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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the

Issue 3 • Date March 1914

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Coming A.I.E.E. meetings

    Page(s): 77 - 78
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  • Progress report of joint committee on inductive interference

    Page(s): 79
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  • Membership

    Page(s): 79 - 80
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • United engineering society treasurer's report

    Page(s): 80 - 83
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Past section meetings

    Page(s): 83 - 90
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  • Personal

    Page(s): 90 - 91
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  • Obituary

    Page(s): 91 - 92
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  • Abstracts of proceedings of foreign engineering societies

    Page(s): 92 - 94
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  • Library accessions

    Page(s): 94 - 95
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  • Officers and Board of Directors, 1914–1915

    Page(s): 96 - 106
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  • The economical capacity of a combined hydroelectric and steam power plant

    Page(s): 347 - 384
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    This paper develops a general method for determining the economical capacity of a combined steam and hydroelectric development. The method involves the use of two curves, — one, the “Percent-Deficiency,” giving the stream regimen, the other, the “Percent-Load” giving the characteristics of the load. The first curve gives the percent deficiency of the water for any stream-flow, and hence fixes directly the deficiency in energy which must be made up by the steam plant. The second curve shows directly the proportion of the total energy of the load that is included above any proportional part of the maximum power, and fixes the capacity of the steam plant required to supply that part of the load which cannot be supplied by the stream. The use of these two curves differs for plants with pondage or without pondage. The capacity and output of the steam plant being thus determined, its total annual cost is determinable and with the annual cost of the hydroelectric plant, fixes the total annual cost of the combined plant. This is done for the range of stream-flow by means of numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • The feasibility of an A. I. E. E. Handbook: Report of the handbook sub-committee

    Page(s): 385 - 390
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    THE Handbook Sub-Committee of the Electric Power Committee was created at the instance of President Mailloux to consider the feasibility of the Institute's compiling a handbook to be issued to its members, and also to present the idea for discussion, in order thereby to determine the feeling of the members at large regarding such a project. As pointed out in the remarks by Mr. Thomas, Chairman of the Engineering Data Sub-committee, the question presented to the Handbook committee was that of the collection and presentation of exact data, which would include formulas, physical constants, or other commonly accepted standards. The suggestion that the Institute bring together such information is not entirely new, but there has been little recorded discussion upon the matter. View full abstract»

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  • The cost of electricity at the source

    Page(s): 391 - 398
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    The Stott-Gorsuch method is applied to the determination of the cost of manufacturing electricity in a 60-cycle station of 100,000 kilowatts installed capacity. The results correspond to the assumption that such a station is capable of delivering from 350,000,000 to 700,000,000 kelvins per annum for load factor ranging from 0.50 to 1.00. For unity load factor the cost of three-phase electricity at the outgoing cables ranges from 0.65 cent per kelvin with coal at $5.00 per ton, down to a matter of 0.20 cent per kelvin for fuel of negligible cost. A method is indicated for tracing through the increase in the cost of the electricity at later stages of its journey from the source to the consumer. View full abstract»

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  • Recording devices

    Page(s): 399 - 408
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    The author calls attention to the importance of keeping records in electrical systems and points out that proper records can be secured only by automatic recording devices largely because of the uncertainty of the personal element in times of accident or stress. The three types of recording devices in general use are those having a revolving disk, those using an endless tape or photo-film, and multi-recording device on which no record is made of normal operations and on which the record sheet moves only when a record of abnormal occurrences is being made. The revolving disk machines produce such condensed records that a sequence of rapidly fluctuating events cannot be distinguished, while the curve drawing instruments, if the tapes were run rapidly enough to show all the fluctuations, would produce records of such enormous length that they would be impracticable to operate commercially. With the multi-recorder the record is made in a very condensed and handy form and its accuracy in respect to time is very high, so that the sequence of events recorded can be checked within a fraction of a second. The latter instrument, therefore, is adapted to produce minute and accurate records of all phases of station operation. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of the telegraph with the telephone as a means of communication in steam railroad operation

    Page(s): 409 - 428
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    Brief historical descriptions of the use of the telegraph and the telephone on railroads are given, the first train having been handled by telegraph in 1851 and the first handling of trains by telephone on long stretches of main line track having started as late as 1907: In comparison with the telegraph, the telephone circuits cost more to install and operate, but effect a saving in the operation of the railroad, both directly and indirectly, as it is possible to move trains over the road more rapidly. The advantages and disadvantages in comparing the telegraph with the telephone are summarized as follows: In Favor of the Telephone. Universality, saving of time, rapidity of transmission, psychological effects, promptness in raising offices, no necessity of specially trained operators, saving in expense of railroad operation, and best operation of circuit in heavy weather. In Favor of the Telegraph. Flexibility in handling circuits, simplicity in installing, maintaining and operating, circuit best adapted for long distances, effects of distance in transmission, saving in cost of installation and maintenance, and the standard of maintenance. In considering what are termed the four methods of communication, namely: by personal interview, by letter, by telephone or telegraph message, and by telephone conversation, attention is called to the fact that the use of the last-mentioned method by the railroads in this country has not been carried as far as it should. View full abstract»

