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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 3125
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editor-in-Chief's Year-End Message

    Page(s): 3126 - 3127
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2013 List of Reviewers

    Page(s): 3128 - 3136
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    Lists the reviewers who contributed to IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement for 2013 View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Phasor Estimates Under the Bellman's Principle of Optimality: The Taylor-LQG-Fourier Filters

    Page(s): 3137 - 3147
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (22858 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently TaylorK-Kalman-Fourier filters were proposed for estimating dynamic phasors to provide instantaneous estimates and drastically reduce the total vector error by a factor of 10. However, they exhibit resonant frequencies at the edges of the pass band, and high-interharmonic gains. In this paper, the optimal linear quadratic (LQ) control is applied to design feedback filters referred to as TaylorK-LQG-Fourier filters. This method reduces the interharmonic gains and the resonant frequency at the passband edges of the TaylorK-Kalman-Fourier filter. The estimates from oscillating signals obtained through this optimal technique are quasi-instantaneous, and provide estimates of the instantaneous frequency, and its rate of change, preserving its synchrony with the signal for control applications. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified through simulations and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy-Model-Based Fault Detection for a Class of Nonlinear Systems With Networked Measurements

    Page(s): 3148 - 3159
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    This paper is concerned with the fuzzy-model-based fault detection for a class of nonlinear systems with networked measurements where there are significant uncertainties on information. A unified model is proposed to capture four sources of these uncertainties, namely, the sensor saturation, the signal quantization, the general medium access constraint, and the multiple packet dropouts. A simultaneous consideration of these issues reflects the practical networked systems much more closely than the existing works. The goal of this paper is to design a fault detector such that, for all unknown input, control input, and uncertain information, the estimation error between the residual and the fault is minimized. Using the switched system approach and some stochastic analyses, a sufficient condition for the existence of desired fault detector is established and the fault detector gains are computed by solving an optimization problem. Two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Testing of Analog Parts Terminated by ADCs Based on Multiple Sampling of Time Responses

    Page(s): 3160 - 3167
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    A new approach for self-testing of analog parts terminated by analog-to-digital converters in mixed-signal electronic microsystems controlled by microcontrollers is presented. It is based upon a new fault diagnosis method using a transformation of the set of voltage samples of the time response of a tested analog part to a square impulse into localization curves placed in a multidimensional measurement space. The method can be used for fault detection and single soft fault localization. Modified digital Fourier transform formulas are used for conversion of the measurement results to the form used by the fault detection and localization algorithm during the self-testing of the system and also for creation of the fault dictionary. In this paper, the results of experimental verification of the approach are included. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Characterization of Materials Using a Dual-Ridged Waveguide

    Page(s): 3168 - 3176
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    A transmission/reflection material characterization technique that uses dual-ridged waveguides is presented. The proposed dual-ridged-waveguide system combines many of the positive aspects of traditional transverse electromagnetic-mode (e.g., coaxial, free space, and stripline) and rectangular waveguide systems, i.e., broadband measurements and accurate calibration. A brief discussion on the derivation of the theoretical scattering parameters, required for the extraction of permittivity and permeability of a material under test, is provided. Two methods for computing the cutoff wavenumber of the dual-ridged waveguide-essential to the material characterization process-are also discussed. The first, which utilizes the mode-matching technique, is applicable to dual-ridged-waveguide apertures composed of right-angled corners. The second uses the surface equivalence principle and a magnetic-field integral equation formulation to find the cutoff wavenumber. This approach is applicable to dual-ridged waveguides with rounded corners, which often result from the dual-ridged waveguide manufacturing process. Thus, for the first time, the effect of rounded dual-ridged-waveguide aperture corners on the measurement of permittivity and permeability is assessed. Experimental material characterization results of a magnetic absorbing material are presented and analyzed to validate the proposed technique. An extensive error analysis on the extracted values of permittivity and permeability is also performed by taking into account manufacturer-specified dual-ridged-waveguide design tolerances as well as uncertainties in sample position, sample thickness, sample-holder length, and measured scattering parameters. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Measurement System for a Power Quality Improvement Structure Based on IEEE Std.1459

