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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10  Part 2 • Date Oct. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2961
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure: Fluidic Modeling and Parallel Computing

    Page(s): 2962 - 2978
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2085 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasma-assisted processing and deposition of materials is an important component of modern industrial applications, with plasma reactors sharing 30%-40% of manufacturing steps in microelectronics production. An intriguing niche of flexible electronics requires a specialty plasma reactor to provide high-throughput deposition method applicable to roll-to-roll processing of flexible substrates. We create a numerical model to simulate such a reactor and to optimize the experimental unit for better efficiency. We focussed on basic processes responsible for plasma generation, recombination, and sustainment, as well as their implementation with numerical algorithms using high-performance parallel approach. Discussion of source terms and comparison of numerical data with the experimental results are provided. Estimation of typical range for plasma parameters is made using results of a Boltzmann solver and experimentally acquired atomic data. The proposed model can be used as a standalone tool for understanding the effects produced by change in physical parameters or it can generate useful data as an input to a more complicated 2-D problem of plasma convective transport. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Helium–Oxygen Radio-Frequency Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure

    Page(s): 2979 - 2986
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    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in atmospheric plasmas are believed to play an important role in plasma medicine and related areas. In this paper, we explored a fluid model to investigate the production and destruction of ROS in atmospheric radio-frequency (RF) discharges with helium-oxygen mixture as working gas; to speed up the computation, only 17 species and 48 reactions are considered in plasmas. At a given applied voltage, the variations of ROS depending on the oxygen admixture are discussed and the key reactions related to the generation of ROS are further confirmed. Through increasing the applied voltage, the evolution of ROS based on the simulation results are also given. The simulation data agree well with the experimental measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Relativistic Magnetron Priming by Loading the Resonators Through Dielectric and Metal Rods

    Page(s): 2987 - 2991
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    A 3-D particle-in-cell code MAGIC-3-D has been used to examine the output performance of a relativistic magnetron under the combined effect of electric priming by insertion of dielectric rods alternating magnetic field perturbing metal rods in the side RF resonators. The side resonators of the resonant structure have been loaded symmetrically at an angle of 120° with low-loss dielectric rods to implement the electric field priming. The three symmetrical metal rods at an angle of 120° in the side resonators have been used to perturb the RF magnetic field as well as tuning the frequency of oscillation. All the simulations have been performed for 2π-mode of operation on the well-known A6 relativistic magnetron. The formation of six electron spokes in the oscillation region confirms 2π-mode oscillation in a six vane relativistic magnetron. The results indicate single-mode operation with improved radiated output power with relatively low deviation in hot RF frequency in comparison with unloaded resonant structure. A power increase of 27% with 30% reduction in startup oscillation time is found in three symmetrical dielectric rods alternating three metal rods in side resonators in comparison with unloaded resonant structure. View full abstract»

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  • Investigating the Impact of Microwave Breakdown on the Responses of High-Power Microwave Metamaterials

    Page(s): 2992 - 3000
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    We investigate the effect of microwave-induced breakdown on the frequency responses of a class of metamaterials composed of planar sub-wavelength periodic structures. When breakdown occurs in such a structure, its frequency response changes based on the nature of the plasma created within its unit cell. We examine how the frequency responses of such periodic structures change as a result of creation of microwave-induced discharges within their unit cells. To do this, we examine single-layer metasurfaces composed of miniature LC resonators arranged in a 2-D periodic lattice. These metasurfaces are engineered to be opaque at microwave frequencies when operated at low power levels but can be made transparent if a localized discharge is created within the LC resonators. By measuring their transmission and reflection coefficients under high-power excitation in different conditions, the impact of breakdown on the frequency responses of these devices is determined. Several prototypes of such structures are examined both theoretically and experimentally. It is demonstrated that when breakdown occurs in air and at atmospheric pressure levels, the responses of such periodic structures can be predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Additionally, when the unit cell of the metasurface is composed of two different resonators, breakdown is always observed to occur in both resonators despite their different topologies and local field enhancement factors. In such structures, the discharge in one resonator appears to be mediated by the one in the other. View full abstract»

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  • Stabilization of the Frequency of Relativistic S-Band Magnetron With Radial Output

    Page(s): 3001 - 3004
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    The results of experimental research on the stabilization and tuning of the frequency of a relativistic S-band six-resonator magnetron powered by a linear induction accelerator ( U ≈ 300 κB, I ≈ 2.5 kA, and τ ≈ 150 ns) are presented. The frequency of the microwaves was stabilized using a partial reflection of the generated microwave power P ≈ 300 MW from the output of the magnetron and a proper adjustment of the phase of the reflected microwaves. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Method for Analysis of Gyrodevices With Slotted Cavities

    Page(s): 3005 - 3011
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    Efficient universal method for numerical analysis of slotted cavities used in different gyrodevices is proposed. It can be useful both for incorporation in different computer codes to simulate gyrodevice operation and for detailed investigations of different aspects concerning their basic physics. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon Ion Production Using a High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Glow Plasma

