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Selected Topics in Signal Processing, IEEE Journal of

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 929 - 930
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  • Introduction to the Issue on Video Coding: HEVC and Beyond

    Page(s): 931 - 933
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  • Adaptive Loop Filtering for Video Coding

    Page(s): 934 - 945
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    Adaptive loop filtering for video coding is to minimize the mean square error between original samples and decoded samples by using Wiener-based adaptive filter. The proposed ALF is located at the last processing stage for each picture and can be regarded as a tool to catch and fix artifacts from previous stages. The suitable filter coefficients are determined by the encoder and explicitly signaled to the decoder. In order to achieve better coding efficiency, especially for high resolution videos, local adaptation is used for luma signals by applying different filters to different regions or blocks in a picture. In addition to filter adaptation, filter on/off control at coding tree unit (CTU) level is also helpful for improving coding efficiency. Syntax-wise, filter coefficients are sent in a picture level header called adaptation parameter set, and filter on/off flags of CTUs are interleaved at CTU level in the slice data. This syntax design not only supports picture level optimization but also achieves a low encoding latency. Simulation results show that the ALF can achieve on average 7% bit rate reduction for 25 HD sequences. The run time increases are 1% and 10% for encoders and decoders, respectively, without special attention to optimization in C++ code. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Compensated Prediction and Interpolation Filter Design in H.265/HEVC

    Page(s): 946 - 956
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    Coding efficiency gains in the new High Efficiency Video Coding (H.265/HEVC) video coding standard are achieved by improving many aspects of the traditional hybrid coding framework. Motion compensated prediction, and in particular the interpolation filter, is one area that was improved significantly over H.264/AVC. This paper presents the details of the interpolation filter design of the H.265/HEVC standard. First, the improvements of H.265/HEVC interpolation filtering over H.264/AVC are presented. These improvements include novel filter coefficient design with an increased number of taps and utilizing higher precision operations in interpolation filter computations. Then, the computational complexity is analyzed, both from theoretical and practical perspectives. Theoretical complexity analysis is done by studying the worst-case complexity analytically, whereas practical analysis is done by profiling an optimized decoder implementation. Coding efficiency improvements over the H.264/AVC interpolation filter are studied and experimental results are presented. They show a 4.0% average bitrate reduction for the luma component and 11.3% average bitrate reduction for the chroma components. The coding efficiency gains are significant for some video sequences and can reach up to 21.7%. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Vector Coding in the HEVC Standard

    Page(s): 957 - 968
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    High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is an emerging international video coding standard developed by the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC). Compared to H.264/AVC, HEVC has achieved substantial compression performance improvement. During the HEVC standardization, we proposed several motion vector coding techniques, which were crosschecked by other experts and then adopted into the standard. In this paper, an overview of the motion vector coding techniques in HEVC is firstly provided. Next, the proposed motion vector coding techniques including a priority-based derivation algorithm for spatial motion candidates, a priority-based derivation algorithm for temporal motion candidates, a surrounding-based candidate list, and a parallel derivation of the candidate list, are also presented. Based on HEVC test model 9 (HM9), experimental results show that the combination of the proposed techniques achieves on average 3.1% bit-rate saving under the common test conditions used for HEVC development. View full abstract»

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  • An Overview of Tiles in HEVC

    Page(s): 969 - 977
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    Tiles is a new feature in the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard that divides a picture into independent, rectangular regions. This division provides a number of advantages. Specifically, it increases the “parallel friendliness” of the new standard by enabling improved coding efficiency for parallel architectures, as compared to previous sliced based methods. Additionally, tiles facilitate improved maximum transmission unit (MTU) size matching, reduced line buffer memory, and additional region-of-interest functionality. In this paper, we introduce the tiles feature and survey the performance of the tool. Coding efficiency is reported for different parallelization factors and MTU size requirements. Additionally, a tile-based region of interest coding method is developed. View full abstract»

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  • Transform Coding Techniques in HEVC

    Page(s): 978 - 989
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    High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is the most recent jointly developed video coding standard of ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). Although its basic architecture is built along the conventional hybrid block-based approach of combining prediction with transform coding, HEVC includes a number of coding tools with greatly enhanced coding-efficiency capabilities relative to those of prior video coding standards. Among these tools are new transform coding techniques that include the support for dyadically increasing transform block sizes ranging from 4 × 4 to 32 × 32, the partitioning of residual blocks into variable block-size transforms by using a quadtree-based partitioning dubbed as residual quadtree (RQT) as well as some properly designed entropy coding techniques for quantized transform coefficients of variable transform block sizes. In this paper, we describe these HEVC techniques for transform coding with a particular focus on the RQT structure and the entropy coding stage and demonstrate their benefit in terms of improved coding efficiency by experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Mode Dependent Coding Tools for Video Coding