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  • Traffic studies in automatic-switchboard telephone systems

    Page(s): 429 - 438
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    The paper describes a telephone traffic recording machine by means of which not only the number of calls for a given period, but also the average duration of each call, is mechanically registered on a moving tape. The observations recorded here were taken on an automatic telephone system. The graphical record shows the exact duration of each connection, the number of connections made during a given interval, and the number of simultaneous connections in service at each instant. By means of these records it is possible to study the relative efficiency of small and large trunk groups, the average holding time of calls, and these observations permit the switches and trunks to be so arranged that the calls will be evenly distributed among the trunks in each group. View full abstract»

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  • Sixty-cycle synchronous converters

    Page(s): 439 - 451
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    The paper describes some 60-cycle, six-phase, 600-volt, synchronous converters used in railway substations in the suburbs of Cleveland. The advantages of the use of 60-cycle apparatus include standardization of frequency, low cost and high efficiency. The converters are of the commutating pole type and a number of special features of their design are described. The improvement of commutation due to commutating poles makes it possible to use fewer poles and higher armature speed, but this has the objection of increasing the noise, which would have been objectionable in neighborhoods where these machines were used. To overcome the noise the armature ends were sealed up and a shield provided behind the front leads, thereby cutting down the ventilation to a considerable extent. The field windings were compounded in order to hold the d-c. voltage constant, and in order to maintain the power factor of the supply circuit at unity the converters were over-excited to produce a leading wattless current sufficient to overcome the reactance drop. In order to overcome the heating effect due to restricted ventilation and over-excitation the value of 3500 amperes per square inch of armature conductor based upon d-c. output at rating was adopted. To permit of a-c. starting the copper dampers are interconnected between the poles to produce a squirrel cage connection all around the field structure. Extracts from the specifications under which these machines were built are appended, as well as extracts from the contract under which the power supplied to the substations is purchased. View full abstract»

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  • Factors determining a reasonable charge for public utility service

    Page(s): 453 - 471
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    The paper considers the relations of the public to public service corporations and analyzes the construction and operating costs of the public utility plant upon which the rates for service should be equitably based. The hostility which frequently exists between the public and the officials of such corporations has been due largely to the past attitude of the officials of these corporations; who have frequently ignored the fact that they are doing business under a grant from the public which gives them a practical monopoly of such service, and that they should therefore be restricted to a reasonable amount of profit. There is considerable ignorance on the part of the public in regard to the total elements of cost which enter into the construction and operation of a public utility plant, and all of these costs must be taken into account in establishing a rate which will give a fair return on the investment and at the same time the best service possible under existing conditions. The various items of expense which make up the total value of the property as a going concern, the cost of operation, depreciation, discount on bonds, etc., are all considered, their total forming the basis upon which the rates for service must be figured. View full abstract»

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  • Power from mercury vapor

    Page(s): 473 - 489
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    The author describes a thermodynamic process using a mercury boiler in tandem with a steam-generating apparatus for the production of power. As mercury boils at 677 deg. fahr. at atmospheric pressure and condenses in a 28-in. vacuum at 455 deg. fahr., its temperature and pressure characteristics make possible the utilization of some of the energy available in ranges above those practicable for steam apparatus. The object of the new development is therefore to increase efficiency, by increasing greatly the temperature range available. The mercury vapor produced in the boiler passes to the nozzles of a turbine which drives a generator or other utilizer of power, and thence to a condensing boiler, where it is condensed to liquid mercury on the outer surface of tubes which contain water. The heat given up by the mercury vaporizes the water, and the steam produced is used to drive other turbines or for any other purpose. The author describes the experimental development of the mercury boiler, which is of such a design as to require the least possible amount of mercury. Means are provided to guard against the loss of mercury at any of the joints, and for immediately detecting any leakage if it should occur. The advantages and disadvantages of the process are discussed, and the most advantageous size of unit for commercial application. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on group II papers (methods of determining losses in apparatus), New York, February 27, 1913. (continued from November, 1913, proceedings, pages 2007–2052)

    Page(s): 490 - 504
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    H. F. T. Erben: I wish to say a few words in relation to the possibility of obtaining a correction factor which will be universally applicable to machines of a given type. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on “operation of transmission lines” (Hagood), San Francisco, Cal., February 28, 1913. (see proceedings for December, 1913)

    Page(s): 505 - 515
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    Herbert W. Crozier: We are certainly much indebted to Mr. Hagood for the interesting paper we have had tonight, particularly the slides, which show great care in preparation. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Magazine ceased publication in 1919. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope