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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date August 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Administrative Committee

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  • 2013 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Officers and Committee Chairs

    Page(s): ii
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  • Accurate quadruple-gamma-curve correction for line inversion-based mobile TFT-LCD driver ICS

    Page(s): 443 - 451
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A line inversion-based gamma-curve correction scheme is presented for use in mobile TFT-LCD driver ICs. Novel voltage-symmetric gray curve synthesis (VSGS) method using a polarity-inverting gray voltage generator and variable resistor-tap biasing (VRTB) scheme using multioutput drivers have been adopted for accurately correcting gray curves for quadruple gamma values of y1.0, y1.8, y2.2, and y2.5. A test chip fabricated in a 6 V/0.7-μm triple-well CMOS process indicated that a gray voltage error was less than +8 mV, a gray-to-gray error-voltage difference was under +3 mV, and a pin-to-pin variation of each source driver output was +5 mV1. View full abstract»

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  • Mobile camera based cross-screen interaction by object matching and tracking

    Page(s): 452 - 459
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2079 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Heterogeneous devices with large displays have become popular in people lives. While conveying public information, most of them are lack of support for human interaction. This paper proposes a cross device interaction system for users to conveniently manipulate the content on public displays through personal mobile terminals with cameras. Users acquire, insert, and act on elements of the displayed content with simple operations on mobile terminals. Cross device elements targeting is done with an efficient visual based object matching and tracking algorithm when users capture the displayed contents as a live video. Augmented information for the elements is shown on the mobile terminal screen. The content in the large display can be operated by clicking, dragging, etc., on the mobile terminal. The proposed system can be applied to interactive advertisements, multi-user games and collaborative meetings. An evaluation consisting of various experiments demonstrated the usability and efficiency of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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  • An IEEE 802.15.4g sun compliant MR-OFDM RF CMOS transceiver for smart grid and CES

    Page(s): 460 - 466
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an IEEE 802.15.4g SUN OFDM-based 920 MHz RF CMOS transceiver. It can be adopted in energy saving intelligent green homes, which are related to Smart Grid, as well as universal remote controller, building automation, which is related to CEs (Consumer Electronics), and other areas. With the proposed SUN OFDM-based RF transceiver, wireless connectivity among CE devices or among electric metering systems can considerably save electronic energy and make our lives more comfortable. The proposed RF transceiver consists of a RF front-end with an on-chip RF switch, a Tx BBA (Baseband Analog), a Rx BBA, and a PLL. The proposed RF transceiver is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and consumes 37 mA in Tx mode and 38 mA in Rx mode from a 1.8 V supply voltage. With the fabricated RF transceiver chip, two successful public demonstrations have been carried out, which show the possibility of its use in commercial products. View full abstract»

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  • Low-complexity multi-way and reconfigurable cyclic shift network of QC-LDPC decoder for Wi-Fi/WIMAX applications

    Page(s): 467 - 475
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a cyclic shift decomposition (CSD) algorithm to perform multi-way cyclic shifts with low complexity in the quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QCLDPC) decoder. The proposed algorithm decomposes the cyclic shift into a common cyclic shift and a private cyclic shift. Based on the proposed CSD algorithm, a low-complexity multi-way and reconfigurable cyclic shift network (CSN) for QC-LDPC codes is proposed. The proposed CSN is composed of the shared component, which performs the common cyclic shift, and the repeated component, which performs the private cyclic shift. Each component can support reconfigurability for given QCLDPC codes. By introducing the single-path shared component, only the complexity of the multi-path repeated component increases linearly as the number of multi-way paths increases. A complexity analysis of each component is also proposed. Based on the complexity analysis, the proposed CSN can perform multi-way and reconfigurable cyclic shifts with low complexity in the QC-LDPC decoder. The implementation results show that the areas of the proposed four-way CSN are 0.227 mm2 and 0.276 mm2 for the IEEE 802.11n/ac and IEEE 802.16e QC-LDPC codes, respectively, with 130 nm CMOS technology. The area saving per each-way is from 13.8% to 86.5% compared with previously presented works. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a practical human-powered contactless charger for cellphone

    Page(s): 476 - 482
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3149 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the electromagnetic induction effect, a practical human-powered contactless charger for cellphone (HCCC) with discrete magnet elements is developed. This system entirely powered by human could supply strong enough electricity for real need, which guarantees its pervasively important value. The performance of the system is demonstrated by successfully charging a cellphone. According to the experimental measurements, the maximum open-circuit voltage for the receiver could reach more than 16V, when the human power harvester (HPH) is driven by hand at a rotation speed of 150r/min and the gap between the receiver and transmitter is 3mm. When a resistance with 100ω is connected to the receiver, a maximum output voltage of 12V can be obtained at the same working condition. Through a converter, the output alternating voltage of the receiver can be tuned into a stable direct voltage of 6V which would be favorable for driving a cellphone or more other mobile electronic devices. With multiple advantages over existing battery approaches such as contactless energy supply, pervasive chargeability by human power, the HCCC is expected to offer an easily available wireless green energy source which would be highly useful for different mobile consumer electronics1. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless sensor network and stochastic models for household power management

