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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2013

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Modal Analysis of All-Walls Longitudinally Corrugated Rectangular Waveguides Using Asymptotic Corrugations Boundary Conditions

    Page(s): 3821 - 3837
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The asymptotic corrugations boundary conditions (ACBCs) are used together with classical theory of vector potentials and an innovative combination of matrix systems to analyze rectangular waveguides having all four walls being longitudinally (axially) corrugated. One matrix system is composed of the ACBCs of two opposite walls, while the other comprises those of the other pair of corrugated walls. A transcendental characteristic equation is derived, from which the modal dispersion diagram can be obtained, for all three modal wave-tyoes: fast space, slow surface, and evanescent waves. From the formulation, analytical modal field functions in closed form are also acquired. Results of dispersion graphs and modal field distributions generated by this method are compared favorably with those obtained by a commercial full-wave solver. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Multiplexer Topologies Based on All-Resonator Structures

    Page(s): 3838 - 3845
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    This paper presents two novel multiplexer topologies based on all-resonator structures. Such all-resonator structures remove the need for conventional transmission-line-based splitting networks. The first topology is a diplexer with transmission zeros in the guard band, shared by both channels. These transmission zeros are generated by introducing a cross coupling in a quadruplet in resonators common to both channels. A twelfth-order diplexer with a pair of transmission zeros is presented here as an example. The second topology is a multiplexer with a bifurcate structure that limits the connections to any resonator to three or less, regardless of the number of output channels. A sixteenth-order four-channel multiplexer is presented as an example. Both topologies have been demonstrated at X-band using waveguide technology. Good agreements between measurements and simulations have been achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Triple-Band Marchand Balun Filter Using Coupled-Line Admmittance Inverter Technique

    Page(s): 3846 - 3852
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    This study presents the first reported design and implementation of triple-band Marchand balun filter. The novel balun filter is constructed from the short-circuited coupled line with a triple-band resonator to demonstrate the triple-band admittance inverter characteristic. To improve the amplitude and phase responses within three passbands, the compensation techniques for phase-angle, impedance-matching, and susceptance-slope discrepancies are employed in the balun filter design. Four types of triple-band balun filters with significantly different bandwidths and passband separations are designed and the results are consistent with the specifications. The design procedure for the triple-band Marchand balun filter is established to obtain the amplitude and phase balances in three operating bands with arbitrarily controlled center frequencies and fractional bandwidths. The proposed Marchand balun filter realized by the microstrip coupled-line sections and the defected ground structure stubs is measured and a good agreement among equivalent-circuit calculation, full-wave simulation, and measurement is observed, demonstrating the validity and versatility of the proposed design methodology and balun filter configuration. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Varactor-Tuned Microstrip High-Pass Filter With a Quasi-Elliptic Function Response

    Page(s): 3853 - 3859
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    This paper presents a novel circuit topology of a tunable high-pass filter with a quasi-elliptic function response. A detailed theoretical analysis for the performance operating mechanism is demonstrated. With the assistance of mutually inductive coupling introduced, a pair of tunable transmission zeros (TZs) is synthesized at the lower passband edges and significantly improves the filter selectivity. Experiments are carried out by using the liquid crystal polymer bonded multilayer printed circuit board technology to validate the design. It is found that the implemented filter achieves a wide continuous tuning range covering from 1030 to 2150 MHz with low insertion loss, and which indeed are limited by the Schottky diodes used. It is also illustrated that two measured TZs are properly controlled at each tuning stage, which not only offers a sharp cutoff frequency response with a rejection level greater than 22 dB, but also provides an approximately unchanged response shape. Good agreement between the measured and simulated results can finally be observed. View full abstract»

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  • Crosstalk Cancellation on High-Speed Interconnects Through a MIMO Linear Precoding

    Page(s): 3860 - 3871
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    One of the main problems of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) high-speed interconnect (HSI) circuits that use single-ended signaling is crosstalk phenomena. Crosstalk is an unintentional coupling of the transmitted signals due to close spacing between transmission lines that distorts the information bearing symbols. A novel model for uniform or nonuniform multiconductor transmission line based on the S-parameters is proposed. It allows representation of an HSI as a MIMO channel. In addition, a linear precoding scheme stands on the aforementioned signal model and wireless digital precoding. The precoder generates eigen-beam patterns designed to avoid crosstalk. This research employs practical HSI circuits used in system-in-package at data rates of 2 Gb/s. Statistical link simulation results are presented to analyze and verify the performance and benefits in terms of signal integrity quality of the signal model and the linear precoder proposed. View full abstract»

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  • 3-dB Power Dividers With Equal Complex Termination Impedances and Design Methods for Controlling Isolation Circuits

