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Wireless Communications, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date October 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine - cover

    Page(s): c1
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1
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  • The history can help you to understand the future [Message from the Editor-in-Chief]

    Page(s): 2 - 4
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  • Book reviews (1 review)

    Page(s): 5
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  • Scanning the literature

    Page(s): 6 - 7
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  • IEEE 802.11 for Sub 1 GHz [Industry Perspectives]

    Page(s): 8 - 9
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  • The first history articles in IEEE Wireless Communications [Invited Introduction]

    Page(s): 10
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  • The roots of GPRS: the first system for mobile packet-based global internet access

    Page(s): 12 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    GPRS, the General Packet Radio Service in GSM was the enabler of the mobile Internet. The origins of key radio access functions employed for packet-switching in GPRS are identified by reviewing state-of-the-art on random access protocols applied in cellular radio data networks existent or proposed before GPRS specification started. A table is provided showing the degree of conformance to GPRS of the respective systems. Besides the type of demand assigned multiple access protocol used in a system, dynamic placement of control channels to the packet data channel and statistical multiplexing of fractions of IP packets of simultaneously transmitting mobile stations to the same packet data channel appear to be key differentiators, besides others. CELLPAC by comparing its functions to that of GPRS is shown to comprise what is called here the Fundaments of the GPRS Radio Interface Protocol. The history of ETSI GPRS standard development is described. Although GPRS is a result of cooperation of many actors which contributions are valued, it appears possible to identify the roots of its radio access protocol and thereby main contributors. View full abstract»

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  • The creation of standards for global mobile communication: GSM and UMTS standardization from 1982 to 2000

    Page(s): 24 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    GSM and UMTS are the leading standards for digital mobile communications with 5.4 billion users and nearly 90 percent world market share. Success factors for this development were the advanced and timely available system standards developed until the end of the 1990s in Europe. In the pioneer period (1982 to 1992) Phase 1 of the digital GSM standard was developed for the first GSM networks. GSM Phase 2 completed in 1995 provided a platform for an unlimited feature evolution. The GSM Phase 2+ program (1993 to 2000) provided new services, better speech quality and enhanced data services and made GSM a system of generation 2.5. An evolution to the Third Generation based on the GSM core network evolution and a new radio subsystem was conceived in the period from 1996 to 2000. A consensus between Europe, Japan and the North American GSM community on this concept was achieved. The standardization work required an effective global working structure. This was also necessary for the GSM work. To cover these needs, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was created to develop globally applicable technical specifications. 3GPP exists since the end of 1998 and has developed a series of specification releases for 3G and a new 4G system (LTE). View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative and cognitive paradigms for green hetnets [Guest Editorial]

    Page(s): 34 - 36
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  • Energy efficiency in heterogeneous wireless access networks

    Page(s): 37 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we bring forward the important aspect of energy savings in wireless access networks. We specifically focus on the energy saving opportunities in the recently evolving heterogeneous networks (HetNets), both Single- RAT and Multi-RAT. Issues such as sleep/wakeup cycles and interference management are discussed for co-channel Single-RAT HetNets. In addition to that, a simulation based study for LTE macro-femto HetNets is presented, indicating the need for dynamic energy efficient resource management schemes. Multi-RAT HetNets also come with challenges such as network integration, combined resource management and network selection. Along with a discussion on these challenges, we also investigate the performance of the conventional WLAN-first network selection mechanism in terms of energy efficiency (EE) and suggest that EE can be improved by the application of intelligent call admission control policies. View full abstract»

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  • Cognitive antenna selection relay for green heterogeneous healthcare networks

    Page(s): 44 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (943 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents the latest progress on green healthcare research in heterogeneous networks (HetNet), where devices are capable of switching between multiple radio access technologies (RAT) and each RAT operates on a different frequency channel. After outlining the design features and challenges of a medical service paradigm for green cognitive medical body area networks (MBAN), measurements are made to investigate the turn-on characteristics of a power amplifier (PA) in terms of excess energy consumption and turn-on delay. We then present a multi-mode PA architecture for an MBAN relay system. An energy-efficient PA switch/stay mechanism is also presented. This allows the proposed PA architecture to operate given a transmission outage probability and transmission delay constraint. Antenna selection between two heterogeneous RATs is exploited to improve the transmission reliability. Both measurement and numerical results are provided to corroborate the performance of the proposed architecture and its switch/stay mechanism. View full abstract»

