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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Multiaxis Contour Control—the State of the Art

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1997 - 2010
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1921 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Contour control is an important task for many motion control applications. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art control methods in academic research for contour tracking, including individual axis tracking control, cross coupled control and its variants, and other contour control methods, such as neural networks and velocity field control. Different methods for contour error estimation are also reviewed. Areas for future multiaxis contour control research are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Control of Positioning Systems With Hysteresis Based on Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2011 - 2023
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (971 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers a control strategy for systems affected by time-varying hysteretic phenomena, such as those observed in magnetic shape memory alloys subject to temperature variations. The proposed controller is based on a scheme that combines feedforward cancellation of the hysteresis using a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii inverse model with a closed-loop control law designed to address the cancellation errors. Both the inverse hysteresis model and the closed-loop law feature adjustable parameters that are adapted online by means of learning laws based on Lyapunov design tools. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed by experiments on a prototypical micrometric positioning system containing a bar of MSMA as main actuating element. View full abstract»

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  • Lattice-Based n-Point Time-Sequential Sampling and Two-Stage Process Control for Maintaining Tone Consistency of Xerographic Processes

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2024 - 2037
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes: 1) a lattice based time-sequential sampling approach that requires the printing and measuring of the smallest number of tonal samples to characterize the high-dimensional tone reproduction curve (TRC) at each print cycle, and 2) based on this characterization, the design of a two-stage control strategy to maintain tone consistency of a xerographic printing process. The printer's TRC maps the desired tones to the actual printed tones and it is high dimensional due to the large number of desired tones. To avoid using many sensors, the measurement of the TRC is achieved by sampling it time-sequentially and by reconstructing the TRC from the samples via a Kalman filter. In time-sequential sampling, only a few distinct n tones are printed and measured at each print cycle. Using a lattice-theoretic framework, an optimal time-sequential sampling sequence with n = 1 is designed. This is then extended to the case of to enable the tradeoff between sampling time and sampling resources. With the reconstructed time-varying TRC, a two-stage control strategy uses both the physical xerographic and the image processing processes to compensate for the TRC variations from the desired TRC. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed TRC stabilization system is effective for practical implementation. By stabilizing all the cyan, magenta and yellow primaries of the color xerographic print system, color consistency can be maintained. Furthermore, the proposed time-sequential sampling approach with n = 1 exceeds the capability of conventional three-fixed-point sampling (light, middle, and dark tones) approach while requiring three times fewer samples. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the Biological Nanopore Instrument for Biomolecular State Estimation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2038 - 2051
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (894 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The nanopore is a powerful tool for probing biomolecular interactions at the single-molecule level, and shows great promise commercially as a next-generation deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing technology. Coupling active voltage control with the nanopore has expanded its capabilities, for example, by allowing precise manipulation of DNA-enzyme complexes at millisecond timescales. However, any change in voltage excites capacitance in the system and results in masking the molecule's contribution to the measured current. To improve active control capabilities, a method is needed for continuous monitoring of the molecule's contribution to the current during voltage-varying experiments. The method must be able to separate the capacitive effects from the channel conductance, which is the parameter that can be used to infer the state of the molecule in the pore. The contributions of this paper are: 1) to develop a dynamic model of the nanopore instrument which includes capacitance and conductance parameters and 2) to develop model-based algorithms for estimating the conductance parameter during voltage varying experiments. First, grey- and black-box state-space models are estimated and compared using nanopore experimental data and system identification tools. Next, a validated grey-box model is used to derive two methods for estimating the channel conductance under voltage-varying conditions: one based on least-squares, and one based on the extended Kalman filter. In simulations and experiments, the Kalman filter outperforms the simpler least-squares method. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Causality Detection via the Transfer Entropy Approach

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2052 - 2066
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The detection of direct causality, as opposed to indirect causality, is an important and challenging problem in root cause and hazard propagation analysis. Several methods provide effective solutions to this problem when linear relationships between variables are involved. For nonlinear relationships, currently only overall causality analysis can be conducted, but direct causality cannot be identified for such processes. In this paper, we describe a direct causality detection approach suitable for both linear and nonlinear connections. Based on an extension of the transfer entropy approach, a direct transfer entropy (DTE) concept is proposed to detect whether there is a direct information flow pathway from one variable to another. Especially, a differential direct transfer entropy concept is defined for continuous random variables, and a normalization method for the differential direct transfer entropy is presented to determine the connectivity strength of direct causality. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by several examples, including one experimental case study and one industrial case study. View full abstract»

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  • Eliminating Concurrency Bugs in Multithreaded Software: A New Approach Based on Discrete-Event Control