    Page(s): 3872 - 3883
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    A 3-dB power divider (PD) terminated in equal complex impedances is presented. It consists of two identical 90 ° transmission-line sections and an isolation circuit, being composed of resistance and capacitance, or resistance and inductance, depending on the termination impedances. If the termination impedance has capacitance, the isolation impedance should consist of inductance, and therefore, the isolation circuit should be implemented with a chip inductor. However, the chip inductor contains additional stray capacitance and resistance, which lead to undesired frequency performance. To avoid the usage of the chip inductors, even with arbitrary termination impedances, three design methods by adding transmission-line sections, adding open stubs, and adding short stubs are introduced. The PDs designed by the three methods can have not only desired isolation impedances, but also the total size of the PDs can be reduced. To verify the suggested theory, three PDs are measured. For one PD with adding transmission-line sections, the measured reflection coefficients at all ports are -43.29, -41.55, and -51.69 dB, the isolation is 56.7 dB, and the power division is -3.042 dB at a design center frequency of 1 GHz, which agree quite well with those predicted. View full abstract»

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  • Recombinant Waveguide Power Divider

    Page(s): 3884 - 3891
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    In this paper, a substrate integrated waveguide power divider is proposed on the basis of a recombinant topology that provides in-phase power division with an odd or even number of branches. The aim is to generate different types of power distribution to control sidelobe level in the antenna array. In this study, several power-divider designs were designed to demonstrate and validate the design approach. Each design consists of a cascade of steps and nfurcations, which were initially designed based on sinusoidal basis functions. These designs were simulated using the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) and shown to closely match the performance estimated using the basis functions. A substrate with thickness of 0.508 mm and dielectric constant of 2.94 is used. A three-way power divider with a binominal output taper is optimized and fabricated, showing good results in the bandwidth of interest from 72 to 81 GHz. Measurement results for a 3 × 8 slot array antenna designed in conjunction with the proposed feeding network are presented and discussed. This design can be used to build up rectangular waveguide structures. The novel structure is expected to be useful in building sub-arrays of antenna in the development of millimeter-wave automotive radar systems. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of a Voltage–Current Transformer Feedback Neutralization Network With an Arbitrarily Chosen Coupling-Factor

    Page(s): 3892 - 3904
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    One of the transformer neutralization conditions derived theoretically in previous publications is to make the coupling factor, k, of the transformer as close to one as possible, which is not easy to realize over millimeter-wave frequency range. To seek a method for neutralizing the transistor gate-drain capacitance to cope with the imperfect reverse isolation with the transformer coupling factor not necessarily being close to one, a voltage-current transformer feedback network is adopted in this paper. A phase noninverting transformer is added between gate and drain nodes of a transistor to form a voltage-current feedback. The neutralization condition of this network is derived. The effect of this network on the gain is predicted theoretically. The noise behavior of this network is also analyzed and compared theoretically with other transformer feedback structures reported in the millimeter-wave amplifier design. A Q-band three-stage amplifier using this network is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of this network. This amplifier is implemented in 90-nm low-power bulk CMOS technology. Measurement results show that this amplifier has the peak gain of 18.3 dB at 46 GHz and the reverse isolation better than 40 dB over the operation frequency range while consuming 20 mW at a supply voltage of 1.2 V, which verifies the unilateralization effect by using this network. View full abstract»

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  • Compact and Broadband Millimeter-Wave Electrically Tunable Phase Shifter Combining Slow-Wave Effect With Liquid Crystal Technology

    Page(s): 3905 - 3915
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    Based on a CMOS slow-wave coplanar-waveguide transmission-line topology, a novel compact millimeter-wave phase shifter is presented. The tunability is accomplished by using a liquid crystal (LC) material as a tunable dielectric between the coplanar signal strip and the shielding plane of the slow-wave transmission line. The device tunability is considerably enhanced by moving the free-standing signal strip with the application of a bias voltage. Combining the miniaturizing benefits of the slow-wave effect with the continuous tuning of LC material, the proposed device occupies only 0.38 mm2 and exhibits high performance. The phase shifter was characterized up to 45 GHz for a maximum bias voltage of 20 V without significant power consumption. The reproducible measurements show a figure-of-merit (ratio between the maximum phase shift and the maximum insertion loss) of 51°/dB at 45 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Phase-Noise Prediction for a Balanced Colpitts GaN HEMT MMIC Oscillator

    Page(s): 3916 - 3926
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    This paper presents an X-band balanced Colpitts oscillator in GaN HEMT technology and a method to calculate its phase noise accurately. The method employs a low-frequency (LF) noise measurement and the oscillator waveforms from a harmonic-balance simulator. These data are post-calculated by Hajimiri's phase-noise model, in which the LF noise can be activated with a cyclo-stationary effect in the calculation of phase noise. Compared to commercial phase-noise simulation using predefined stationary noise, the calculation gives significantly improved phase-noise prediction in the 30-dB/decade region near carrier. The prediction is within 3-dB accuracy at 10-kHz, 100-kHz, and 1-MHz offset frequencies. In addition to the method used for phase-noise prediction, the potential for wideband tuning of this oscillator topology is analytically investigated. The measured phase noise of the oscillator is -102 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset from a 8.6-GHz carrier frequency for drain voltage and current of Vd=15 V and Id=40 mA. View full abstract»