    Page(s): 3177 - 3188
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    This paper presents an IEEE Std. 1459 power magnitude measurement system working as a part of a power quality improvement structure. It is intended to enhance the performance of selective shunt active power compensators (SAPCs). The measurements system includes a synchronization structure to estimate the fundamental positive-sequence component of grid voltages in distorted and asymmetric three-phase systems. The synchronization signal is used by a sliding window discrete Fourier transformation (SDFT) recursive algorithm to obtain the fundamental components of the voltages and currents. This algorithm extremely reduces the computational cost compared with the classic SDFT implementation. This strategy allows for a sample-by-sample quasicontinuous calculation of all power quantities, as well as the nonefficient currents. These magnitudes had been used to generate the reference currents for an SAPC achieving a quasicontinuous compensation of the nonefficient power quantities. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measurements system operates correctly under all electrical power network conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Scanning Microwave Near-Field Microscope Based on the Multiport Technology

    Page(s): 3189 - 3193
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    A multiport based near field high frequency microscope is proposed for local nondestructive evaluation and testing applications. The combination of the multiport technology and near-field microscopy methods present advantages such as low cost, compactness, real-time operation, high spatial resolution and versatility. In particular, experimental demonstrations of a multiport near-field microscope is described in microwave frequency range. The spatial resolution of the instrument is experimentally verified to evaluate the performance of the technique proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Localization in 3-D Using Beacons of Low Frequency Magnetic Field

    Page(s): 3194 - 3201
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    Traditional localization techniques, such as radar and GPS, rely on RF waves, which require line-of-sight for effective operation. In contrast, applications based on low frequency magnetic fields benefit from high penetration ability to crown canopy, soil, and many other types of media. In previous work we introduced a method for 2-D localization using beacons of low frequency magnetic field. Here, we propose to expand the method for 3-D localization. A mathematical analysis of the beacons' magnetic fields results in closed-form formulas which enable simple localization calculations. The method has been tested using numerous computer simulations showing accurate localization results in noisy environment and in various beacon configurations. A field prototype of the system has been developed and tested in field conditions, validating simulation results. The obtained experimental results show that the mean localization error is smaller than 0.25 m, and the maximal localization error is less than 0.77 m. The simple implementation, together with the fair localization accuracy, make the proposed method attractive for many applications requiring field penetration ability, such as indoor robot navigation, underground cavity mapping, and many more. View full abstract»

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  • Usage of Conductive Polymer Composite as the Object Film of Eddy Current Gap Sensor

    Page(s): 3202 - 3208
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9766 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To realize the noncontact gap measurement based on eddy current effect when the object is not conductive, we fabricate a film made of conductive polymer composite and cover it on the surface of the nonconductive object. The experimental results on the lift-off effect show that the impedance of the coil with alternating current changes regularly with the variations in the distance between the coil and the composite object. This phenomenon indicates that there exists an eddy current composed of the tunneling current and the conduction current in the composite object. The results indicate that conductive polymer composite has the potential to replace metal as an object of an eddy current sensor system. View full abstract»

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  • A New IED With PMU Functionalities for Electrical Substations

    Page(s): 3209 - 3217
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    This paper proposes a new distributed architecture to measure synchrophasors in power substations, inspired by the standards IEC 61850. The new scheme is implemented in the process bus, where a high performance merging unit (MU), synchronized by precision time protocol (PTP), according to the standard IEEE 1588-2008, sends the sampled values (SVs) to an intelligent electronic device (IED) enabled to behave as a phasor measurement unit (PMU). The synchrophasors are evaluated in the IED through an algorithm based on the Taylor Fourier Transform and suitably modified to have high performance also in terms of response time in presence of step change conditions. Different tests and considerations are presented to evaluate the various elements of uncertainty that a distributed architecture can introduce and, finally, to ensure the feasibility of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Target Position Estimation by Genetic Expression Programming for Mobile Robots With Vision Sensors