    Page(s): 990 - 1000
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    This paper provides an overview of the mode dependent coding tools in the development of video coding technology. In video coding, the prediction mode is closely related with the local image statistical characteristics. For instance, the angular intra mode contains the oriented structure information and the interpartition mode can reveal the local texture properties. Characterized by this fact, the prediction mode can be employed to facilitate the further encoding process, such as transform and coefficient coding. Recently, many mode dependent coding tools were proposed to provide more flexibility and thereby improve the compression performance. In general, these coding tools can be classified into three categories: mode dependent transform, residual reorder before transformation and coefficient scan after transformation. In this paper, these advanced coding algorithms are detailed and experiments are conducted to demonstrate their superior compression performance. View full abstract»

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  • Standardized Extensions of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)

    Page(s): 1001 - 1016
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    This paper describes extensions to the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard that are active areas of current development in the relevant international standardization committees. While the first version of HEVC is sufficient to cover a wide range of applications, needs for enhancing the standard in several ways have been identified, including work on range extensions for color format and bit depth enhancement, embedded-bitstream scalability, and 3D video. The standardization of extensions in each of these areas will be completed in 2014, and further work is also planned. The design for these extensions represents the latest state of the art for video coding and its applications. View full abstract»

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  • Cost and Coding Efficient Motion Estimation Design Considerations for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard

    Page(s): 1017 - 1028
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    This paper focuses on motion estimation engine design in future high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) encoders. First, a methodology is explained to analyze hardware implementation cost in terms of hardware area, memory size and memory bandwidth for various possible motion estimation engine designs. For 11 different configurations, hardware cost as well as the coding efficiency are quantified and are compared through a graphical analysis to make design decisions. It has been shown that using smaller block sizes (e.g. 4 × 4) imposes significantly larger hardware requirements at the expense of modest improvements in coding efficiency. Secondly, based on the analysis on various configurations, one configuration is chosen and algorithm improvements are presented to further reduce hardware implementation cost of the selected configuration. Overall, the proposed changes provide 56 × on-chip bandwidth, 151 × off-chip bandwidth, 4.3 × core area and 4.5 × on-chip memory area savings when compared to the hardware implementation of the HM-3.0 design. View full abstract»

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  • Core Transform Design in the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard

    Page(s): 1029 - 1041
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    This paper describes the core transforms specified for the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard. Core transform matrices of various sizes from 4 × 4 to 32 × 32 were designed as finite precision approximations to the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Also, special care was taken to allow implementation friendliness, including limited bit depth, preservation of symmetry properties, embedded structure and basis vectors having almost equal norm. The transform design has the following properties: 16 bit data representation before and after each transform stage (independent of the internal bit depth), 16 bit multipliers for all internal multiplications, no need for correction of different norms of basis vectors during quantization/de-quantization, all transform sizes above 4 × 4 can reuse arithmetic operations for smaller transform sizes, and implementations using either pure matrix multiplication or a combination of matrix multiplication and butterfly structures are possible. The transform design is friendly to parallel processing and can be efficiently implemented in software on SIMD processors and in hardware for high throughput processing. View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting Long-Term Redundancies in Reconstructed Video

    Page(s): 1042 - 1052
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    In this paper we propose an enhancement to HEVC that allows the usage of homographies for motion compensation between temporally far distant frames. First, we show the benefit of using homographies compared to block-based motion compensation, particularly for long-term motion compensation in the presence of zoom. Then we demonstrate that beyond the case where content is temporally repeated, long-term global motion compensation leads to a better compression ratio in the presence of zooming out. We show that this is due to the change in scale on one hand, and the effects of compression on the reference pictures on the other. Using a model for the distortion of images caused by compression, it will be shown that a finer scale reconstructed image that is warped into the perspective of the image to be encoded can constitute a better predictor than an immediately neighboring picture. We compared the HM software with an enhanced system using long-term global motion compensation with homographies and found that the enhanced system achieves Bjøntegaard Delta Rate savings of up to 38%. With the mechanism behind the gains unveiled, we finally try to find an optimal scale ratio between the frame to be encoded and the reference frame. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coder With Low Memory Requirement

    Page(s): 1053 - 1061
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    In this paper we propose a novel efficient adaptive binary arithmetic coder which is multiplication-free and requires no look-up tables. To achieve this, we combine the probability estimation based on a virtual sliding window with the approximation of multiplication and the use of simple operations to calculate the next approximation after the encoding of each binary symbol. We show that in comparison with the M-coder the proposed algorithm provides comparable computational complexity, less memory footprint and bitrate savings from 0.5 to 2.3% on average for H.264/AVC standard and from 0.6 to 3.6% on average for HEVC standard. View full abstract»