    Page(s): 3012 - 3020
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    The ionization rate of sputtered carbon species in magnetron sputtering glow plasmas is low because of a low sputtering yield, a high ionization energy and a low reaction rate between the carbon and electron in the plasma. In this paper, efficient ionization of sputtered carbon species is realized in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) glow plasma. The arrangement of the permanent magnet placed at the back of the target can recover the above issues, which enables a power consumption as high as over 100 kW with a pulse duration as short as 5.5 μs at a source voltage as high as 2200 V. The magnet arrangement affects the production zone of the HiPIMS glow plasma on the target; the plasma moves outward to the radial direction of the target with an increased number of the inner magnets. When the plasma has a larger diameter on the target, a glow easily transits to an arc discharge even at a lower voltage compared with the case of the small-diameter plasma production, because the distance between the plasma and the grounded plate becomes short. Both the highest target voltage without an arc transition and the highest glow current are obtained at n=1, the least number of the inner magnet. In this case, a source voltage of 2200 V brings into the highest instantaneous power of about 144 kW. It is confirmed that higher the source voltage, higher the intensity of the optical emission spectrometry spectrum of carbon ions is. The high power consumption contributes to the high-density argon plasma production. Hence, the least number of the inner magnet results in a higher acceleration energy to bombard the target to efficiently sputter carbon species and a high ion flux bombarding to the target. The longer pulse duration such as 30 μs results in an arc transition at the source voltage as low as 1200 V. Thus, the highest emission intensity of the carbon optical emission obtained for n=1 at 2200 V with 5.5- μs pulse duration. It is observed tha- the intensities of the optical emission from argon and carbon ions are proportional to the power consumed in the plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma–Catalytic Ceramic Membrane Reactor for Volatile Organic Compound Control

    Page(s): 3021 - 3029
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    Decomposition of a volatile organic compound (ethylene) was carried out using nonthermal plasma created in a multihole porous ceramic membrane. The ceramic membrane employed as a low pressure drop catalyst support was loaded with manganese oxide capable of removing unreacted ozone. AC-driven discharge plasma was created inside the porous ceramic membrane to produce radicals, ozone, ions, and excited molecules available for the decomposition of ethylene. As the voltage applied to the plasma reactor was increased, the electrical discharge plasma gradually developed in the radial direction, and uniform plasma was produced in the entire ceramic membrane. The effects of specific energy input, initial ethylene concentration, and manganese oxide loading on the decomposition efficiency and the formation of byproducts were examined. It was found that the use of the manganese oxide-loaded ceramic membrane efficiently removed unreacted ozone while keeping the ethylene decomposition efficiency as high as the bare ceramic membrane case achieved. In addition, partially oxidized products such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formic acid greatly decreased by manganese loading. View full abstract»

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  • On the Potential of Information Theoretic Indicators for the Detection of Image Vibrations and for Image Registration on JET

    Page(s): 3030 - 3042
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    In Tokamaks, the use of cameras as diagnostics has increased remarkably in the last years. One of the main technical difficulties, in interpreting the data of camera-based diagnostics, is the presence of movements and vibrations of the field of view, consequence of various plasma phenomena, and modes of operation. Typically, these movements results in rigid transformations of the frames. In this paper, various information theoretic indicators (correlations, entropies, and mutual information) are described and their potential to detect the vibrations and to register images is investigated. The indicators are applied to a representative set of videos collected by Joint European Torus wide-angle infrared camera. For movement detection, the Tsallis entropy is the indicator with the best performance, providing a success rates in excess of 86% and an almost equal number of false and missed detections. Its application to image registration looks also very promising. View full abstract»

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  • 2-D Numerical Modeling of Gas Temperature in Large-Volume Sr Laser Excited in Nanosecond Pulsed Longitudinal {\rm He{-}SrBr}_{2} Discharge

    Page(s): 3043 - 3047
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    An active volume scaling in bore and length of a Sr atom laser excited in a nanosecond pulse longitudinal He-SrBr2 discharge is carried out. Considering axial symmetry and uniform power input, 2-D model (r, z) is developed by numerical methods for determination of gas temperature in nanosecond pulsed longitudinal He-Ne-SrBr2 discharge to find out the optimal temperature regime for achieving of a maximal multiline average output power. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Laser Plasmas Dynamics Through Real and Virtual Langmuir Probes

    Page(s): 3048 - 3057
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    A novel technique for laser produced plasmas (LPPs) investigation is proposed. It combines high time resolved measurements using a compact Langmuir probe (LP) with simulated data obtained with a numerical model designated as hybrid laser ablation simulations (HYBLAS). The code simulates charged particle collection with what we will refer to as a virtual LP. With the use of an appropriate experimental setup and with a MATLAB software, which analyzes the experimental I-V curves, LPPs can be investigated properly even if the probe is placed very close to the target surface. The method permits to study the plume expansion with a high temporal resolution and to correctly estimate the self-generated Coulomb electric field inside the plume. It permits to detect the inner structure of the first upcoming expanding plasma. HYBLAS is able to describe the plume expansion at relatively low power densities if the initial conditions are set properly. A direct comparison of the theoretical data with the experimental ones realized on different metal targets shows that this method is able to predict properly the overall plasma expansion in the nanosecond laser pulse duration regime. The virtual probe method was moreover tested by comparing the numerical results with the numerical code called MULTI. View full abstract»