    Page(s): 3218 - 3230
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    Target location is an important task in robotics applications. For different application purposes, the positions of targets are usually described by various coordinate systems. Closed-form formulas that describe the relationships between two coordinate systems serve as a means for coordinate transformation. However, the existence of unavoidable measurement errors and uncertainty makes closed-form formulas less reliable. Besides, the closed-form formulas usually involve operations of matrix inversion and transpose that usually consume a considerable amount of computing resources. This paper defines the problem of coordinate transformation on mobile robots as a regression problem and employs the techniques of gene expression programming to discover the regression models. With such regression models, coordinate transformation can be done by simpler formulas with lower processing costs. The proposed techniques have been implemented and integrated with a four-wheeled robot equipped with vision sensors and have been verified in real environments. The experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the underlying problem using genetic-based techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of Time Series Models From Segments—Application to Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    Page(s): 3231 - 3242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three important parametric models for describing the correlation functions and spectra of stationary stochastic processes are the autoregressive (AR), moving average (MA), and autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) models. Quite recently, the MATLAB toolbox “ARMASA” has been made publicly available. This toolbox provides state-of-the-art algorithms to perform automatic identification and selection between the models based on the estimated prediction error. ARMASA works on a single segment of data, whereas in some applications, the data are available as multiple segments. We could process each segment independently and average the estimated autocorrelation functions or spectra afterward. Better performance, however, can be expected when all segments are processed simultaneously, for two reasons. Initially, the bias in the estimated model parameters depends on the number of observations in a segment. Averaging models from segments does not reduce this bias, in contrast to identification from all the data at once. In either case, the variance of the estimated model parameters will decrease. By considering all the data at once this variance reduction can be considered in the order selection stage, decreasing the selection bias. In this paper, we extend the parameter estimation algorithms of the ARMASA toolbox to the case of multiple segments. AR parameter estimation from segments has been considered before, but not for the MA and ARMA models. In addition, in the AR case, model order selection can be done easily when the segments are independent. But, in the application we are primarily interested in, the segments are formed by lines of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images, which can be correlated with each other. Because the correlation among data segments influences the effective number of independent observations available it becomes necessary to estimate that number. This is not an easy problem in general. For observations from a sto- hastic process with an isotropic 2-D autocorrelation function we can, however, formulate an accurate estimator in terms of the line autocorrelation function. This situation arises, for example, in STEM images of amorphous specimens. From the AR model identification for segments, the extension to the MA and ARMA models is rather straightforward because MA and ARMA algorithms are based on Durbin's methods, whose first step is the estimation of a long AR model. We compare the segment-based algorithms to conventional ARMASA with simulations of stationary stochastic processes. An illustrative example involving simulated STEM images shows large potential benefits. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of a Low-Cost Force Sensor for Spinal Orthosis Applications

    Page(s): 3243 - 3250
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    Force sensors have been reported to be reliable for monitoring spinal orthosis compliance in the treatment of scoliosis. However, the current force sensor used for these compliance monitors has certain limitations and drawbacks. A lower cost force sensor with a 55% larger operating force range was chosen for this application, with modifications required to increase its contact surface, improve comfort, and reduce the manufacturing time. Different designs have been considered and described in this paper. A final prototype using a rubberlike material housing with a stiff nub over the sensing area of the original sensor produced a linear, highly sensitive, large surface area, reliable, and robust sensor. It has a sensitivity of 315 mV/N, accuracy 1.9%, repeatability 0.6%, linearity 0.7%, hysteresis 0.8%, dead band 0.0%, point drift 0.5%, temperature drift 2.2% for the temperature range 25 °C- 35 °C, and reproducibility 1.3%. These properties are adequate for measuring forces in a spinal orthosis. The total cost of the sensor with housing is $46 when ordered in quantities of 1000, which reduces the price of the existing sensor by 34%. The manufacturing time of the new sensor was reduced and a preliminary subject trial demonstrated that the new sensor did not have significant temperature effect. This will make force systems more affordable and adaptable for the effective treatment of scoliosis. View full abstract»

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  • Recursive Parametric Frequency/Spectrum Estimation for Nonstationary Signals With Impulsive Components Using Variable Forgetting Factor

    Page(s): 3251 - 3264
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    This paper proposes a general and computationally efficient parametric model-based framework for recursive frequency/spectrum estimation and feature detection of nonstationary signals, which may contain different extents of nonstationarities and impulsive components. The estimation of time-varying frequency or spectrum is formulated as a time-varying linear model identification problem, where the spectral information is estimated from the model coefficients. We then employ a QR-decomposition-based recursive least M-estimate (QRRLM) algorithm for recursive estimation of the time-varying model coefficients in impulsive environment using M-estimation. New variable forgetting factor (VFF) schemes are developed to improve the tracking performance of the QRRLM method in nonstationary environment and we use theoretical derivation and simulations to prove that the proposed VFF schemes can approach the optimal VFF selection. The resultant VFF-QRRLM algorithm is able to restrain and isolate impulsive components whereas it is able to handle different extents of spectral variations. Simulation results show that the proposed VFF-QRRLM algorithm is more robust and accurate than conventional recursive least squares-based methods in estimating both time-varying narrowband frequency components and broadband spectral components with impulsive components. Potential applications of the proposed method can be found in power quality monitoring, online fault detection and speech analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Bioassay System Based on Behavioral Analysis and Bioelectric Ventilatory Signals of a Small Fish