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  • Coding Efficiency of the DCT and DST in Hybrid Video Coding

    Page(s): 1062 - 1071
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    Standardized hybrid video coding algorithms, e.g., HEVC, apply intra frame prediction or motion compensated prediction and subsequent integer approximated DCT or DST transform coding. The coding efficiency of the transforms depends on the statistical moments and probability distribution of the input signals. For a Gaussian distribution, the DCT always leads to a data rate reduction. However, for Laplacian distributed prediction errors, the transforms sometimes increase the data rate. This paper presents a theoretical analysis, which explains the reason for an increase of the data rate, which is due to the generation of higher statistical moments of the coefficients by the DCT or DST in the case of Laplacian distributed input signals. The data rate can increase by up to 0.10 bit per sample for blocks with low correlation. For screen content, in about 20% of the blocks, the transform increases the data rate. By skipping the transform for these blocks, HEVC achieves a 7% data rate reduction. View full abstract»

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  • Rate-Distortion Optimized Transforms Based on the Lloyd-Type Algorithm for Intra Block Coding

    Page(s): 1072 - 1083
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    The directional intra prediction (IP) in H.264/AVC and HEVC tends to cause the residue to be anisotropic. To transform the IP residue, Mode Dependent Directional Transform (MDDT) based on Karhunen Loève transform (KLT) can achieve better energy compaction than DCT, with one transform assigned to each prediction mode. However, due to the data variation, different residue blocks with the same IP mode may not have the same statistical properties. Instead of constraining one transform for each IP mode, in this paper, we propose a novel rate-distortion optimized transform (RDOT) scheme which allows a set of specially trained transforms to be available to all modes, and each block can choose its preferred transform to minimize the rate-distortion (RD) cost. We define a cost function which is an estimate of the true RD cost and use the Lloyd-type algorithm (a sequence of transform optimization and data reclassification alternately) to find the optimal set of transforms. The proposed RDOT scheme is implemented in HM9.0 software of HEVC. Experimental results suggest that RDOT effectively achieves 1.6% BD-Rate reduction under the Intra Main condition and 1.6% BD-Rate reduction under the Intra High Efficiency (HE) 10bit condition. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Overhead Content-Adaptive Spatial Scalability for Scalable Video Coding

    Page(s): 1084 - 1095
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    To support spatial scalability, the scalable extension of H.264/AVC (SVC) uses video cropping or uniform scaling to downscale the original higher-resolution (HR) sequence to a lower resolution (LR) sequence. Both operations, however, will cause critical visual information loss in the resized frames. To address the problem, we propose a low-overhead content-adaptive spatial scalability SVC (CASS-SVC) coder consisting of three main modules: a mosaic-guided video retargeter, a side-information coder, and a non-homogeneous inter-layer predictive coder. The proposed video retargeting scheme first constructs a panoramic mosaic for each video shot to obtain a compact shot-level global scaling map which is then used to derive the scaling maps of individual frames in the shot. The side information required for the non-homogeneous scaling, including the global scaling maps and the spatial corresponding positions of individual frames to the panoramic mosaic, are then efficiently coded by the side-information coder. The non-homogeneous interlayer prediction coding tools are used to provide good predictions to reduce the bitrates for coding the HR frames. Our simulation results demonstrate that, compared to existing CASS-SVC coders, our method cannot only well preserve subjective quality of important content in the LR sequence, but also significantly improves the coding efficiency of HR sequence. View full abstract»

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  • A Fixed Point Approach to Analysis and Optimization of Motion Compensated Predictive Coding

    Page(s): 1096 - 1100
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    In this paper, we propose a fixed point theoretical analysis of motion compensated predictive coding and demonstrate its potential in encoder optimization. Through viewing the encoder-decoder pair as a nonlinear dynamical system and inquiring about its convergent property, we demonstrate the feasibility of approximating the fixed point through recursive coding both theoretically and experimentally. Such a recursive coding approach to encoder optimization admits an interpretation of finding a more compact representation through local perturbation on the perceptual manifold. Experimental results have shown that our approach can achieve bit savings of 5-40% without sacrificing visual quality when tested on the KTA implementation of H.264 (JM14.2). View full abstract»

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  • Rate-GOP Based Rate Control for High Efficiency Video Coding