    Page(s): 483 - 491
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy consumption in the residential sector represents a global average of around 30% of the total consumed in the country, so any improvement that could reduce it, would have significant effects. Some of these upgrades are the incorporation of advanced communication and control algorithms based on predictive models of household consumption. This article describes the design, development and application of a fully centralized system in which home appliances are managed by a wireless sensor network. The management algorithms are based on consumption models in combination with timing schedule, power, temperature or ambient light measurements and prioritization. On the control side, on-off management is basically presented although DALI protocol for lighting continuous regulation is now implemented too. Finally it presents future work in this field. View full abstract»

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  • Developments of the in-home display systems for residential energy monitoring

    Page(s): 492 - 498
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to efficiently reduce the amount of electricity usage in residential areas, the demand response (DR) of consumers is of importance. The in-home display (IHD) system provides energy monitoring information for the consumer DR. Considering the building structures and the existing automatic meter systems, several types of IHD systems have recently been developed based on the 2.4 GHz ZigBee radio, the power line communication technique, and the sub 1-GHz narrow-bandwidth radios. In this paper, five cases of IHD system developments and implementations are introduced and their technologies including network architectures compared1. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a PIR luminaire with zero standby power using a photovoltaic array in enough daylight

    Page(s): 499 - 506
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2737 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper further enhances the previous research into reducing the standby power consumption of a PIR luminaire. Generally, although a PIR luminaire will turn on when motion is detected and turn off when the motion is no longer present, the luminaire still consumes 1 to 3 W of power when the lamp is off and plugged in. In this design the luminaire consumes 1 mW when the light is turned off. The power consumption is lower than that in the previous design. This design is not only easy to set up but also inexpensive. A more effective circuit design is used to reduce the power consumption. Furthermore, a photovoltaic array is included in this design to reduce the consumption from the local electric power company. The standby power consumption of the luminaire is 1 mW in a darkroom and less than 1 mW in a non-darkroom. When the illumination intensity is greater than 150 lx, the consumption from the local electric power company is 0 W1. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of an intelligent energy saving system based on standby power reduction for a future zero-energy home environment

    Page(s): 507 - 514
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy saving has attracted great attention as a global issue because of recent environmental problems. As a part of energy saving efforts, governments are operating policies that encourage the distribution of energy saving systems. Also, individual households are voluntarily installing energy saving systems to reduce electric power consumption. However, due to fixed system architecture, the existing systems have a disadvantage, lacking in scalability and usability. In addition, the existing systems bring up immense inconvenience as it returns to standby mode after automatic standby power cut-off. Therefore, we propose an intelligent energy saving system to solve these problems. The proposed system controls the power based on the hierarchical relationship among home appliances, along with the relationship between user activity and home appliances for standby power reduction. We designed and implemented the proposed system, deployed it in the test bed, and measured the total power consumption to verify the system performance. The proposed system reduces total power consumption up to 10.5%. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of physical and virtual carrier sensing on the route discovery mechanism in noisy MANETs

    Page(s): 515 - 520
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In cellular consumer devices, one of the limiting factors for efficiency is that of overhead on the network layer that effects on the performance of the network. A substantial design issue is that, with cellular consumer devices, the discovery phase of the routing process, when attempting to establish a mobile ad hoc network, a high demand is placed on the network layer. Hence, a challenge for the designer is to reduce this demand, thus increasing overall device availability. Routing algorithms, and hence the performance of the networks are adversely affected by inefficient carrier sensing methods which can lead to increasing packet loss within the network environment. In this paper, the effect of physical and virtual carrier sensing on the route discovery mechanism has been identified and this paper suggests that choosing a suitable carrier sensing threshold in a high density and noisy mobile ad hoc network yields a better performance than if the default value is used1. View full abstract»

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  • Time-slot based event-driven network switch control for information sharing in multiple WLANs

    Page(s): 521 - 529
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (990 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent wireless LAN technologies and service management technologies have produced widely diverse network services with no configuration task or effort for end-users' consumer electronics (CE) devices. This environment needs a mechanism that enables end-users to access services seamlessly across separated networks. To provide such accessibility, information for services in multiple networks should be available in each terminal that is currently connected to a wireless LAN. This paper presents a proposal of a new mechanism to collect and manage service information belonging to different WLANs autonomously for end-users. Specifically, an autonomous network switch and event-driven service information sharing scheme are proposed. The functionalities which are embedded on end-user CE devices require no central control device on a WLAN or the internet and require no modification of WLAN access points. The effectiveness of the proposal is demonstrated using simulation experiments. Future work is described. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible communication-bus architecture for distributed multimedia service in cloud computing platform

