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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 3 - 4
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  • A Microfluidic Device With Concave Surfaced Micropost Array for Rare Cell Capture

    Page(s): 5 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (311 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microfluidic devices are becoming a standard method of lab analysis of many different types of samples. This letter presents a uniquely shaped micropost structure set in an arrayed fashion for sensing and cell capture purposes. After simulating the design to confirm its improved functionality, a model cell line was used to determine the capture yield and capture rate of the device. Specific capture was achieved by coating the array of microposts with antibodies that target the epithelial cell adhesion molecule, a common biomarker for many types of metastatic cancer. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Optical Microphone

    Page(s): 7 - 14
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    This paper introduces a new type of optical microphone that is characterized by structural simplicity and low cost, while retaining all the features offered by more expensive technologies such as laser interferometry. Operation of the new microphone relies on a reflective pattern that is etched on one side of the microphone's diaphragm. An image of the pattern is captured by a charge-coupled device, and pattern recognition is performed in real time to determine the diaphragm's instantaneous position. Hence, the complex task of detecting the minute variations in the diaphragm's position are performed by cheap, high speed optical electronics rather than by means of interferometry as shown in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • An Energy Efficient Active RFID Protocol to Avoid Overhearing Problem

    Page(s): 15 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we describe an energy efficient protocol for active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags complying with the standard. The energy efficiency is a key requirement for the wider acceptance of the active RFID systems that use battery constrained tags. The existing active RFID protocols try to reduce energy consumption of tags by putting them into sleep mode when the reader is not interrogating. To start interrogation, a reader sends a special signal that wakes up its nearby tags in sleep mode. After wake up, a tag remains in active mode during the whole interrogation period until it receives a sleep command from the reader. However, the existing protocols do not consider ineffective energy consumption of tags during the interrogation period. Overhearing is a state of a tag in which it wastes energy for maintaining active RX state while there is no frame destined to it. According to our analysis, the amount of energy consumed by a tag due to overhearing is several times larger than that consumed for the effective communication. To eliminate overhearing, a tag has to know the time and the duration of its effective communication intervals in advance, and it has to maintain active mode only for those intervals while keeping sleep mode in other intervals of the interrogation period. But, a tag is hard to know the effective communication intervals in advance with the existing protocols. We propose Reservation Aloha for No Overhearing (RANO) that is designed to inform a tag of its effective communication intervals to eliminate overhearing problem in active RFID communication. We implement them on our own designed active RFID hardware to check its validity and efficiency. Using the hardware, the number of tags, the collection time of the tags and the data volume of the tags for the collection were varied in the performance test. The results show that RANO protocols saved the energy about several dozen times than the standard protocol when the number of tags- increases. View full abstract»

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  • An Integrated Framework for Obstacle Mapping With See-Through Capabilities Using Laser and Wireless Channel Measurements

    Page(s): 25 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider a team of mobile robots that are tasked with building a map of the obstacles, including occluded ones, in a given environment. We propose an integrated framework for mapping with see-through capabilities using laser and wireless channel measurements, which can provide mapping capabilities beyond existing methods in the literature. Our approach leverages the laser measurements to map the visible parts of the environment (the parts that can be sensed directly by the laser scanners) using occupancy grid mapping. The parts that cannot be properly mapped by laser scanners (e.g., the occluded parts) are then identified and mapped based on wireless channel measurements. For the latter, we extend our recently-proposed wireless-based obstacle mapping framework to a probabilistic approach using Bayesian Compressive Sensing. We further consider an integrated approach based on using total variation minimization. We compare the performance of our two integrated methods, using both simulated and real data, and show the underlying tradeoffs. Finally, we propose an adaptive path planning strategy that uses the current estimate of uncertainty to collect wireless measurements that are more informative for obstacle mapping. Overall, our framework enables mapping occluded structures that cannot be mapped with laser scanners alone or a small number of wireless measurements. Our experimental robotic testbed further confirms that the proposed integrated framework can map a more complex real occluded structure that cannot be mapped with existing strategies in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • Optimized Low Complexity Sensor Node Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 39 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Localization of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) promotes many new applications. A longer life time is imperative for WSNs, this requirement constrains the energy consumption and computation power of the nodes. To locate sensors at a low cost, the received signal strength (RSS)-based localization is favored by many researchers. RSS positioning does not require any additional hardware on the sensors and does not consume extra power. A low complexity solution to RSS localization is the linear least squares (LLS) method. In this paper, we analyze and improve the performance of this technique. First, a weighted least squares (WLS) algorithm is proposed, which considerably improves the location estimation accuracy. Second, reference anchor optimization using a technique based on the minimization of the theoretical mean square error is also proposed to further improve performance of LLS and WLS algorithms. Finally, to realistically bound the performance of any unbiased RSS location estimator based on the linear model, the linear Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) is derived. It is shown via simulations that employment of the optimal reference anchor selection technique considerably improves system performance, while the WLS algorithm pushes the estimation performance closer to the linear CRB. Finally, it is also shown that the linear CRB has larger error than the exact CRB, which is the expected outcome. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber Optic pH Sensor Using Optimized Layer-by-Layer Coating Approach

