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Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date winter 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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  • [Table of contents]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Editorial Board

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3 - 4
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  • Quality and Quantity [Editor's Column]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3 - 5
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  • Challenges in ITS [President's Message]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 4 - 5
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  • Papers Invited from the 12th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, Taipei, Taiwan, November 5-8, 2012 [Guest Editorial]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 6 - 7
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  • 15th IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC 2012) Papers [Guest Editorial]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 7 - 8
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  • 2013 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 9
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  • Join a Community of Innovators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 9
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  • Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks?A Novel Solution for Vehicular Communications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 10 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2814 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks (VDTNs) is a breakthrough based DTN-based solution to provide vehicular communications under challenging scenarios characterized by long delays and sporadic connections. VDTN uses a store-carry-and-forward paradigm, inspirited from Delay Tolerant Networks, which allows forward bundles to asynchronously reach the destination hop by hop over traveling vehicles equipped with short-range Wi-Fi devices. The proposed VDTN architecture assumes out-of-band signaling with control and data planes separation. VDTNs also assume datagrams aggregation under the network layer in large size packets, called bundles, following an IP over VDTN approach. This paper presents VDTN networks focusing on their layered architecture, bundle aggregation and de-aggregation mechanisms, network protocols, scheduling and dropping policies, fragmentation mechanisms, and the created tools for VDTNs performance evaluation, demonstration, and validation. View full abstract»

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  • Dealing with Packet Delay Variation in IEEE 1588 Synchronization Using a Sample-Mode Filter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 20 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we characterize the delay profile of an Ethernet cross-traffic network statically loaded with one of the ITU-T network models and a larger Ethernet inline traffic loaded with uniformlysized packets, showing how the average time interval between consecutive minimum-delayed packets increases with increased network load. We compare three existing skew-estimation algorithms and show that the best performance is achieved by solving a linear programming problem on "de-noised" delay samples. This skew-estimation method forms the basis of a new sample-mode algorithm for packet delay variation filtering. We use numerical simulations in OPNET to illustrate the performance of the sample-mode filter in the networks. We compare the performance of the proposed PDV filter with those of the existing sample minimum, mean, and maximum filters and observe that the sample-mode filtering algorithm is able to match or outperform other types of filters, at different levels of network load. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Layer Approach to Future Green Mobile Communications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 28 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1454 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article addresses design concepts for mobile radio communications particularly addressing the crucial trade-offs between system performance and energy-consumption. System performance depends on various adaptive procedures and parameters adopted at multiple OSI layers of the communication system. However, these procedures and parameters require spectrum and energy resources and contribute to the overall system and network energy-consumption and to the resulting CO2 emission. This article also therefore presents a vision on green mobile communication technology, and analyses some trade-offs among different methodologies toward energy-efficient system-design. It particularly discusses the degrees of freedom in the design of communications systems and networks using various technologies, and investigates their energy-saving options. View full abstract»

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  • Channel Estimation Schemes for IEEE 802.11p Standard