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2067 - 2082
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1076 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computer hardware is moving from uniprocessor to multicore architectures. One problem arising in this evolution is that only parallel software can exploit the full performance potential of multicore architectures, and parallel software is far harder to write than conventional serial software. One important class of failures arising in parallel software is circular-wait deadlock in multithreaded programs. In our ongoing Gadara project, we use a special class of Petri nets, called Gadara nets, to systematically model multithreaded programs with lock allocation and release operations. In this paper, we propose an efficient optimal control synthesis methodology for ordinary Gadara nets that exploits the structural properties of Gadara nets via siphon analysis. Optimality in this context refers to the elimination of deadlocks in the program with minimally restrictive control logic. We formally establish a set of important properties of the proposed control synthesis methodology, and show that our algorithms never synthesize redundant control logic. We conduct experiments to evaluate the efficiency and scalability of the proposed methodology, and discuss the application of our results to real-world concurrent software. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of Auto-Regressive Exogenous Hammerstein Models Based on Support Vector Machine Regression

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2083 - 2090
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper extends the algorithms used to fit standard support vector machines (SVMs) to the identification of auto-regressive exogenous (ARX) input Hammerstein models consisting of a SVM, which models the static nonlinearity, followed by an ARX representation of the linear element. The model parameters can be estimated by minimizing an ε-insensitive loss function, which can be either linear or quadratic. In addition, the value of the uncertainty level, ε, can be specified by the user, which gives control over the sparseness of the solution. The effects of these choices are demonstrated using both simulated and experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Power Smoothing Energy Management and Its Application to a Series Hybrid Powertrain

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2091 - 2103
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy management strategies in hybrid electric vehicles determine how much energy is produced/stored/used in each powertrain component. We propose an approach for energy management applied to a series hybrid electric vehicle that aims at improving the powertrain efficiency rather than the total fuel consumption. Since in the series configuration the engine is mechanically decoupled from the traction wheels, for a given power request the steady-state engine operating point is chosen to maximize the efficiency. A control algorithm regulates the transitions between different operating points by using the battery to smoothen the engine transients, thereby improving efficiency. Because of the constrained nature of the transient-smoothing problem, we implement the control algorithm by model predictive control. The control strategy feedback law is synthesized and integrated with the powertrain control software in the engine control unit. Simulations of the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and US06 cycles using a complete vehicle system model and experimental tests of the UDDS cycle show improved fuel economy with respect to baseline strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Lossless Convexification of Nonconvex Control Bound and Pointing Constraints of the Soft Landing Optimal Control Problem

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2104 - 2113
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planetary soft landing is one of the benchmark problems of optimal control theory and is gaining renewed interest due to the increased focus on the exploration of planets in the solar system, such as Mars. The soft landing problem with all relevant constraints can be posed as a finite-horizon optimal control problem with state and control constraints. The real-time generation of fuel-optimal paths to a prescribed location on a planet's surface is a challenging problem due to the constraints on the fuel, the control inputs, and the states. The main difficulty in solving this constrained problem is the existence of nonconvex constraints on the control input, which are due to a nonzero lower bound on the control input magnitude and a nonconvex constraint on its direction. This paper introduces a convexification of the control constraints that is proven to be lossless; i.e., an optimal solution of the soft landing problem can be obtained via solution of the proposed convex relaxation of the problem. The lossless convexification enables the use of interior point methods of convex optimization to obtain optimal solutions of the original nonconvex optimal control problem. View full abstract»

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  • Regularized Nonlinear Moving-Horizon Observer With Robustness to Delayed and Lost Data

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2114 - 2128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Moving-horizon estimation provides a general method for state estimation with strong theoretical convergence properties under the critical assumption that global solutions are found to the associated nonlinear programming problem at each sampling instant. A particular benefit of the approach is the use of a moving window of data that is used to update the estimate at each sampling instant. This provides robustness to temporary data deficiencies such as lack of excitation and measurement noise, and the inherent robustness can be further enhanced by introducing regularization mechanisms. In this paper, we study moving-horizon estimation in cases when output measurements are lost or delayed, which is a common situation when digitally coded data are received over low-quality communication channels or random access networks. Modifications to a basic moving-horizon state estimation algorithm and conditions for exponential convergence of the estimation errors are given, and the method is illustrated by using a simulation example and experimental data from an offshore oil drilling operation. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Detection in Nonlinear Stable Systems Over Lossy Networks

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2129 - 2142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of fault detection (FD) in nonlinear stable systems, which are monitored via communications networks. An FD based on the system data provided by the communications network is called networked fault detection (NFD) or over network FD in the literature. A residual signal is generated, which gives a satisfactory estimation of the fault. A sufficient condition is derived, which minimizes the estimation error in the presence of packet drops, quantization error, and unwanted exogenous inputs such as disturbance and noise. A linear matrix inequality is obtained for the design of the FD filter parameters. In order to produce appropriate fault alarms, two widely used residual signal evaluation methodologies, based on the signals' peak and average values, are presented and compared together. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed NFD technique is extensively assessed by using an experimental testbed that was built for performance evaluation of such systems with the use of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology. In particular, this paper describes the issue of floating point calculus when connecting the WSNs to the engineering design softwares, such as MATLAB, and a possible solution is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Cylinder Pressure-Based Combustion Controls for Advanced Diesel Combustion With Multiple-Pulse Fuel Injection