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  • Lean and mean: network coding for commercial devices

    Page(s): 54 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With its ability to reduce the number of transmissions in lossy networks as well as its potential to simplify the design and required signaling of communication protocols, network coding has emerged as an attractive solution to harness the power of wireless and cooperative networks in order to provide higher throughput and lower energy expenditure. This article shows that network coding's complexity is not an issue for current mobile devices even without hardware acceleration. We provide real-life measurements of energy savings gains of two design styles of network coding, namely, inter- and intra-session network coding using commercial platforms, including Open-Mesh routers and various mobile phones. We demonstrate that the energy per bit invested in coding/decoding operations can be several orders of magnitude smaller than that used for transmission/reception, while also maintaining processing speeds as high as several hundreds of Mb/s or even several Gb/s depending on the device and coding configuration used. View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting 4G mobile user cooperation for energy conservation: challenges and opportunities

    Page(s): 62 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous success and popularity of mobile applications and services, resulting in an explosive growth in the number of mobile devices, as well as in the range and types of things these devices can do. People nowadays become extremely dependent on their smartphones and handheld devices to access and receive online services. While computing and processing powers of these handheld devices are keeping up with this demand, battery lifetime remains the performance bottleneck, and researchers are now more challenged than ever before to come up with new techniques that can make efficient use of the devices¿ energy resources. In this article, we focus on exploiting user cooperation as a way of conserving energy in 4G mobile networks. We first begin by overviewing user cooperation and illustrating its potential for reducing energy consumption. Then, we describe the key challenges 4G mobile users face vis-a-vis of cooperation. Finally, we discuss some of the techniques proposed in literature to address these challenges by highlighting their methodologies, advantages, and disadvantages. View full abstract»

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  • Energy-aware cooperative networks: enabling technologies, operation design, and benchmarking

    Page(s): 68 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cooperative Communication Networks (CCNs) have recently emerged as a promising technology for improving spectral efficiency and extending overall network coverage. CCNs have also managed to generate significant interest in the research community for their role in optimizing Energy Efficiency (EE) in next-generation networks. However, envisioning CCN as an energy-saving solution is met with many unresolved problems and significant challenges. In this article, we discuss the enabling technologies for energy-aware CCNs, the challenges behind employing these technologies and the open research issues. We also discuss the lack of benchmarking EE metrics and a performance evaluation framework. We propose an EE scheme for a heterogeneous WiFi-sensor network to address these issues and present a measurement- based methodology to evaluate the proposed scheme. The scheme is designed using Markov Decision Process (MDP). The implementation of the scheme in the proposed testbed demonstrates its ability to provide 63 percent energy-saving in the WiFi network and 82 percent in the sensor network in low traffic network operational conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of realistic channel conditions on the energy efficiency of network coding-aided cooperative MAC protocols

    Page(s): 76 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The emergence of heterogeneous networks (HetNets) as an enabling paradigm for ubiquitous wireless communication has further reinforced the concept of medium range cooperation among the end users. This trend, along with the need for bidirectional communication, has triggered the design of new Network Coding (NC)- aided Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols that benefit both the throughput and the energy efficiency in the system. However, the vast majority of MAC protocols are usually designed and analyzed under simplified channel models, ignoring the severe effect of realistic physical (PHY) layer conditions on the wireless communication. In this article, we focus on the impact of correlated long-term slow fading (shadowing) on the performance of distributed wireless systems. As a case study, we discuss in detail the performance of a cooperative NC-aided Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) MAC protocol under correlated shadowing conditions. Our results reveal interesting trade-offs between throughput and energy efficiency, highlighting the importance of considering the slow fading effect in the design of cooperative MAC protocols. View full abstract»

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  • Coalition formation game toward green mobile terminals in heterogeneous wireless networks

