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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 44
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 305 - 306
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 307 - 308
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  • Single Chip Dual Plate Capacitive Proximity Sensor With High Noise Immunity

    Page(s): 309 - 310
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a dual plate capacitive proximity sensor (PS) that is integrated into a single chip with high environmental noise immunity. To efficiently reject environmental noise, the proposed PS employs two noise rejection techniques: 1) the use of a switched-charge amplifier and 2) synchronous sampling/filtering technique. The proposed PS is fabricated using a standard CMOS 0.5- μm process, and it occupies an area of 0.7 mm × 0.3 mm. Experimental results show that the proposed PS can detect an object up to 8 cm away from the sensor at an average current of 370 μA with a resolution of 1% output frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Rogowski Search Coil for Stator Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Machines

    Page(s): 311 - 312
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high precision Rogowski search coil (RSC) is proposed for monitoring of rotating electrical machines. The RSC includes several sets of printed circuit board Rogowski coil, in which any set includes two printed circuit boards with imprinted coils located adjacent to each other. The RSC offers a number of advantages including compact size, great accuracy, high bandwidth, low cost, and it is applicable even for already fabricated electric machine. Performance of the RSC is evaluated by some experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Non-Intrusive Technique for Measuring Refractive Index of Clear and Transparent Liquids

    Page(s): 313 - 314
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an optical technique for measuring refractive index of clear and transparent liquids. This technique senses change in refractive index of liquid by virtue of lateral displacement of a light beam that occurs due to refraction of the light beam after passing through the liquid medium. The transmitted light beam gradually looses its alignment with a photodetector as refractive index of the liquid changes. Experimental results have indicated that the proposed technique has the potential to measure refractive indexes with an accuracy of 10-4, and it has novelty of being a simple and non-intrusive one. View full abstract»

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  • Fast, Versatile, and Low-Cost Interface Circuit for Electrochemical and Resistive Gas Sensor

    Page(s): 315 - 323
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Chemical sensors for gas detection nowadays are widely used in several applications; basically, electrochemical sensors and semiconductor devices are used for this purpose. In both cases, the sensor value estimation is usually implemented as a current measurement and they are often referred as current-output sensors. In this paper, a versatile and low-cost interface circuit for such kind of sensors is presented. The proposed solution is characterized by a wide measurement range, yielding flexibility of use with sensors showing different baseline values. In addition, the fast readout time, on the order of tens of milliseconds, guarantees an accurate acquisition of the sensor data even in presence of fast transients, for example when using sensors operated in pulsed thermal regimes. The front-end works with a single-voltage power supply and furnishes a time-coded digital output signal, thus it is suitable to be directly interfaced to a microcontroller for the management of the measurement process, data elaboration, and presentation. Simplicity and compactness of the electronic interface make possible the integration in a single-chip solution, together with the digital electronics. Reproducibility of the circuit, for applications requiring the simultaneous acquisition of multiple sensors, is furthermore facilitated. The proposed approach has been validated with experimental tests conducted on a discrete component prototype. The system characterization has shown a maximum linearity error in the estimation of the sensor current or resistance of ~ 5% over a measurement range of seven decades; the measurement time is in all the considered input range. Fast thermal transients of different semiconductor sensors for gas sensing have been successfully acquired, demonstrating the validity of the proposed approach. Power dissipation ( at 3.3 V) and the front-end cost ( ~ 10 $) make the presented solution suitable for the employment in low-cost and low-power gas detection system- . View full abstract»

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  • Tactile Bristle Sensors Made With Slime Mold

    Page(s): 324 - 332
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2044 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Slime mold Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell visible by unaided eye. We design an experimental laboratory implementation of a slime mold based tactile bristles, where the slime mold responds to repeated deflection of bristle by an immediate high-amplitude spike and a prolonged increase in amplitude and width of its oscillation impulses. We demonstrate that signal strength of the Physarum tactile bristle sensor averages near six for an immediate response and two for a prolonged response. View full abstract»

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  • Sensing Contact Between Microneedle Array and Epidermis Using Frequency Response Measurement