    Page(s): 47 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1203 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the design and characterization of a high resolution wavelength dependent pH optical sensor fabricated using the layer-by-layer technique was undertaken. In this approach, brilliant yellow (BY) as a pH indicator and poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as a cross-linker have been deposited on an uncladded silica fiber. A number of key parameters such as the number of bilayers, the concentration of the BY solution, the shape of the fiber, as well as its core diameter have been varied with a view to optimizing the design and performance of the pH sensor. The results obtained from a series of evaluations show that the sensitivity was enhanced by reducing the concentration of the indicator solution used and by designing a U-bend configuration sensor probe with a sharply bent fiber. However, when making an overall comparison, the straight (unbent) fiber probe resulted in a more sensitive probe when compared to the use of a high radius bend. Further, using a small core diameter of the fiber allows a wide pH range to be measured and with high sensitivity. In addition, the performance was shown to be improved for measurements over a narrower range of pH, using a fiber with a larger core diameter. Considering the effect of the number of layers, work carried out has shown that probes with 5-6 bilayers presented the best performance. The sensitivity has been shown to diminish when bilayers were used and the sensing range shifts toward higher pH values. When monitored, the value of pKa (the dissociation constant) of the thin film showed the smallest change of any of the design factors considered. In summary, using a larger core diameter, employing a larger curve radius, a higher number of bilayers, a higher concentration of the indicator solution, and applying PAH as an outer layer, all cause a higher pKa value and consequently the probe sensitivity moves toward alkaline region. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Skin-Like Tactile Sensor Array for Curved Surface

    Page(s): 55 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (847 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we develop a skin-like tactile sensor array to measure the contact pressure of curved surfaces. The sensor array is laminated into a thin film 3 mm in thickness and can easily be wrapped around a pencil without damaging its skin-like structure. So far, we have achieved the array containing 8 × 16 sensor elements. Its spatial resolution is 1 element per 9 mm2 area and it can measure the pressure up to 360 kPa. The sensor-array patch contains three layers. The upper and lower layers are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin films embedded with the conductor strips formed by PDMS-based silver nanowires (AgNWs) networks. The middle layer is formed by the mixing of nickel powder with liquid PDMS for contact force measurement. Experimental tests have demonstrated that conductor strips on the upper layer can maintain their resistances ~ 23 Ω with increase when the tensile strain is up to 50%. Noted is the conductor made with carbon nanotubes can keep its conductivity unchanged for up to only 40% tensile strain. Through fatigue tests, it is observed that the measured AgNWs/PDMS conductor strip exhibits low and stable resistances. This is one of the most desired behaviors of the stretchable interconnects for signal transmission. The integrated sensor system can successfully measure the contact pressure induced by objects of different shapes. It can be applied on curved or non-planar surfaces in robots or medical devices for force detection and feedback. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel UAV-Based Ultra-Light Weight Spectrometer for Field Spectroscopy