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  • Crowbar Scheme Based on Plasma Motion for Pulsed Power Applications

    Page(s): 3058 - 3062
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    A new crowbar scheme has been devised and implemented for fast and slow capacitor banks of time period 27 and 330 μs, respectively. In this scheme, a plasma motion-based rail spark gap has been modified to incorporate another crowbar electrode at the end of rail electrodes. The discharge plasma generated and accelerated by self-generated magnetic field in modified main rail gap switch is used to close the additional crowbar switch at a predefined time. The feasibility of this scheme has been demonstrated by diverting the main bank current to crowbar resistor at different times, using different effective electrode lengths. The average velocity of moving plasma has been calculated using the delay in the start of crowbar current from load current along with effective electrode length. The measured plasma velocity for slow bank has been found to be in close agreement with theoretical estimation. View full abstract»

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  • Lifetime Improvement of Metallized Film Capacitors by Inner Pressure Strengthening

    Page(s): 3063 - 3068
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    Metallized polypropylene film capacitors (MPPFCs) are widely used in pulse power systems for their characteristics of high reliabilities, high energy densities, and excellent pulse power handling capabilities. The teardown showed that the capacitance loss decreased gradually from the outer layers to the inner layers in a cylindrical MPPFC winding. This paper concentrates on the inner pressure in the MPPFC winding. First, the effects of the inner pressure on the self-healing and the lifetime are investigated. The lifetime can be extended by the inner pressure strengthening. Second, an inner pressure calculation formula is presented. The effects of the heat treatment and wrapped film on the pressure are considered. In addition, the heat treatment and wrapped films are chosen to strengthen the pressure. Finally, the experiments are designed to validate the effect of the lifetime improvement by the methods of the inner pressure strengthening. Results show that the lifetime can be extended by 30% with rational heat treatment and by 38% with rational design of the wrapped film. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Study of Water Electrodes Versus Metal Electrodes for Excitation of Nanosecond-Pulse Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Open Air

    Page(s): 3069 - 3078
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    Atmospheric pressure low-temperature plasmas produced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) provide a promising approach for civilian application of pulsed power technology. In this paper, repetitive nanosecond pulses were generated using a magnetic compression solid-state pulsed power generator, and the rise time and pulse duration of the nanosecond pulse are ~30 and 70 ns, respectively. The DBD in open air is created using two kinds of electrodes, i.e., water and metal electrodes. The electrical, luminous, and optical characteristics of the DBDs under these two electrodes are studied and compared. The experimental results show that no filaments are observed and the discharge is homogeneous when water electrodes are used. The DBD still behaves in a filamentary mode when the discharge gap is extended to 4 cm in the case of metal electrodes. The results are validated by fast images taken by an intensified charge-coupled device camera. In addition, some discussion about the experimental results is presented. Improvement of discharge uniformity is due to the effect of resistive stabilization using water electrodes. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Plasma Actuator Placement on the Airfoil Efficiency at Poststall Angles of Attack

    Page(s): 3079 - 3085
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    One of the new techniques in active flow control is the single-dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator, which postpones the separation with external momentum injection to the boundary layer flow. In this paper, the effect of the presence of a plasma actuator on the passing flow is investigated both numerically and experimentally at a poststall angle of attack NLF0414 airfoil. These investigations are performed for a 45-cm cord NLF0414 airfoil with an incompressible 25-m/s velocity airflow, which provides a turbulent flow. Both numerical and experimental studies are done under the same conditions for two different cases: 1) no plasma actuator is located on the airfoil and 2) a plasma actuator is located on the top surface of the airfoil. Simulating the flow over the airfoil with the presence of a plasma actuator at 9.6 mm from the leading edge of the airfoil showed that the numerical distribution of the body force induced by the plasma actuator (computed using the model presented by Suzen ) is in an appropriate correlation with the experimental results. It has been also shown that the presence of the plasma actuator on the airfoil could delay the separation and subsequently increase the airfoil's efficiency. Initially, the experimental and numerical results were compared and the written code, for simulation of the body force produced by the plasma actuator was verified. Then, the effect of the plasma actuator's location on the separation's delay at different angles of attack was numerically studied. In this case, the place of the plasma actuator on the airfoil was changed and its effect on postponement of the separation point was investigated. The results show that when the actuator is placed exactly at the leading edge of the airfoil, it has the greatest influence on postponing the separation. In addition, at an angle of attack of 18 °, it transfers the separation point from 16 to 90 mm. In addition, it results in an increase of ~ 100% in- the efficiency (the ratio of lift to drag coefficient) of the airfoil at this angle of attack. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on high power generation

    Page(s): 3086
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  • Special issue on pulsed power science and technology

    Page(s): 3087
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  • Special issue on images in plasma science

    Page(s): 3088
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  • Special Issue on Plasma Propulsion 2014

    Page(s): 3089
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  • Special issue on Z pinch plasmas

    Page(s): 3090
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  • Special issue on basics and applications of plasma technology

    Page(s): 3091 - 3092
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
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