    Page(s): 333 - 340
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a preliminary proof of concept where contact between a microneedle array (MNA) and epidermis was sensed using frequency response measurement. The microneedles used in this paper had a height of ~ 350 μm, a pitch of 450 μm and were filled with saline. With the Randles electrode-to-electrolyte interface model, the cutoff frequency of MNA in contact with the epidermis was calculated to be significantly lower than that of the dry electrode on stratum corneum. This is in agreement with the experimental measurement of two different MNA configurations. In the first configuration, a pair of MNAs was used and in the second configuration, a MNA was paired with a wet (ECG) electrode. Using a frequency sweep from 10 Hz to 200 kHz on the first configuration, the cutoff frequency of the MNA pair was ~ 6 kHz lower than that of the dry electrode pair. Similarly in the second configuration, the MNA-ECG electrode pair and dry electrode-ECG electrode pair were differentiated by a significant peak-to-peak voltage difference of ~ 300 mV across series resistances of 10 and 100 kΩ at frequencies ~ 90-100 Hz. Through fitting the analytical and experimental frequency response plots of the MNA (R2=0.994), the component values in the Randles model were estimated to be R1=10 kΩ, C1=15 nF, and R1s=300 Ω. View full abstract»

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  • Quality of Information and Energy Efficiency Optimization for Sensor Networks via Adaptive Sensing and Transmitting

    Page(s): 341 - 348
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Co-optimizing information quality and energy efficiency are an important but challenging problem in sensor networks, because of the interdependency that exists between them. For example, increasing sensor sampling rate will improve information quality but cost energy consumption, due to more traffic needed to be transmitted. To address this co-optimization issue, this paper first presents a novel quality/energy efficient metric, which models the relationship of sensing, processing, and transmitting with quality and energy. Then, based on the metrics, a quality-energy adapting system is developed to exploit base station scheduling priority and techniques such as batch processing and adaptive sampling to optimize both energy efficiency and overall quality. Our results have demonstrated the usefulness of this model and its feasibility for base station to runtime co-optimize both quality and energy under changing environment and network conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Coated Wire Ion Selective Electrode Based on a New Crown Ether for Determination of {\rm Fe}^{2+}

    Page(s): 349 - 356
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1734 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A coated wire Fe2+ ion selective electrode based on laboratory-synthesized crown ether, as a neutral carrier, was constructed. The effects of different experimental parameters such as the amount of plasticizer, the amount of ionophore, pH of the sample solution, and coexisting ions on the potentiometric responses of the electrode were investigated. The electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope of 29.20±0.87 mV/decade over a wide concentration range of 7.2×10-7-6.9×10-3 M Fe2+. The potentiometric responses were independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range of 4.6-9.6. The response time and detection limit were found to be 3.0 min and 6.7×10-7 M, respectively. The electrode revealed good selectivity for Fe2+ in the presence of different coexisting cations and anions. It was certified as an indicator electrode by performing a potentiometric titration for a standard sample of Fe2+ ion. View full abstract»

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  • Relocatable Ultrasonic Array and UHF Combined Sensor Applied to PD Location in Oil

    Page(s): 357 - 361
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A relocatable combined sensor is designed to locate partial discharge (PD) in a transformer. Based on the sensor, PD location experiments are conducted. The sensor consists of a conformal L-shaped ultrasonic array of 13 elements and includes an ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic sensor. The L-shaped array achieves the effect of 97 virtual elements expanded with high-order cumulants processing technology. It greatly improves the aperture and direction sharpness of the array. The PD location experiments were carried out on a PD experiment platform. The result shows that the combined sensor can distinguish and locate one or multiple PD sources with average relative locating error 2.1% and 4.8%, respectively. Virtual expansion of an array with fewer number elements helps to design a miniaturized and combined sensor. This work should provide as a foundation for application of array technology in power equipment. View full abstract»

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  • ANN Based Data Integration for Multi-Path Ultrasonic Flowmeter