    Page(s): 62 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1101 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel hyperspectral measurement system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the visible to near infrared (VIS/NIR) range (350-800 nm) was developed based on the Ocean Optics STS microspectrometer. The ultralight device relies on small open source electronics and weighs a ready-to-fly 216 g. The airborne spectrometer is wirelessly synchronized to a second spectrometer on the ground for simultaneous white reference collection. In this paper, the performance of the system is investigated and specific issues such as dark current correction or second order effects are addressed. Full width at half maximum was between 2.4 and 3.0 nm depending on the spectral band. The functional system was tested in flight at a 10-m altitude against a current field spectroscopy gold standard device Analytical Spectral Devices Field Spec 4 over an agricultural site. A highly significant correlation was found in reflection comparing both measurement approaches. Furthermore, the aerial measurements have a six times smaller standard deviation than the hand held measurements. Thus, the present spectrometer opens a possibility for low-cost but high-precision field spectroscopy from UAVs. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Coating Thickness and Loading Using Concentric Fringing Electric Field Sensors

    Page(s): 68 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3951 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilayer coating stack-up on an aircraft is a primary defense against corrosion, abrasion, and degradation. The correct coating thickness on an aircraft cannot only provide better protection against environmental impact during flight, but also minimize the reflected electromagnetic signature. Instrumentation to estimate the characteristics of an aircraft's coating stack-up can help to minimize or eliminate the need for coating stripping and reapplying during manufacturing and regular maintenance. This paper investigates the feasibility of using a customized 4 mm penetration depth concentric fringing electric field sensor and a dielectric spectroscopy meter to independently and simultaneously measure the functional coating layer thickness and the coating loading (percentage of silicone with iron oxide filler) on an aircraft. The results show that the sensor capacitance is more sensitive to the variation in coating loading than in coating thickness. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that the functional coating layer loading and thickness measurement algorithm has been used to successfully estimate the functional coating layer thickness and loading on an aircraft. The currently achievable measurement accuracy for the functional coating layer thickness is ~ 0.1 mm, and the coating loading is ~ 1.5%. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Voltage Sensor Using Single Fresnel Rhomb {\rm Bi}_{4}{\rm Ge}_{3}{\rm O}_{12} Crystal

    Page(s): 79 - 84
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    A novel optical voltage sensor is proposed by the use of single Fresnel rhomb bismuth germanate crystal. The optical sensing unit is only composed of one voltage sensing crystal and two prism polarizers. The distinguished feature is that the voltage sensing crystal is simultaneously used as a Fresnel rhomb quarter waveplate. An optical phase bias of π/2 is produced by two times of total internal reflection of light wave in the sensing crystal itself, thus additional quarter waveplate usually used in conventional voltage sensor can be removed. Besides the compact optical configuration, the proposed voltage sensor demonstrates larger linear measurement range and good temperature stability in experiments. The ac voltage in the range of 2000 V was measured with a nonlinear error <;0.82% and a measurement sensitivity of 2.2 mV/V, and corresponding temperature drift of the output voltage was <;0.9% for ambient temperature change in the range of (-10 ~ +50) °C. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of Reduced Power Consumption MEMS LEL Sensor Prepared by a Novel Digital Microfluid Technique

    Page(s): 85 - 90
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    A low power consumption micro electro-mechanical system catalytic combustible low explosion limit (LEL) sensor was fabricated. The microheater was characterized by a suspending microhotplate over the silicon substrate. The alumina slurry and Pd-Pt catalyst solution were precisely and repeatedly coated on the microhotplate by a novel digital microfluid technique, respectively. Furthermore, the alumina layer and the alumina/catalyst layer on the microheater showed the collinear resistance versus voltage thermal characteristic curves during the solidification, which indicated that a good match could be directly made between them. During aging, the alumina/catalyst element demonstrated a high initial signal and then fell rapidly before coming to a stable value. Through pairing the alumina reference and alumina/catalyst sensitive elements in the wheatstone bridge, the output voltage could be up to 36 mV at the 50% LEL level of CH4 at the working temperature of 400 °C and the operation voltage was 2.6 V. The power consumption and the signal sensitivity could be also down to 75 mW and up to 0.702 mV/LEL%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Prototype of a Small Low Noise Absolute Displacement Sensor

