or joint action of the electromagnetic force and the pretightening force are all saddle shaped; and 3) the edge center of contact surface suffers the heaviest pressure under the joint effect, but the variation of the great mass of contact pressure along the direction of armature arm becomes gentler after superposition. The simulation results are verified by the worn states of the experimental armatures, and the changing process of the contact state is described by analyzing the distribution characteristic of the liquid melt remained on the rail surface. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant Charging Performance of Spiral Tesla Transformer Applied in Compact High-Voltage Repetitive Nanosecond Pulse Generator

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3651 - 3658
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The compact, small-sized device based on a pulsed transformer combined with a semiconductor switch is a feasible solution that generates the high-frequency and high-voltage pulse. Compared with other types of transformers, spiral Tesla transformer is much easier to achieve a high output-voltage ratio. By an in-depth analysis of the resonance circuit of Tesla transformer, the expressions of secondary voltage, transformation ratio, peak, and steepness of the primary current are deduced and analyzed in this paper. The development test of a small-size Tesla transformer prototype has been performed. The key electrical characteristics are further measured, estimated, and discussed. The specification parameter selection of the primary semiconductor switch must rely on the characteristics of primary current. Applied to a 6.0 kΩ resistor, the high-voltage repetitive pulse generator based on the Tesla transformer prototype can generate a series of pulses with a peak voltage of 100 kV and a rise time of 40 ns at the repetition rate of 200 Hz. Atmospheric air nonequilibrium plasma can be formed using the developed pulse generator and some typical images are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of {\rm SF}_{6}\hbox {--}{\rm N}_{2} Gas Mixture Parameters on the Effective Breakdown Temperature of the Free Electron Gas

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3659 - 3665
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (929 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the synergetic effect of the SF6-N2 gas mixture, taking the effective temperature of the free electron Maxwell spectrum at the time of breakdown as an independent parameter. In this way, a direct link between a macroscopic variable (dc breakdown voltage of the mixture) and a fundamental microscopic variable (effective temperature) is established. Derivations are presented of expressions that relate the streamer mechanism breakdown voltage in an SF6-N2 gas mixture to the pd product (pressure×interelectrode distance), the percentage contribution of the N2 gas (χ), and the effective temperature of the spectrum of free electrons in the mixture (Td) at the time of breakdown (breakdown temperature). A new theoretical model for the dependence of the electron attachment coefficient (effective cross section) in the electronegative SF6 gas was used, which resulted in the final expression being different from the corresponding expressions obtained from other models. The obtained results were verified by experiments, under well controlled laboratory conditions. There was a high degree of agreement between the experimental and the theoretically calculated results. View full abstract»

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  • A Solid-State 0–120 kV Microsecond Pulse Charger for a Nanosecond Pulse Source

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3666 - 3674
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3054 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a solid state 0-120 kV microsecond pulse charger for our nanosecond pulse generator . The pulse-forming line (PFL) of our nanosecond pulse generator must be charged with microsecond pulses to prevent pre-firing of its oil spark gap. The pulse charger consists of two identical compact pulse charger modules with integrated electronics. The electronic circuits are mounted on a compact printed circuit board and consist mainly of a number of parallel connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) that switch a primary capacitor bank into a pulse transformer. Each pulse charger module can generate 60 kV microsecond pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. When connected in series, they are able to deliver up to 120 kV into a 100 pF load. This 100 pF load is the PFL of our nanosecond pulse generator at its maximum length of 1 m. The pulse charger is able to operate in a harsh electromagnetic interference environment as a result of its compact layout and optical triggering of the IGBTs. View full abstract»

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  • Fueling Performance of Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection on the J-TEXT Tokamak

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3675 - 3679
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) system was developed on the J-TEXT tokamak. With SMBI fueling, a continuous electron density increase was successfully achieved when multiple-pulse injection was employed. A steeper density profile was observed during the penetration process. A high fueling efficiency, between 20% and 45%, was obtained in limiter/ohmic discharges, suggesting that SMBI is a superior fueling method. SMBI efficiency decreased with increasing background electron density. Analyses of the penetration process with a Hα array and a CCD camera suggest the ionization mainly concentrates in the SOL and plasma edge region. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on Z pinch plasmas

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3680
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  • 2013 Index IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Vol. 41

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3681 - 3762
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
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