    Page(s): 362 - 370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based data integration method for a four-path ultrasonic flowmeter to improve its performance under complex flow profiles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the flow profiles inside a single elbow and an out-plane double-elbow pipeline, respectively, to extract the flow velocities on different individual sound paths and the corresponding mean flow velocities on the cross-sections located at 5 and 10 times pipe diameter downstream the elbow. The results from the CFD simulation for Reynolds number in the range from 3.25×103 to 3.25×105 were used to construct the data set. A three-layer ANN was designed, in which the flow velocities on individual sound paths and the cross-sectional mean flow velocity are taken as the input and output, respectively. Part of the data set is used to train the ANN. The other part of the data set is used to test the feasibility of the ANN. It was found that the error of the estimated cross-sectional mean flow velocity based on the ANN is within ±0.3% without the requirement of any flow conditioner for Reynolds number in the range from 3.25×103 to 3.25×105, which is significantly better than the results from the traditional weighted integration method. The proposed ANN based data integration method is of extending the limitation of straight pipe length for the installation of multi-path ultrasonic flowmeter and promoting its practical applications under complex flow profiles. View full abstract»

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  • A Chemistry-Inspired Framework for Achieving Consensus in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 371 - 382
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2094 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to show how simple interaction mechanisms, inspired by chemical systems, can provide the basic tools to design and analyze a mathematical model for achieving consensus in wireless sensor networks, characterized by balanced directed graphs. The convergence and stability of the model are first proven using new mathematical tools, which are borrowed directly from chemical theory, and then validated through simulation results, for different network topologies and number of sensors. The underlying chemical theory is also used to derive simple interaction rules that may account for practical issues, such as the estimation of the number of neighbors and the robustness against perturbations. Finally, the proposed chemical solution is validated under real-world conditions through a four-node hardware implementation where the exchange of information among nodes takes place in a distributed manner (with no need for any admission control and synchronism procedure), simply relying on the transmission of a pulse whose rate is proportional to the state of each sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Thorough Empirical Analysis of X-MAC Over a Large Scale Internet of Things Testbed

    Page(s): 383 - 392
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The last decade saw the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, which aims to connect any object to the Internet. As in IoT networks, the radio component is usually the main source of energy depletion, specific medium access control protocols have been designed to reduce its usage. Among those, X-MAC has gained much interest in recent years, and has become one of the most popular MAC protocols in the IoT community due to its many theoretical advantages. X-MAC is a preamble-sampling protocol based on the low power listening mechanism, in which the nodes decide their schedule independently from their neighbors. So far, no study has ever identified malfunctions that appear in the protocol design. In addition, performance evaluations were only made through theoretical studies and simulations, or relatively limited scale experiments. In this paper, we point out several omissions and black spots that appear in the original protocol design and that lead to encountering severe underachievements. We also provide explanations to these flaws and propose solutions that solve or at least reduce their impact. Finally, we have led a thorough experimental campaign on an indoor static grid composed of 240 nodes. From those studies, we quantify the performances of the original X-MAC design and the impact of our improvements. View full abstract»

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  • A Smart Textile Based Facial EMG and EOG Computer Interface

    Page(s): 393 - 400
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3021 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates a wearable approach to facial electromyography and electrooculography. The aim is to reduce discomfort and setup time in electromyographic research, rehabilitation, and computer control. A screen and stencil printed passive electrode network is fabricated on a textile headband. When this headband is worn, an array of stencil printed electrodes makes contact with the skin. The electrodes are connected to external electronics by screen printed flexible conductive tracks. The printed electrode headband is used in a facial electromyographic control system to evaluate performance. The system can be used to control a mouse cursor or simulate keyboard functions. It was found that 50 Hz noise levels in the printed textile electrodes were similar to commercial disposable electroencephalography electrodes. The effect of a wearable approach on pressure variations and motion artefact is examined. The way in which this influences the design and performance of the control system is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Highly Sensitive \beta {-}{\rm Ga}_{2}{\rm O}_{3} Nanowire Nanowires Isopropyl Alcohol Sensor