    Page(s): 3265 - 3275
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    Particular attention has recently been paid to bioassay systems that allow the responses of living organisms to be monitored to support water quality evaluation. This technology can complement traditional chemical inspection methods, which have limitations in terms of chemical substance coverage and inspection frequency. This paper proposes a bioassay system that can be used to detect the water contamination by monitoring the behavior and ventilatory signals of zebrafish. Rather than engaging an optical device, the system extracts behavioral information from the ventilatory signals measured via an electrode array, thereby providing advantages in terms of robustness against changes in environmental light. This paper then describes the capacity of the proposed system to detect contamination with ethanol (a low-toxicity substance) as an example. View full abstract»

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  • Time Synchronization and Ranging in OFDM Systems Using Time-Reversal

    Page(s): 3276 - 3290
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    In this paper, we propose a new two-way time synchronization (TS) method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless systems. It relies on the time-reversal (TR) technique to remove the effect of the channel phase after the signal round-trip. Thus, the method is named TR-TS. TR technique yields a linear phase rotation across subcarriers, regardless whether the channel is minimum, maximum, or mixed phase. This phase is proportional to the difference of the OFDM symbol-timing synchronization errors at the two receivers. Thus, the clock-offset between the radios is determined using the local reception times and the estimated linear phase resulting from the TR technique. A reliable low-complexity algorithm called fast Fourier transform-weighted least-squares is proposed to estimate the linear phase slope, and its mean-square error is compared with the Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). The results show that the proposed algorithm attains the CRLB at low SNR, even when a single OFDM symbol is used. The OFDM packets are time-stamped at the medium access control layer, which allows eliminating errors caused by different and varying delays in the internal lower level processing of the data. Hence, an accurate estimate of the clock-offset is obtained. The impact of various nonidealities on the proposed algorithm is also studied. In addition, we propose a ranging method that employs the novel TS method and a first-path delay estimation technique. The performance of the proposed methods is studied in simulations, as well as using real-world measured channels. The results show that the proposed methods can be successfully applied in low to moderate mobility scenarios such as indoors despite harsh multipath, since they rely on channel reciprocity. View full abstract»

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  • Sliding Average Allan Variance for Inertial Sensor Stochastic Error Analysis

    Page(s): 3291 - 3300
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    Inertial sensor errors include deterministic errors and stochastic errors. Deterministic errors can be calibrated in laboratory by simple computation technique. Stochastic errors can be determined during calibration by adopting special methods because of their random character. The simplest method to determine the stochastic errors for inertial sensors is the Allan variance. This kind of method needs large data to fully characterize the stochastic errors. The normal nonoverlapped Allan variance has quite poor estimation accuracy in long cluster time. The fully overlapping Allan variance and traditional total variance have better estimation accuracy in long cluster time but are quite time consuming for large data set. The not fully overlapping Allan variance and nonoverlapped total variance are suitable for large data set to improve the estimation accuracy in long cluster time with much less time, but their accuracy is still relatively poor in comparison with not fully overlapping total variance. Whereas the not fully overlapping total variance is relatively time consuming and, compared with Allan variance, there is a bias which is not easy to be corrected. This paper proposes a sliding average Allan variance that has comparable estimation accuracy with total variance. The data are not required to extend as the total variance; thus the calculation burden could be reduced greatly. Therefore, it is more suitable for large data set. In addition this method has no bias in comparison with Allan variance, which means no bias correction is required. This method is applied to 12-h static data of three gyroscopes from a position and orientation system with good performance. View full abstract»

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  • Elimination of Coil Liftoff From Eddy Current Measurements of Conductivity