    Page(s): 530 - 537
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a flexible non-uniform communication bus model for multimedia services in cloud computing environment. Key features of the proposed bus model are as follows: First, the proposed bus model consists of application and transmission bindings that hierarchically cooperate together. Second, the proposed bus model has metaspace consisting of configuration control space and functional control space. It enables real-time adaptation of the communication bus. Third, the proposed bus model carries out profile-based adaptation. Through experiments, it is confirmed that the proposed bus model offers enhanced throughput when it is compared to legacy uniform bus model. This proposed bus model can be employed as a key infrastructure for the data transmission in cloud computing platform. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient and intelligent garbage collection policy for NAND flash-based consumer electronics

    Page(s): 538 - 543
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because NAND flash memory provides the out-of-place update scheme to address its erase-before-write hardware constraint, garbage collection policy is included in the flash-aware file systems and flash translation layer (FTL) to reclaim garbage and obtain free space. In this paper, an efficient and intelligent garbage collection policy is proposed for NAND flash-based consumer electronics, which is called EIGC. EIGC introduces an efficient grey prediction model for forecasting the future I/O workload during the next garbage collection operation execution time interval and determines the number of victim blocks that should be selected for evicting according to the predicted I/O workload. In order to reduce the cleaning cost in terms of the cost for copying the valid pages to the free space of NAND flash memory and improve the degree of wear leveling, an efficient victim block selection scheme is included in the proposed EIGC policy. Trace-driven simulations show that the proposed EIGC policy is superior to the state-of-the-art policies in terms of the number of copy operations, the number of erase operations, and the degree of wear leveling. View full abstract»

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  • A compressed file system manager for flash memory based consumer electronics devices

    Page(s): 544 - 549
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    NAND flash memory is widely used as secondary storage in portable consumer electronics devices such as smartphones and digital cameras. These devices often employ a compressed file system to efficiently manage the limited storage space. However, retrieving data from a compressed file system incurs substantial delays in launching applications due to additional decompression procedures at run time. This paper presents an efficient compressed file system manager (CFSM) that reduces the application launch time in portable consumer electronics devices. CFSM uses two novel techniques. One is the selective decompression that reduces the user-perceived latency by decompressing only the actually requested data acquired by a bulk read. The other technique is cost-aware replacement that preferentially evicts data from uncompressed file systems when memory is full because they are quicker to access than compressed data. A prototype of CFSM has been implemented on the Linux operating system. Measurement studies show that CFSM reduces the application launch latency by 28% on average compared to the well-known CramFS compressed file system. View full abstract»

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  • A cross-standard metadata formatting structure

    Page(s): 550 - 555
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over the past 10 years, the amount of user-generated content has increased at phenomenal rates. However, due to a lack of common content descriptors, reliable website searches and access to this content is becoming increasingly difficult. There are third party products available that allow metadata descriptors to be created automatically but the formatting may not be compatible with the website database. With so many different standards for metadata, the whole area is becoming, effectively, de-standardized. This paper will present a cross-standard formatting platform that will allow compatibility between standards. View full abstract»

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  • Improving the storage performance of smartphones through journaling in non-volatile memory

    Page(s): 556 - 561
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    According to the recent studies on the smartphone performance analysis, the primary performance bottleneck of smartphones is storage systems rather than wireless networks or processors. The key reason behind this undesirable result is the journaling function of a lightweight database library used by various smartphone applications. This paper quantifies the overhead of journaling on the performance of smartphones and presents a novel storage architecture that eliminates this overhead by using nonvolatile memory technologies. Specifically, the proposed architecture adopts a new journaling scheme that provides high storage performance of smartphones without any loss of reliability. The prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented on the mobile platform based on Linux. Measurement studies with smartphone benchmarks show that the proposed journaling architecture improves the storage performance by 20-278% compared to original journaling. Performance studies with real applications such as internet games, video players, and web browsers also show that the performance improvement is in the range of 23-69%. View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous network repairing of a home security system using modular self-reconfigurable robots