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 38 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1101 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, reliable channel estimation is critical for the system performance due to the extremely time-varying characteristic of V2V channels. In this article, we present a survey on the current channel estimation techniques for the IEEE 802.11p standard. According to deficiencies of the current schemes and considering characteristics of V2V channels, we propose a novel channel estimation scheme, which utilizes the data symbols to construct pilots as well as the correlation characteristics between channels within two adjacent symbols. Analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms currently widely-used schemes especially in high signal-to-noise ratio regime. At the end, some open issues for the future work conclude this article. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Congestion Control Approaches for the IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 50 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (850 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article surveys a collection of representative congestion control approaches for the IEEE 802.11p vehicular network. Challenges remaining in the current literature are concluded. We then propose a novel distributed multi-priority congestion control method to maximize the transmission opportunities for the highest priority traffics while keeping the collision probability at a low level. Open issues for the future work on the congestion control approach design are drawn at the end of this article. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Evaluation Methodology for Combined Performance of Warning and Braking in Crash Imminent Braking Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 62 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Crash imminent braking (CIB) systems are equipped in high-end passenger vehicles by many auto manufactures. Due to the complex nature of the CIB technology, the features and performance of various CIB systems differ significantly. To date, there are no standards to evaluate and compare the comprehensive performance of different CIB systems. This paper describes a systematic methodology for the evaluation of CIB systems which include both warning and braking features. The percentage kinetic energy reduction is a measure used in the performance evaluation. The information collected from some ongoing vehicle active safety testing projects will be used to validate the proposed methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Safety Verification of Automated Driving Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 73 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2490 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a set based approach is presented for safety verification and performance analysis of automated driving systems. As an example, reachability analysis technique is used to study the minimum required safe inter-vehicle distance for two given adaptive cruise controllers, a state feedback and a state feedback/feedforward controller designed based on mixed d H2/3 control. Not surprisingly, the results indicate that a shorter inter-vehicle distance can be achieved when a feedforward term used in the controller. In addition, we show how backward reachability analysis and invariant set theory can be used to find the Maximal Admissible Safe Set. This is defined as the set of position error, relative speeds and acceleration, which a given controller is guaranteed to control to the desired speed and inter-vehicle distance, while fulfilling vehicle physical constraints and avoiding rear-end collisions with the preceding vehicle. The calculation of the Maximal Admissible Safe Set is demonstrated for the two aforementioned controllers. Furthermore, the presented verification method is extended to account for the case of vehicle model with polytopic uncertainties and delay. The results on the reachability analysis are verified experimentally using an emergency braking scenario. View full abstract»

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  • Stationary Detection of the Pedestrian?s Intention at Intersections

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 87 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4183 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on stat ionary detect ion of the pedestrian's intention to enter the traffic lane at intersections. We use an Interacting Multiple Model Extended Kalman Filter (IMM-EKF) based tracking approach as basic method to recognize this. In addition, we propose a novel Motion Contour image based HOG-like descriptor (MCHOG) in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification that reaches the decision at an accuracy of 99 % within the initial step at the curb of smart infrastructure. MCHOG implicitly comprises the body language of gait initiation, especially the body bending and the spread of legs. As a result of a case study at laboratory conditions we present Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) performance data and an evaluation of the span of time necessary for recognition. While MCHOG in special cases indicates detection of the intention before the whole body moves, on average it allows for detection of gait initiation within 6 frames at a frame rate of 50 Hz and an accuracy of 80%. In addition to a comprehensive evaluation under laboratory conditions we demonstrate feasibility of the methods in a real world intersection scenario and we show the gain which we achieve with MCHOG compared to the IMM-EKF approach. View full abstract»

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  • Relocation Strategies and Algorithms for Free-Floating Car Sharing Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 100 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2052 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the last years so-called free-floating Car Sharing Systems became very popular. These systems in comparison to the conventional Car Sharing Systems allow short one-way trips. Today, the spatial distribution of vehicles within free-floating Car Sharing Systems is either self-organized, which means it is only dependent on the customer's demand or in a few cases the positioning is manually controlled by system operators. None of the real-life free-floating Car Sharing Systems has a clear defined relocation strategy or is even online optimized based on the current demand. Within this paper several relocation strategies are introduced and categorized. For each category known relocation algorithms are described and evaluated. Also a new integrated two-step model for optimal vehicle positioning and relocation is described in detail. This new approach consists of an offline demand clustering that allows for the prediction of demand and thus the prediction of the optimal future state of spatially available vehicles. The online module of the approach measures the differences between optimal vehicle positioning and current positioning. An optimization algorithm finds optimal relocation strategies if necessary. The main focus of this paper is on the description of the Offline Demand Module. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Limitations in Vehicle Platoon Control