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  • New Technique for Synthesizing Concurrent Dual-Band Impedance-Matching Filtering Networks and {\hbox {0.18-}}\mu{\hbox {m}} SiGe BiCMOS 25.5/37-GHz Concurrent Dual-Band Power Amplifier

    Page(s): 3927 - 3939
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New technique for synthesizing concurrent dual-band impedance-matching filtering networks is presented. The technique enables the design of concurrent dual-band impedance-matching filtering networks that provide not only simultaneous matching of two arbitrary loads to two arbitrary sources at two different frequencies, but also dual-bandpass filtering response capable of suppressing unwanted signals like the harmonics and inter-modulation products in nonlinear circuits, such as power amplifiers (PAs). A new 0.18-μm SiGe BiCMOS concurrent dual-band PA was designed based on the developed dual-band matching filtering technique around 25.5 and 37 GHz, which works in the concurrent dual-band mode (25.5 and 37 GHz), as well as single-band mode (25.5 or 37 GHz). The measured results show that, in the single-band mode, the dual-band PA exhibits gain of 21.4 and 17 dB, maximum output power of 16 and 13 dBm, and maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of 10.6% and 4.9% at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively. In the dual-band mode, the maximum output power is 13 and 9.5 dBm at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively, and the total maximum PAE is 7.1%. The designed concurrent dual-band PA has a chip size of 1.3×0.68 mm2 and consumes a dc current of 120 mA from a 3-V supply voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Co-Design of Highly Efficient Power Amplifier and High- Q Output Bandpass Filter

    Page(s): 3940 - 3950
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    This paper reports the first co-design configuration of a power amplifier (PA) in cascade with a high- Q bandpass filter. By matching the filter's input port directly to the transistor's drain node, the conventional output matching network (OMN) of a PA is entirely eliminated. This leads to smaller size/volume, minimized loss, and enhanced overall performance. To enable this co-design method, the matching-filter synthesis theory is proposed and investigated in detail in this paper. Based on this theory, a 3% bandwidth (centered at 3.03 GHz) two-pole filter, implemented using high- Q evanescent-mode cavity resonators, is designed as the PA OMN to provide optimized fundamental and harmonic impedances for a commercial 10-W GaN transistor. Simulation and measured results show that the co-designed PA-filter module yields a desired Chybeshev filter behavior while maintaining excellent PA performance in the passband with 72% efficiency, 10-W output power, >10-dB gain, and 60-dBm output third-order intercept point. This co-designed module experimentally presents a 8% higher overall efficiency compared to a control group developed using a conventional independent PA and filter, which further validates the effectiveness of this method. View full abstract»

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  • Envelope Amplifier With Multiple-Linear Regulator for Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier

    Page(s): 3951 - 3960
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    In this paper, a new envelope amplifier (EA) scheme incorporating a linear regulator array is presented. The proposed EA achieves a higher efficiency over a wide envelope range utilizing multiple linear regulators. The linear regulators biased as multiple supply voltages are responsible for delivering a partial envelope current, ensuring high efficiency. A simulation revealed the superior performance efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of the instantaneous envelope voltage compared with that of a conventional EA. Based on the simulation results, an envelope tracking (ET) amplifier consisting of the proposed EA was implemented using a commercially available 60-W gallium-nitride (GaN) device. The experimental results show that the implemented ET system has an overall efficiency of 47.8% and a gain of 14 dB at an average output power of 40.8 dBm. In this situation, the spectral performance is less than -49.5 dBc using the optimum digital predisotortion functionality. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Digital Predistorter With Fast Convergence Rate and Low Complexity for Multi-Channel Transmitters

    Page(s): 3961 - 3973
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    This paper reports an adaptive digital predistorter (DPD) with fast convergence rate and low complexity for multi-channel transmitters, which is fully implemented in a field programmable gate array. The design methodology and practical implementation issues are discussed, with concerns about the impact caused by carrier power shutdown and transmission power control. The proposed DPD is composed of multiple adaptive lookup table (LUT) units of uniform structures, allowing configurability for desired memory depth. A simplified multiplier-free normalized least mean square algorithm for fast adapting the LUT is introduced. The proposed DPD is also experimentally exploited to linearize a Doherty amplifier. The adjacent channel leakage ratio reaches -60 dB for both lower and upper bands in the test applying a long-term evolution signal. It is also demonstrated in this paper that the proposed DPD shows high robustness when a multi-channel global system for mobile communications signal with occasional carrier power shutdown is applied. View full abstract»

