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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 2 • Date Feb 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 5 of 5
  • Applications of voice processing to telecommunications

    Page(s): 199 - 228
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2656 KB)  

    The ways in which people communicate are changing rapidly. The options are many and diverse, ranging from voice calls over wireless networks, to video calls over the conventional wired network, ISDN video, FAX, e-mail, voice mail, beeper services, data services, audio teleconferencing, video teleconferencing, and so-called scribble phone service (transmission of arbitrary handwritten input). This revolution in communications is being fueled by several sources, including the availability of low-cost, low-power, computation in both DSP and RISC chips, larger and cheaper memory chips, improved algorithms for communications (e.g., modems, signaling) and signal processing, and finally the creation of world-wide standards for transmission, signal compression, and communication protocols. The broad goal of the communications revolution is to provide seamless and high-quality communications between people (or groups of people), anywhere, anytime, and at a reasonable price. Although there are many technologies that form the bases for the communications environment of the twenty-first century, one of the key technologies for making the vision a reality is voice processing. In this paper we attempt to show, by example, how voice processing has been applied to specific problems in telecommunications, and how it will grow to become an even more essential component of the communications systems of the twenty-first century View full abstract»

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  • Design methodology management

    Page(s): 231 - 250
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    Design methodology management is an emerging technology in the world of electrical computer aided design. It has spawned considerable research over the past decade, and a firm belief in many people's minds that it is the key to significant productivity enhancements in the next. How close are we to seeing this belief fulfilled? In this paper, we define the concepts that are important to design methodology management systems and explain how these systems relate to CAD frameworks. We then examine and characterize 23 notable design methodology management systems of the last 15 years in order to understand the state of the art. Finally, we describe and analyze the trends we have seen in these systems and propose where this technology is headed View full abstract»

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  • Motion and structure from feature correspondences: a review

    Page(s): 252 - 268
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    We present a review of algorithms and their performance for determining three-dimensional (3D) motion and structure of rigid objects when their corresponding features are known at different times or are viewed by different cameras. Three categories of problems are considered, depending upon whether the features are two (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) and the type of correspondence: a) 3D to 3D (i.e., locations of corresponding features in 3D space are known at two different times), b) 2D to 3D (i.e., locations of features in 3D space and their projection on the camera plane are known, and c) 2D to 2D (i.e., projections of features on the camera plane are known at two different times). Features considered include points, straight lines, curved lines, and corners. Emphasis is on problem formulation, efficient algorithms for solution, existence and uniqueness of solutions, and sensitivity of solutions to noise in the observed data. Algorithms described have been used in a variety of applications. Some of these are: a) positioning and navigating 3D objects in a 3D world, b) camera calibration, i.e., determining location and orientation of a camera by observing 3D features whose location is known, c) estimating motion and structure of moving objects relative to a camera. We mention some of the mathematical techniques borrowed from algebraic geometry, projective geometry, and homotopy theory that are required to solve these problems, list unsolved problems, and give some directions for future research View full abstract»

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  • Symbolic analysis methods and applications for analog circuits: a tutorial overview

    Page(s): 287 - 304
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    This tutorial paper gives an overview of the history and present state of the art in symbolic analysis of electronic circuits at the so-called circuit level. Symbolic analysis is defined as a technique generating a closed-form analytic expression for a circuit characteristic with the circuit's elements represented by symbols. Such analytic information complements the results from numerical simulations. The paper then describes the different application areas of symbolic analysis for the design of analog circuits. Symbolic analysis is mainly used as a means to obtain insight into a circuit's behavior, to generate analytic models for automated circuit sizing, and in applications requiring the repetitive evaluation of circuit characteristics. Next, the present capabilities and limitations of symbolic analysis, both in functionality and efficiency, are discussed. The major symbolic analysis methods are presented, and algorithmic details are provided for symbolic approximation, hierarchical decomposition, and symbolic distortion analysis. Finally, existing symbolic simulators are compared, and directions for future research are pointed out View full abstract»

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  • Constructions of particular random processes

    Page(s): 270 - 285
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    This paper reviews how to construct sets of random numbers with particular amplitude distributions and correlations among values. These constructions support both high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulation and analytic design studies. A variety of constructions is presented to free engineering models from “white or normal” limitations embodied in many current simulations. The methods support constructions of conventional stationary and normally distributed processes, nonstationary, nonnormal signal and interference waveforms, nonhomogeneous random scenes, nonhomogeneous volumetric clutter realizations, and snapshots of randomly evolving, nonhomogeneous scenes. Each case will have specified amplitude statistics, e.g., normal, log-normal, uniform, Weibull, or discrete amplitude statistics; and selected correlation, e.g., white, pink, or patchy statistics, clouds. or speckles. Sets of random numbers with correlation, nonstationarities, various tails for the amplitude distributions, and multimodal distributions can be constructed. The paper emphasizes aspects of probability theory necessary to engineering modeling View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University