    Page(s): 562 - 570
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditional wheeled robots cannot easily adapt to complex home environments with stairs and doorsills. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel wireless sensor network based home security system with a modular self-reconfigurable robot (Transmote) as the mobile node. The security system is composed of some static monitoring nodes, a Transmote, and a home server. Static nodes with pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor and digital camera are mounted on doorframes and windows to detect intruders and send intrusion alarm messages to the home server. Transmote with PIR sensor and camera can patrol in the house for security surveillance. Transmote also can provide network repairing service when some static router nodes fail. Transmote modules and static monitoring nodes are controlled by two different wireless sensor networks. The remote house owner can get the alarm messages through Internet. Transmote can transform into I-shaped or O-shaped configuration according to different locomotion requirements. A prototype system has been implemented and some performance tests have been done. Experimental results show that the I-shaped Transmote can pass through an 8.8 cm high and 10 cm wide channel. The velocity of the I-shaped Transmote is up to 3 m/min and the maximum velocity of O-shaped Transmote is 9.3 m/min. A 12 kB captured photo can be transmitted to the gateway through 15 hops without any packet loss. View full abstract»

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  • A novel key refreshment scheme increasing the security of conditional access systems in digital satellite pay-TV

    Page(s): 521 - 527
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new scheme that faces one of the basic deficiencies of Conditional Access Systems (CASs) employed in satellite Pay-TV systems, Master Private Key's (MPK) infinite crypto period. The novelty of the proposed scheme is that it offers the ability to the administrator of the CAS to refresh users' MPKs at desired times. Thereby, the security of the CAS is significantly increased. The refreshment of the MPKs is accomplished through Lagrange Interpolation Method (LIM). In addition, the bandwidth consumption of several contemporary CASs of the Pay-TV market is presented. Based on those measurements, the bandwidth overhead that the new scheme imposes is proven to be negligible. The efficiency of the LIM for the refreshment of the MPK is verified through its implementation on a 65 nm Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Finally, the required user's MPK refreshment time was achieved to be less than 0.15 ms. View full abstract»

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  • Lyric-based automatic music image generator for music browser using scene knowledge

    Page(s): 578 - 586
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a proposal of a music image generator for users to grasp music easily and instantaneously on consumer electronics devices such as music players and smartphones. It provides users faster and more efficient music browsing functionality using a technique that automatically generates a music image that matches lyric contents. More specifically, a scene theme such as an event or place is extracted from lyrics using text mining techniques. A suitable music image is then created dynamically to match this extracted scene theme. This image generation is achieved by synthesizing multiple image materials to express the extracted scene theme flexibly. For choosing image materials, scene knowledge that has representative scene object compositions is proposed. Using this knowledge, the image synthesizer can select appropriate materials. Finally, the performance of the proposed automatic knowledge creation method is evaluated by comparison with manually created knowledge. Based on optimal parameters calculated in the evaluation, some examples of music images for well-known music lyrics are presented. In addition, the implemented system applying the proposed generator onto a server-side and a consumer-side consumer electronics device is also described. View full abstract»

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  • A highly efficient rate control algorithm for JPEG2000 images

    Page(s): 587 - 591
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (479 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The JPEG2000 image compression standard is the newest still image compression standard for digital image consumer electronics, such as digital cameras. However, Tier-1 encoding in the JPEG2000 standard algorithm requires a significant amount of memory and code time. In this study, a highly efficient and low-complexity rate control algorithm for JPEG2000 is proposed to reduce the memory requirements and the computation time. A revisable threshold is developed and is used to select the passes of each code block during Tier-1 encoding. Only the selected passes are encoded during Tier-1 and Tier-2 encoding. This routine avoids the encoding of all code passes and improves the coding efficiency. The experimental results based on standard test images show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the Tier- 1 coding time by up to 86.36% and the working memory by up to 95.50% at a bit rate of 0.125 bpp in comparison to the post-compression rate distortion algorithm. The peak-signal-to-noise ratio across the images remains almost unchanged. The proposed algorithm can not only significantly improve the encoding efficiency but also maintain the image quality. Therefore, it can be applied to consumer imaging devices such as digital cameras, cameras in mobile phones and compact consumer cameras in the form of either embedded or processing software to reduce the memory and hardware requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient test bitstream generation with an N-way covering algorithm for configurations of high-level syntax elements in video decoders

    Page(s): 592 - 597
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1143 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Test bitstreams are more efficient in testing the video decoders if its bitstream length is shorter while its test coverage is higher. In this paper, a new method to generate efficient bitstreams for functional tests of video decoders is proposed, which also can find and fill up coverage holes. The proposed method employs an n-way covering combinatorial algorithm in finding an efficient configuration set of high-level syntax elements (SEs) and uses a constrained-random algorithm in generating test cases for low-level SEs. With the test bitstreams for MPEG-4 and H.264 decoders generated with the proposed method the experimental results showed that the proposed method is more efficient than the conventional methods. It also showed that the average SE coverage of the generated bitstream set can easily be improved by filling up coverage holes with the proposed method. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583