    Page(s): 91 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (666 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inertial seismic sensors typically have a velocity readout, to offer a large dynamic range in a large frequency range. However, in some precision engineering applications, it can be preferable to have access to the displacement. An example is the so-called sky-hook spring strategy used for active vibration isolation. In this paper, we present a prototype of small inertial sensor with a displacement readout. It is based on a commercial low cost geophone, which has been modified to measure the displacement with a capacitive sensor. It results in a compact sensor with a resolution which is a factor 10 better than the commercial geophone, but a limited range of amplitudes. This paper finished with an attempt to extend the bandwidth of the sensor at low frequency. View full abstract»

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  • A Miniaturized Micro-Digital Sun Sensor by Means of Low-Power Low-Noise CMOS Imager

    Page(s): 96 - 103
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    A digital sun sensor is superior to an analog sun sensor in aspects of resolution, albedo immunity, and integration. The proposed micro-digital sun sensor (μDSS) is an autonomous digital sun sensor that is implemented through a CMOS image sensor, which is named active pixel sensor (APS+). The μDSS is designed specifically for micro-satellite application that addresses for low power and high accuracy. The APS+ significantly reduces the power consumption by a profiling method and obtains low noise by a quadruple sampling method. Measurement results show that the μDSS achieves an accuracy of 0.01° with 21 mW at 10 fps, which is ten times less than the state of the art. View full abstract»

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  • An Energy Efficient Time-Domain Temperature Sensor for Low-Power On-Chip Thermal Management

    Page(s): 104 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2982 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because temperature variations significantly affect the performance and reliability of highly integrated chips, the thermal management of such chips is an important issue. In this paper, a time-domain process variation calibrated temperature sensor is proposed for on-chip thermal management. For a suitable on-chip implementation, the digitally converted temperature-dependent time signal is used to reduce the area and power consumption of the chip. The proposed temperature sensor is fabricated using a 0.13- μm CMOS technology and has an active area of 0.031 mm2. Measurement results show an energy consumption of 0.67 nJ/conversion at a 430 kHz conversion rate, with 1.2 V supply voltage. Using one-point calibration, the sensing error is found to range from -0.63°C to 1.04°C over a temperature range of 20°C to 120°C. View full abstract»

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  • Mobile Physiological Measurement Platform With Cloud and Analysis Functions Implemented via IPSO

    Page(s): 111 - 123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A physiological measurement platform is proposed for enabling users to measure physical condition regularly and to maintain good physical condition. The proposed system combines three basic physiological signal acquisition modules: an ECG module, a blood pressure module, and an oxygen saturation module. The physiological signals captured by the three physiological signal acquisition modules are sent via a data interface module to a mobile handheld device. Three communication systems are used for data transmission: RS-232 serial port wired transmission wireless, ZigBee, and Bluetooth. The captured physiological signals are presented on Android system mobile handheld devices, and the physiological data received by the mobile handheld device are sent to the cloud server via the Internet. After establishing a personal physiological database in the cloud server, the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to determine the best personal physiological data, while setting physiological data dangerous levels for preliminary diagnosis. The dangerous levels are adjusted and set according to the personal medical records and physiological data of the subjects. When the physiological data reach the designated danger levels, it gives a warning to seek timely treatment by a medical unit. Finally, the system can incorporate video equipment to enable remote diagnosis and consultation by medical units. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of the Performance of Distributed Temperature Measurements With Single-Mode Fiber Using Rayleigh Backscatter up to 1000 ^{\circ}{\rm C}