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 112 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the major benefits of driving vehicles in controlled, close formations such as platoons is that of reduced air drag. However, this will set hard performance requirements on the system actuators, sensors and controllers of each vehicle. This paper analyses the effects of fundamental limitations on the longitudinal and lateral control performance of a platoon and the effects on following distance, perceived safety and fuel economy. The trade-off between minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining a safe following distance is analyzed and described. The analysis is based on fundamental properties of linear systems such as Bode's phase area relation. Design guidelines are proposed and results from vehicle testing are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Centimeter-Accuracy Smoothed Vehicle Trajectory Estimation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 121 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4997 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Next generation roadway maps and vehicle navigation systems have the objective of reliably achieving where-in-lane positioning accuracy. Various methods are under consideration both to attain the requisite roadway map accuracy via post-processing and real-time vehicle positioning accuracy and reliability. Fundamental to these methods is the problem of accurately and reliably estimating a sensor platform trajectory in a post-processing environment. For mapping, the platform trajectory provides the pose for feature sensors (e.g., camera, LIDAR, RADAR). For navigation, the platform trajectory is the ground-truth reference. This article describes a smoothing framework for estimating sensor platform trajectories using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a dualfrequency GPS pseudo-range and carrier-phase receiver. A Bayesian estimation framework is presented and transformed to a series of nonlinear least squares problems. The result of this optimization process is the platform trajectory estimate at the IMU measurement rate (200 Hz) with position accuracy at the centimeter level. One of the contributions of this research is the method developed to solve for the carrier-phase integer ambiguities. Real-world experimental results are presented to validate the proposed smoothing framework. View full abstract»

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  • Anticipated Effects of Gradual Replacement of Internal Combustion Engines with Electric Drives on Vehicle Exhaust Emissions in Prague

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 136 - 145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1041 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a broader effort to explore the possibility of optimizing the deployment of electric drives to achieve the maximum benefit for air quality, this paper explores the patterns of deployment of electric drives in Prague, Czech Republic, and the air quality benefits of various patterns of electric drive usage to air quality. One of the benefits of introducing electric and hybrid-electric vehicles into the fleet is the reduction of exhaust and to a lesser extent evaporative emissions from vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Such reductions are often based on "average" emissions rates of the regulated pollutants. In reality, electric vehicles are being introduced in a rather selective manner, with preference to low speed, short distance urban trips, due to energy storage limitations. As a coincidence, during such operating regimes, the internal combustion engines are at their worst not only in terms of efficiency and emissions of regulated pollutants, but, more importantly, in terms of the health effects caused by these emissions. Deployment of electric drive vehicles in congested urban areas, where it appears most advantageous technically and economically, is therefore expected to have relatively high benefits to human health due to reduced exhaust emissions. Current patterns of electric drive deployment therefore already appear to be close to optimal in terms of their benefits to air quality. View full abstract»

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  • Detectability Prediction for Increased Scene Awareness

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 146 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A driver assistance system realizes that the driver is distracted and that a potentially hazardous situation is emerging. In this scenario the driver needs to make an optimal decision as fast as possible. His attention needs to be directed to the location that enhances the perception of all action relevant entities. But where is that optimal spot? Pedestrian detectability is a measure of the probability that a driver perceives pedestrians in static and dynamic scenes. Leveraging this information allows a driver assistance system to direct the attention of the driver to the spot that maximizes the probability that all pedestrians are seen. In this paper we present a thorough description and a strong theoretical foundation of this concept. We use annotated datasets recorded in urban environments, and acquire the detectabilities of pedestrians via psychophysical experiments. Based on these measured detectabilities, we train a machine learning algorithm to predict detectability from an optimized set of image features. We furthermore exploit this mapping to obtain the optimal focus of attention, thus demonstrating the potential benefit of our method in a realistic driver assistance context. View full abstract»

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  • 2013 IEEE ITSS Best Ph.D. Dissertation Awards Announcement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 158 - 159
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  • Dr. Hesham Rakha [ITS People]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 160 - 162
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  • Center for Environmental Research & Technology (CE-CERT) [ITS Research Lab]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 163 - 166
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine (ITSM) publishes peer-reviewed articles that provide innovative research ideas and application results, report significant application case studies, and raise awareness of pressing research and application challenges in all areas of intelligent transportation systems. 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief


Miguel Ángel Sotelo

Department of Computer Engineering

University of Alcalá