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  • 1024-QAM High Image Rejection E -Band Sub-Harmonic IQ Modulator and Transmitter in 65-nm CMOS Process

    Page(s): 3974 - 3985
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    An E-band high image-rejection sub-harmonic in-phase/quadrature (IQ) modulator for a high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal is designed and implemented on standard 65-nm CMOS technology. To maintain high image-rejection ratio of the IQ modulator over a wide bandwidth for high data-rate application, a load-insensitive analysis and a local oscillator (LO) broadband 45° power splitter are proposed to achieve low amplitude and phase imbalanced structure. In addition, the doubly balanced sub-harmonic Gilbert-cell mixer with the advantages of good LO leakage suppression has been selected in the mixer design. The IQ modulator demonstrates a measured flat conversion gain of 0 ± 1 dB from 55 to 85 GHz. The image rejection ratio is better than 40 dBc from 64 to 84 GHz. For millimeter-wave communication applications, the IQ modulator is integrated with a four-stage power amplifier to form a direct-conversion transmitter. The measured conversion gain of the transmitter is 33 dB and the measured saturated power is 11 dBm. Via high image rejection and good LO suppression of the modulator, a 1024-QAM modulated signal with a data rate of 500 Mb/s and 1.7% error vector magnitude is successfully demonstrated at 65 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Unified Theory of Linear Noisy Two-Ports

    Page(s): 3986 - 3997
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    Network noise invariants are introduced that lead to improved noise characterization and a complete theory of linear noisy two-ports. Minimum power-added noise temperature and minimum cold load temperature are identified as network noise invariants under lossless embedding. Associated invariant equations provide explicit relations between all known and new network invariants. From these equations, an invariant under lossless embedding is identified that defines network noise-gain coupling in the most basic terms of noise correlation, minimum noise temperature, and complex nonreciprocal gain. A noise correlation parameter q is formally introduced that is invariant to lossless input and/or output transformation. Conditions and bounds are established, and it is shown that q ≈ 2 for low-noise active devices. An exact expression for the q parameter of a minimum noise cascade network is given in terms of constituent device invariants. From a systems point of view, the cascade q parameter represents source impedance noise sensitivity. A lower bound on cascade q is determined by device invariants minimum power-added noise temperature and minimum cold load temperature. It is shown that the cascade q lower bound is realized by simultaneous noise and power match. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Dithering Technique With Periodic Waveforms for RF Test and Characterization

    Page(s): 3998 - 4007
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    A dithering technique based on ensemble averaging of waveforms is proposed. In the proposed method, we perform a single measurement of multiple periods of a sine-dithered periodic waveform, whereas in the existing ensemble averaging methods several different measurements with dithering additive noise are performed. The measured waveform is then segmented and the segments are averaged to obtain a noise-reduced post-processed waveform. This technique provides improved efficiency in test and characterization applications where accuracy higher than that of the built-in data converters of the measurement equipment is required. Moreover, we show that by using large dithering signals in the proposed technique, we can reduce the nonideal effects found in real applications. As an example, we show in a simulated example that by using the approach with an ensemble size of five in an ideal quantizer, we are able to reduce the mean-square error and adjacent channel distortion by 11 dB. A reduction of 6 dB is achieved when we use the same ensemble size in a nonideal quantizer. An experiment is then conducted to evaluate the reduction in the adjacent channel power of a modulated signal emanating from an arbitrary waveform, by using the proposed technique. The experimental results show that even for a modulated signal with 160-MHz bandwidth at 4.5 GHz, by using an ensemble size of four, we are able to reduce the adjacent channel distortion by 5 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Chipless RFID Tag Localization

    Page(s): 4008 - 4017
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    A novel localization technique for frequency-domain chipless RF identification (RFID) tag is proposed. A short-duration ultra-wideband impulse radio signal interrogates the tags, and multiple receivers in the interrogation zone capture the backscattered signal from the tags. The received signals from the chipless tags are analyzed for the structural mode radar cross section to determine the relative ranges. Using the range information, the linear least square (LLS) method is employed for accurate localization of tagged items. The accuracy of the localization method is analyzed by moving the chipless tag within a fixed interrogation zone. The whole system is modeled in CST Microwave Studio Suite 2012 to comply with a realistic scenario. The post-processing for range and tag position estimation through LLS is done in MATLAB. The method is also verified in laboratory environment with fabricated chipless RFID tags and multiple receiving units. The range and angular resolution are 2.1 cm and 3.5 °, respectively. The analysis and results create a strong foundation for chipless RFID tags to be used in tracking and localization. View full abstract»

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    Page(s): 4018
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    Page(s): 4020
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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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