    Page(s): 1101 - 1111
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    In this paper, a Rate-GOP based frame level rate control scheme is proposed for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The proposed scheme is developed with the consideration of the new coding tools adopted into HEVC, including the quad-tree coding structure and the new reference frame selection mechanism, called reference picture set (RPS). The contributions of this paper mainly include the following three aspects. Firstly, a RPS based hierarchical rate control structure is designed to maintain the high video quality of the key frames. Secondly, the inter-frame dependency based distortion model and bit rate model are proposed, considering the dependency between a coding frame and its reference frame. Thus the distortion and bit rate of the coding frame can be represented by the distortion and bit rate of its reference frame. Accordingly, the Rate-GOP based distortion model and rate model can be achieved via the inter-frame dependency based distortion model and bit rate model. Thirdly, based on these models and a mixed Laplacian distribution of residual information, a new ρ-domain Rate-GOP based rate control is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed Rate-GOP based rate control has much better R-D performance. Compared with the two state-of-the-art rate control schemes for HEVC, the coding gain with BD-PSNR can be up to 0.87 dB and 0.13 dB on average respectively for all testing configurations. Especially for random access low complexity testing configuration, the BD-PSNR gain can be up to 1.30 dB and 0.23 dB respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Pixel-Wise Unified Rate-Quantization Model for Multi-Level Rate Control

    Page(s): 1112 - 1123
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    In this paper, we present a pixel-wise unified rate quantization (R-Q) model for a low-complexity rate control on configurable coding units of high efficiency video coding (HEVC). In the case of HEVC, which employs hierarchical coding block structure, multiple R-Q models can be employed for the various block sizes. However, we found that the ratios of distortions over bits for all the blocks are a nearly constant because of employment of the rate distortion optimization technique. Hence, one relationship model between rate and quantization can be derived from the characteristic of similar ratios of distortions over bits regardless of block sizes. Thus, we propose the pixel-wise unified R-Q model for HEVC rate control working on the multi-level for all block sizes. We employ a simple leaky bucket model for bit control. The rate control based on the proposed pixel-wise unified R-Q model is implemented on HEVC test model 6.1 (HM6.1). According to the evaluation for the proposed rate control, the average matching percentage to target bitrates is 99.47% and the average PSNR degradation is 0.76 dB. Based on the comparative study, we found that the proposed rate control shows low bit fluctuation and good RD performance, compared to R-lambda rate control for long sequences. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Algorithm for Zero Block Detection in High Efficiency Video Coding

    Page(s): 1124 - 1134
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    In HEVC, the effect of the RDO on compression efficiency increases while its computational complexity accounts for an important part of the computation burden. For H.264/AVC, zero block (ZB) detection has been used as an efficient scheme to reduce the complexity of RDO operations. For HEVC, ZB detection is different from the scheme for H.264/AVC because HEVC requires large transform sizes, 16 × 16 and 32 × 32. The increased transform size increases the complexity of ZB detection. It also decreases the accuracy of ZB detection because the variance among the quantized DCT coefficients increases and consequently the possibility of a block to be a ZB also increases even when not all of the quantized coefficients are equal to zero. For effective ZB detection of 16 × 16 and 32 × 32 blocks, this paper proposes a new ZB detection algorithm in which the DC components of the Hadamard coefficients are transformed again by Hadamard basis functions for 16 × 16 and 32 × 32 blocks and the results are compared with a predefined threshold. To reduce the computational complexity, the upper-bound of the SAD (or SATD) is defined and the Hadamard threshold is then tested only for the blocks with the SAD (or SATD) smaller than the upper-bound. Experimental results show that the proposed ZB detection reduces the computational complexity of RDO by about 40% with a negligible degradation of the RD performance. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible Mode Selection and Complexity Allocation in High Efficiency Video Coding

    Page(s): 1135 - 1144
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    To improve compression performance, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) employs a quad-tree based block representation, namely Coding Tree Unit (CTU), which can support larger partitions and more coding modes than a traditional macroblock. Despite its high compression efficiency, the number of combinations of coding modes increases dramatically, which results in high computational complexity at the encoder. Here we propose a flexible framework for HEVC coding mode selection, with a user-defined global complexity factor. Based on linear programming, a hierarchical complexity allocation scheme is developed to allocate computational complexities among frames and Coding Units (CUs) to maximize the overall Rate-Distortion (RD) performance. In each CU, with the allocated complexity factor, a mode mapping based approach is employed for coding mode selection. Extensive experiments demonstrate that, with a series of global complexity factors, the proposed model can achieve good trade-offs between computational complexity and RD performance. View full abstract»

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  • List of Reviewers

    Page(s): 1145 - 1147
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing information for authors

    Page(s): 1148 - 1149
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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing (J-STSP) solicits special issues on topics that cover the entire scope of the IEEE Signal Processing Society including the theory and application of filtering, coding, transmitting, estimating, detecting, analyzing, recognizing, synthesizing, recording, and reproducing signals by digital or analog devices or techniques.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fernando Pereira
Instituto Superior Técnico