    Page(s): 124 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, inexpensive single-mode silica optical fibers were interrogated with Luna Innovations' optical backscatter reflectometer to perform distributed temperature measurements at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Measurements of the Rayleigh backscattered signal were taken continuously to determine the amount of light that is backscattered as a function of temperature and position along the length of the fiber. These data were post-processed to determine the spectral shift in the Rayleigh backscatter signature. The spectral shift data were then calibrated to a change in temperature. This paper determines an upper operational temperature limit of 650 °C for the distributed measurement technique based on Rayleigh backscatter using Corning's SMF-28e+ commercially available single-mode fiber. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Dual Open Ended Coaxial Sensor System for Calculation of Phase Using Two Magnitudes

    Page(s): 129 - 134
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    A dual open ended coaxial sensor system to determine complex permittivity was studied in detail. This paper focuses on determination of a reflection coefficient phase from two magnitudes using modified capacitance model from 300 kHz to 8 GHz. The phase information can then be used for calculation of the sample's complex permittivity. Factors such as range and limitation of the model, sample's permittivity, operating frequency, and size of sensor were investigated. Sensitivity of calculated phase with respect to small changes in measured magnitude was carried out. View full abstract»

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  • A Multichannel Chemical Sensing Method Using Single Quartz Resonator and Micro Flow Channel

    Page(s): 135 - 139
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    In this paper, the development of a multi chemical sensing method using a single quartz crystal resonator and micro flow channel has been reported. In the developed device, samples pass through two capacitors that are mounted as sensing parts in a microchannel with a time lag. Connecting the capacitors to the single quartz crystal resonator, one can obtain frequency change ΔF of the resonator as time lag signals depending on the relative permittivity of samples. The optimization of resonator diameter was also carried out in this paper. Using the proposed method, we can realize multi chemical sensing with a single resonator. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Low Cost Printable Chipless RFID Humidity Sensor

    Page(s): 140 - 149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1285 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel low-cost chipless radio frequency identification tag sensor is presented. The tag sensor provides identification data as well as monitors relative humidity (RH) of tagged objects. The tag sensor is made of passive microwave circuit that uses humidity sensitive polymer material for RH sensing. The aim of this paper is to investigate RF sensing properties of moisture absorbing polymer polyvinyl alcohol at microwave frequency. In addition, frequency shifting technique is used to encode data bits for high data capacity. The overall size of the proposed tag sensor is 15 mm × 6.8 mm and has 6 bit data capacity for ID generation and single bit for humidity sensing. Results presented here show ~ 607 MHz frequency deviation for 50% RH increase. The tag sensor has potential to be printed on flexible laminates such as plastic and paper for ultra-low cost item level tagging and ubiquitous sensing. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Intrinsic Equivalent Magnetic Noise Evaluation for Magneto (Elasto) Electric Sensors Using Modulation Techniques

    Page(s): 150 - 158
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    The equivalent magnetic noise of magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composite sensors, in the passive mode or when magnetic modulation techniques are used, has been investigated theoretically and compared with measurements. Several main noise sources and their contributions to the equivalent magnetic noise spectral density have been analyzed using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and modeled via Nyquist's noise-expression in the linear and non-linear regime. These theoretical analyzes show that the mechanical loss, related to the interfriction of composites, appears as the dominant noise source for such magnetoelectric modulation techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Particle Filter Tracking of Camouflaged Targets by Adaptive Fusion of Thermal and Visible Spectra Camera Data

    Page(s): 159 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for tracking a moving target by fusing bi-modal visual information from a deep infra-red thermal imaging camera and a conventional visible spectrum color camera. The tracking method builds on well-known methods for color-based tracking using particle filtering, but it extends these to handle fusion of color and thermal information when evaluating each particle. The key innovation is a method for continuously relearning local background models for each particle in each imaging modality, comparing these against a model of the foreground object being tracked, and thereby adaptively weighting the data fusion process in favor of whichever imaging modality is currently the most discriminating at each successive frame. The method is evaluated by testing on a variety of extremely challenging video sequences, in which people and other targets are tracked past occlusion, clutter, and distracters causing severe and sustained camouflage conditions in one or both imaging modalities. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.