    Page(s): 3301 - 3307
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The construction of eddy current conductivity meters is based on developing a method to effectively eliminate the distance effects between the surface of the coil and the workpiece under test in conductivity measurements. As a result of numerous experiments, it was observed that each actual measuring coil can be replaced by the one that is characterized by only two parameters. Following this procedure makes it possible to use only one universal mathematic formula for each of the coils. Appropriate calculations are provided to certify the theory. This paper describes the method of determining the equivalent parameters of the coil, a scaling method for a conductivity meter based on the elimination of liftoff on conductivity results, and a proposition for an effective method to measure the conductivity of rough elements. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorized Glove for Measuring Hand Finger Flexion for Rehabilitation Purposes

    Page(s): 3308 - 3314
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over the last 30 years, scientific and technological progress has boosted the development of medical devices that can assist patients and support medical staff. With regard to the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered from traumas, robotic systems can be an aid for rapid patient recovery. This paper focuses on studying and implementing a system for measuring the finger position of one hand with the aim of giving feedback to the rehabilitation system. It consists of a glove where sensors are mounted suitably configured and connected to an electronic conditioning and acquisition unit. The information regarding the position is then sent to a remote system. The objective of this paper is to provide a sensorized glove for monitoring the rehabilitation activities of the hand. The glove can have several other applications such as: 1) the recognition of sign language; 2) the diagnostic measurement of the finger movement at a distance; and 3) the interaction with virtual reality. View full abstract»

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  • Toward a Mathematical Model for Quality of Experience Evaluation of Haptic Applications

    Page(s): 3315 - 3322
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is rapid progress in the advancement of user interfaces. One such advancement is enabling the sense of touch, or haptics, as part of the interface. Haptic devices are seeing growth in many types of applications such as gaming and medical simulation. Assessing the quality of experience (QoE) of the user is necessary to evaluate how the user perceives such interfaces. The QoE is a user-centric parameter that shifts the paradigm of evaluation from the technology itself to the user. This paper proposes a mathematical-based QoE evaluation of haptic-based applications. A mathematical model that is able to quantify the QoE of the user is described. By conducting a user study in which users evaluate a haptic-based game application, we were able to test and validate the mathematical model. There are several approaches in determining the weights to be used with the mathematical model. This paper presents and compares different approaches for weight determination, namely even weight distribution, correlation-based weights, even weights-correlation combination, linear regression analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA). Our results show that PCA weight determination performs slightly better than the rest of the approaches. View full abstract»

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  • A Current Probe for Measuring the Individual Ball Current in a Ball–Grid–Array Packaged Device

    Page(s): 3323 - 3332
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A current probe was designed to measure ball currents in a Ball-Grid-Array (BGA) package via magnetic induction. This probe, which is based on a Rogowski coil structure, is manufactured in a four-layer flex circuit. Very tiny feature sizes, such as 2 mil buried micro vias and 2 mil trace widths/clearances, push the limit of the flex-circuit fabrication process technology. This design allows the current of a ball in a 1-mm pitch BGA package to be measured. It can also be migrated to package with smaller pitch if the fabrication process allows. This probe is practical for engineering applications as a result of three major advantages. It operates in a broadband from 10 to 3 GHz. The probe can be relocated to different balls and no special printed circuit board is needed. The probe shows acceptable shielding effectiveness of the unwanted fields caused by adjacent balls or sources. In conjunction with both a differential amplifier and an active oscilloscope probe, the output signal is sufficiently amplified to overcome the noise figure of the oscilloscope. This allows time domain measurements. Moreover, a frequency-domain data processing program was developed for correcting the probe's frequency response and reconstructing the time domain waveform. The probe is validated against analytical calculation, and full-wave simulation; it is characterized with the aid of circuit modeling. The probe's functionality is finally demonstrated with a field-programmable-gate-array test board. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Calibration Method for Dithered RLG POS Using a Hybrid Analytic/Kalman Filter Approach

    Page(s): 3333 - 3342
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1938 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For improving the calibration precision of ring laser gyroscope (RLG) inertial measurement unit (IMU) with antivibration system, a novel integrated calibration method using a hybrid analytic/Kalman filter approach was proposed. An optimization analytic calibration method with four-direction rotations, based on three-axis turn table, was designed to coarsely calculate all the coefficients of RLG IMU mathematical error model. For further amending the remains of analytic calibration caused by an antivibration system disturbance and gyroscope drifts, a fine calibration method based on extended Kalman filter was proposed. It regarded the velocity errors as observation using a lever arm compensation technique. The experimental results show that the proposed integrated calibration method can improve the efficiency and precision of RLG position and orientation system which had been practically applied in airborne survey/mapping system. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703