    Page(s): 401 - 405
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report the growth of β-Ga2O3 nanowires using a vapor phase transport method and the fabrication of β-Ga2O3 nanowire gas sensor. The β-Ga2O3 nanowire sensor shows reversible response to isopropyl alcohol (IPA) gas at temperature as low as 100 °C. With 300 ppm IPA gas introduced, it was found that measured responses were ~ 7.5%, 13.5%, and 23% when the sensor was operated at 100 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C, respectively. It was also found that the responses measured at 300 °C were ~ 9%, 15.5%, 24%, and 33% when the injected IPA gas concentrations were 100, 200, 300, and 400 ppm, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Sensor Search Techniques for Sensing as a Service Architecture for the Internet of Things

    Page(s): 406 - 420
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4847 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is part of the Internet of the future and will comprise billions of intelligent communicating “things” or Internet Connected Objects (ICOs) that will have sensing, actuating, and data processing capabilities. Each ICO will have one or more embedded sensors that will capture potentially enormous amounts of data. The sensors and related data streams can be clustered physically or virtually, which raises the challenge of searching and selecting the right sensors for a query in an efficient and effective way. This paper proposes a context-aware sensor search, selection, and ranking model, called CASSARAM, to address the challenge of efficiently selecting a subset of relevant sensors out of a large set of sensors with similar functionality and capabilities. CASSARAM considers user preferences and a broad range of sensor characteristics such as reliability, accuracy, location, battery life, and many more. This paper highlights the importance of sensor search, selection and ranking for the IoT, identifies important characteristics of both sensors and data capture processes, and discusses how semantic and quantitative reasoning can be combined together. This paper also addresses challenges such as efficient distributed sensor search and relational-expression based filtering. CASSARAM testing and performance evaluation results are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Current-Sensitive CMOS Preamplifier for Investigating Space Plasma Waves by Magnetic Search Coils

    Page(s): 421 - 429
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to considerably reduce circuit resources (mass, volume, and power) for the analog front ends of plasma wave measurement systems, a current-sensitive preamplifier for magnetic search coils (MSCs) is designed with standard 0.25- μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Since the input noise current determines the output noise levels around the resonant frequency of an MSC, a CMOS preamplifier operating with low noise current is suitable when combined with an MSC instead of using bipolar junction transistors. The current-sensitive CMOS preamplifier consists of a current amplifier for the detection of current flowing through the MSC and an equalizer for adjusting the transfer function. A prototype of the circuit structure was fabricated on a 1.9 × 3.3- mm2-silicon chip. The noise equivalent magnetic induction of the CMOS preamplifier combined with a 100-mm-long MSC is 3.5 pT/Hz1/2 at 10 Hz and 30 fT/Hz1/2 at 2 kHz with a power consumption of 4.6 mW for a 3.3-V supply. This paper is the first to examine a current-sensitive CMOS preamplifier for probing plasma waves. View full abstract»

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  • High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Refractometer Based on Modal Interference in Micro-Capillary Wall

    Page(s): 430 - 435
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a novel fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a short piece of fused-silica micro-capillary (FSC) spliced between single mode fibers (SMFs). The sensing element is the tubing wall of the FSC where multiple modes excited from the lead-in SMF interfere to form fringes that are collected by the lead-out SMF. Two types of sensors with symmetric and asymmetric structures are fabricated and tested. A single lead-in SMF is used in the symmetric structure, whereas two lead-in SMFs are used in the asymmetric structure. Experimental results show that both types of sensors have high RI sensitivities, the symmetric structure sensor has a quadrature response with a higher sensitivity in the tested RI range from 1.33 to 1.37, and the asymmetric structure has a linear RI response with a sensitivity of 580.41 nm/RIU in the same RI range. The RI sensing platform demonstrated here can be further developed as a miniaturized fiber optic biosensor for biological and biochemical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • A New Sensor for Heavy Metals Detection in Aqueous Media