    Page(s): 85 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-standard mobile terminals (MTs) are the trend of current and future mobile devices for taking advantage of heterogeneous integration of wireless access networks and providing ubiquitous connectivity and better quality of service. Holding multiple active interfaces, however, incurs significant power consumption burdens to MTs. This not only increases the carbon footprint of MTs but also makes the batteries of MTs deplete rapidly. Consequently, mobile users may have to relentlessly look for power outlets to charge their devices, which may threaten their true mobility freedom. To this end, in this article, we propose a promising approach based on coalition formation game and inter-terminal cooperation. Our innovative approach motivates MTs to cooperate, while addressing the issue of isolating selfish players. MTs assess radio channels and disseminate the acquired information as well as their available resources to sketch a global view of the radio environment. Based on this view, coalitions are formed whenever energy saving is foreseeable. Within a coalition, MTs pool their resources and perform their tasks cooperatively to maximize their energy efficiency. Simulation results validate that the proposed approach can effectively double the battery lifetimes of MTs, while successfully eliminating selfish players from cooperative groups. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive green wireless access: exploiting mobility and application information

    Page(s): 92 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (301 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ever increasing mobile data traffic and dense deployment of wireless networks have made energy efficient radio access imperative. As networks are designed to satisfy peak user demands, radio access energy can be reduced in a number of ways at times of lower demand. This includes putting base stations (BSs) to intermittent short sleep modes during low load, as well as adaptively powering down select BSs completely where demand is low for prolonged time periods. In order to fully exploit such energy conserving mechanisms, networks should be aware of the user temporal and spatial traffic demands. To this end, this article investigates the potential of utilizing predictions of user location and application information as a means to energy saving. We discuss the development of a predictive green wireless access (PreGWA) framework and identify its key functional entities and their interaction. To demonstrate the potential energy savings we then provide a case study on stored video streaming and illustrate how exploiting predictions can minimize BS resource consumption within a single cell, and across a network of cells. Finally, to emphasize the practical potential of PreGWA, we present a distributed heuristic that reduces resource consumption significantly without requiring considerable information or signaling overhead. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency-domain cross-layer diversity techniques: an efficient way of coping with lost packets in broadband wireless systems

    Page(s): 100 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern broadband wireless systems demand increasing quality of service (QoS), requiring small error rates and delays which effectively ensure increased throughput. This article focuses on the handling of lost packets and its influence on spectral efficiency. Two time diversity approaches are considered and compared to cope with lost packets: a low-complexity diversity combining Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) scheme employed in a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) architecture; and a Network Diversity Multiple Access (NDMA), which is a multi-packet detection approach able to separate simultaneous transmissions using temporal diversity. The comparison among the approaches focuses on error rate, throughput and delay performances, and takes the implementation complexity in consideration. View full abstract»

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  • FlashLinQ: enabling a mobile proximal internet

    Page(s): 110 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (418 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    FlashLinQ is a wireless communications system founded on the realization of a "wireless sense"-a sense whose embodiment in devices provides Internet application peers with a direct awareness of each other's physical proximity and relevance, creating a new form of proximityaware internetworking, and thereby realizing a necessary step towards what we term a "Mobile Proximal Internet". The need for such a system arises from the pervasive spread of Internet devices and applications in our daily lives, and the practical limitations of current communications technologies in conveying knowledge of mutual proximity and relevance. In this paper, we introduce a mobile proximity-aware social network use case, and describe the overview of technology and our simulation, prototype implementation and initial field/lab test results. View full abstract»

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  • The case for random access in OFDMA femtocells

    Page(s): 118 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Data services in current cellular networks are growing exponentially, due to the proliferation of high-end mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, ereaders) supporting ever increasing multimedia applications. Clearly, availing of new spectrum (as with 4G allocations) is a necessary part of meeting this challenge, but so are improved network architectures that achieve enhanced spatial spectral efficiency (bits per second per Hertz per area). 4G network operators are moving toward a heterogeneous architecture consisting of overlaid cells of various sizes. A variety of low-power, small-cell base stations and relays are being deployed to increase capacity around local, typically indoor hotspots. The primary concern in such scenarios is understanding the nature and impact of inter-cell interference in dense deployments of such unmanaged small cells, and arriving at solutions for its mitigation. Resource allocation in traditional wide-area cellular networks usually assume a fully loaded network (i.e. many simultaneous active users in a cell) where the system performance is insensitive to the activity of a single user. This assumption is not suitable for femtocells which are designed to serve very few (indoor) users and thus lacks the presumed traffic aggregation. This article provides a fresh look at the femtocell interference problem from a multiple access perspective. It first compares the multi-channel features inherent to OFDMA with traditional multi-channel MAC designs for wireless LANs and highlights how the ability to schedule users in both time and frequency as afforded by OFDMA, can be exploited to achieve more effective (distributed) random access. A simplified MAC model that hides the complexity of LTE protocol stack is proposed to facilitate the design and analysis of random access MAC algorithms in the context of OFDMA femtocells. View full abstract»

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  • Grade of service of opportunistic spectrum access based cognitive cellular networks

    Page(s): 126 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we investigate the strategies of access and handoff in the opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) based cognitive cellular networks (CCNs). Then, a three dimension (3D) continuous- time Markov chain (CTMC) is constructed to derive the grade of service (GoS) performance metrics in the OSA-based CCNs. Through the 3D CTMC, both the non-hopping and hopping modes are investigated, respectively. Specifically, for a given primary user (PU) traffic, the range of achievable user equipment (UE) traffic is derived with guarantying the GoS of the UE. Moreover, we study the effective spectrum utilization and influence of imperfect spectrum sensing to the GoS performance, respectively. Furthermore, to verify the validity of the theoretical analysis, simulations are conducted. Finally, some open issues are discussed in this article. View full abstract»

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  • TRITON: high-speed maritime wireless mesh network

    Page(s): 134 - 142
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (706 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents the TRI-media Telematic Oceanographic Network (TRITON) project, which aims to develop a high-speed and low-cost maritime communication system. The article includes information pertaining to background studies, high-level architecture, network feasibility, maritime communication environment, technology developments, prototype implementations and link performance measurements. The motivation for this project stems from the fact that there is an increasing need for low-cost and high-speed maritime communication, with demands mainly coming from regulatory and crew welfare needs. The system described in this article is a wireless mesh network based on the IEEE 802.16. An analysis of the node connectivity based on real ship traffic data shows that the network is feasible in shipping lanes with a high density of ships. The system also considers the use of an intelligent middleware to allow communications to switch back to a satellite link in cases where neighboring ships are sparse or at locations far away from mesh base stations. Protocol enhancements to both the Medium Access Control (MAC) and networking layers and a hardware design that features multiple transceivers and the implementation of antenna switching to counter sea wave reflection and rocking problems are presented. Measurements of field trials show that the proposed wireless mesh network could be an effective solution for maritime communications. View full abstract»

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  • A cellular-centric service architecture for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications

    Page(s): 143 - 151
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A machine-to-machine (M2M) communications system is a large-scale network with diverse applications and a massive number of interconnected heterogeneous machines (e.g., sensors, vending machines and vehicles). Cellular wireless technologies will be a potential candidate for providing the last mile M2M connectivity. Thus, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and IEEE 802.16p, have both specified an overall cellular M2M reference architecture. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), in contrast, has defined a service- oriented M2M architecture. This article reviews and compares the three architectures. As a result, the 3GPP and 802.16p M2M architectures, which are functionally equivalent, complement the ETSI one. Therefore, we propose to combine the ETSI and 3GPP architectures, yielding a cellular-centric M2M service architecture. Our proposed architecture advocates the use of M2M relay nodes as a data concentrator. The M2M relay implements a tunnel-based aggregation scheme which coalesces data from several machines destined to the same tunnel exit-point. The aggregation scheme is also employed at the M2M gateway and the cellular base station. Numerical results show a significant reduction in protocol overheads as compared to not using aggregation at the expense of packet delay. However, the delay rapidly decreases with increasing machine density. View full abstract»

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  • An ALOHA-based improved anti-collision algorithm for RFID systems

    Page(s): 152 - 158
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tag collision arbitration is considered as one of the critical issues in RFID system design. In order to further improve the identification efficiency of tag anti-collision algorithms in RFID systems, several types of dynamic framed slotted ALOHA (DFSA) anti-collision algorithms are analyzed, and a new anti-collision algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm has the ability of identifying the time slot distribution which is selected by the tags within a reader's interrogation range in advance. Then the free time slots will be skipped when the reader queries each time slot. Also, the colliding tags will be immediately processed with additional time slots. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes fewer total number of time slots and has a higher efficiency of tag identification compared to the other four DFSA anti-collision algorithms. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine deals with all technical and policy issues related to personalization, location-independent communications in all media.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Hsiao-Hwa Chen
Cheng Kung University, Taiwan