    Page(s): 436 - 441
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel technique for rapid and ultrahigh sensing of heavy metals in aqueous media based on microfluidic platform integrated with porous anodic alumina (PAA) membrane and functionalized with ultrathin porous layer of highly ordered hexagonal arrays of Au nanoparticles with 25 nm sub-gaps is proposed. The sensor function is based on both chemical and electromagnetic enhancement. Both were achieved by increasing the number of hot spots and by increasing the density of the Au-nanoparticles at the surface of the PAA membrane up to 7 × 1010 cm-2. The sensor demonstrated high selectivity between three different heavy metal ions ( Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Co2+, and Ni2+) with concentrations varied from 1 to 20 ppb (1 × 10-3 to 20 × 10-3 μg/ml). The platform provides an instant and fully integrated detection method that is based on in-situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The observed Raman enhancement is due to the excitation and interference of surface plasmon waves, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of the heavy metal. Therefore, the proposed sensor is an unprecedented fully integrated platform that is easy to fabricate and seamlessly integrated with an in-situ signal detection device for added functionality. View full abstract»

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  • A New Minimal Solution for the Extrinsic Calibration of a 2D LIDAR and a Camera Using Three Plane-Line Correspondences

    Page(s): 442 - 454
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a new minimal solution for the extrinsic calibration of a 2D light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensor and a perspective camera. This problem is formulated as registering three planes and the corresponding coplanar lines. All existing algorithms solve this problem by its geometric structure in the original or the dual 3D space. In contrast, our algorithm directly exploits the algebraic structure of the polynomial system to resolve this problem. This new algorithm is more abstract, however, and provides a more broadly applicable method to other problems that need to handle the similar polynomial system. The rotation matrix is estimated first. Then, the translation vector can be calculated by solving a system of three linear equations. Although the new approach is conceptually simple, it has 720 different versions caused by different permutations of variables. This results in different computational orders and affects the numerical behavior of the algorithm. A simple heuristic scheme is proposed to select the permutation of variables that yields numerically stable computational order with respect to the given input. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy and numerical stability. View full abstract»

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  • Sensor Node Failure Detection Based on Round Trip Delay and Paths in WSNs

    Page(s): 455 - 464
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been increased due to its vast potential to connect the physical world to the virtual world. Also, an advance in microelectronic fabrication technology reduces the cost of manufacturing portable wireless sensor nodes. It becomes a trend to deploy the large numbers of portable wireless sensors in WSNs to increase the quality of service (QoS). The QoS of such WSNs is mainly affected by the failure of sensor nodes. Probability of sensor node failure increases with increase in number of sensors. In order to maintain the better QoS under failure conditions, identifying and detaching such faults are essential. In the proposed method, faulty sensor node is detected by measuring the round trip delay (RTD) time of discrete round trip paths and comparing them with threshold value. Initially, the suggested method is experimented on WSNs with six sensor nodes designed using microcontroller and ZigBee. Scalability of proposed method is verified by simulating the WSNs with large numbers of sensor nodes in NS2. The RTD time results derived in hardware and software implementations are almost equal, justifying the real time applicability of the investigated method. Necessity of received signal strength measurement in cluster head variation and assigning separate wavelength for each link in other fault detection techniques are overcome here. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Novel Wear Detection System for Wind Turbine Gearboxes

    Page(s): 465 - 473
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a low-cost, inline, gearbox lubrication monitoring sensor. The purpose of the research was to develop a sensor that can analyze wear particles suspended in gearbox lubricant systems. Current inline sensor systems rely on methods that prevent significant morphological classification. The size and shape of the particles are often indicative of the type of wear that is occurring and is therefore significant in assessing the gearbox state. A demonstration sensor consisting of a webcam that uses an active pixel sensor combined with a rectangular cross section optically transparent acrylic pipe was developed. A rig that simulates a gearbox lubrication system was used to test the sensor. Images of wear particles suspended in the lubricant were captured in real time. Image analysis was then performed to distinguish particles from the lubricant medium. Object characteristics, such as area and major axis length, were used to determine shape parameters. It was found that the sensor could detect particles down to a major axis length of 125 μm. Classification was also demonstrated for four basic shapes: square, circular, rectangular and ellipsoidal. ellipsoidal, was also demonstrated. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.