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2143 - 2155
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For current diesel engines, multiple fuel injection mechanisms enabled by high rail-pressure systems is a key lever that can help to achieve further reduction in engine-out emissions and improvements in performance. In the case of multiple fuel injections, timing and fuel pulse-width for each pulse (or, equivalently, fuel amount) need to be optimized and maintained for low emissions, fuel economy, noise, and exhaust thermal management over different operating ranges. This paper presents a research study on the application of pressure-based controls for management of the multiple-pulse fuel injection, particularly main and post injections, to maintain a robust combustion behavior against disturbances and variations in the field. Several control features for simultaneous management of main and post injections are proposed and experimentally validated on a 6.6 L V8 diesel engine in an engine dynamometer, both at steady-state and during federal test procedure transients. View full abstract»

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  • Toward Movement Restoration of Knee Joint Using Robust Control of Powered Orthosis

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2156 - 2168
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Powered orthoses are external mechanical devices used to stabilize human limbs, to restore or to reinforce lost or weak functions of people with reduced mobility. The embodied actuators produce the necessary joint torques to compensate gravity and passive effort as well as to generate the intended human movements. Nonlinearities due to human orthosis coupling, as well as modeling errors, parameter uncertainties, and external disturbances, necessitate the use of a robust closed-loop controller in order to guarantee precise movement generation. This paper aims to present a new prototype of an actuated knee joint orthosis using a robust controller. This orthosis is designed to restore or to assist knee-joint movements of dependent people. Dynamic modeling of the lower limb/orthosis is presented, and its parameters are estimated using different techniques. Control strategies based on second-order sliding mode are applied, which show satisfactory performance compared to classical controllers in terms of tracking errors and robustness with respect to parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. Real-time experiments are conducted on healthy subjects to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Likelihood-Based Control of Engine Knock

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2169 - 2180
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (814 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Engine knock is an undesirable phenomenon, which requires feedback control in order to maximize engine efficiency and avoid damage to the engine. In this paper, an analysis of experimental data is used to provide further evidence that knock behaves as a cyclically uncorrelated random process. It is argued that all knock controllers are therefore ultimately stochastic in nature and that the knock control problem is best undertaken within a stochastic framework. The properties of knock events are discussed and, based on these properties, a new likelihood-based stochastic knock controller is presented. The new controller achieves a significantly improved regulatory response relative to conventional strategies, while also maintaining a rapid transient response. It is therefore possible to operate closer to the knock limit without increasing the risk of engine damage. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Model Predictive Control for the Stabilization of Wheeled Mobile Robots Subject to Wheel Slippage

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2181 - 2193
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies the problem of traction control, i.e., how to stabilize a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) subject to wheel slippage to a desired configuration. The WMR is equipped with a rechargeable battery pack which powers electric drives on each wheel. The drives propel the WMR in one mode of operation or recharge the battery pack (recover energy) in a second mode. These modes of operation are controlled, whereas wheel slippage, e.g., due to ice, is an autonomous mode change. The WMR can be thus modeled as a hybrid system with both controlled and autonomous switches. Model predictive control (MPC) for such systems, although robust, typically results in numerical methods of combinatorial complexity. We show that recently developed embedding techniques can be used to formulate numerical algorithms for the hybrid MPC problem that have the same complexity as MPC for smooth systems. We also discuss the numerical techniques that lead to efficient and robust MPC algorithms in detail. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Control Strategy for the Autonomous Transition Flight of a Fixed-Wing Aircraft

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2194 - 2211
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops a hybrid control strategy that provides autonomous transition between hovered and leveled flights to a model-scale fixed-wing aircraft. The aircraft's closed-loop dynamics are described by means of a hybrid automaton with the hover, transition, level, and recovery operating modes, each one corresponding to a different region of the flight envelope. Linear parameter varying control techniques are employed in hover and level, providing robust local stabilization, and a nonlinear locally input-to-state stable controller provides practical reference tracking to the transition operating mode. These controllers, together with an appropriate choice of reference maneuvers, ensure that a transition from hovered flight to level flight, or vice versa, is achieved. Whenever the aircraft state reaches unexpected values, the recovery controller is triggered in order to drive the aircraft toward stable hovered flight, providing a chance to retry the transition maneuver. The controllers' performance and robustness is assessed within a realistic simulation environment in the presence of sensor noise. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Analysis of Generalized Extended State Observer in Tackling Sinusoidal Disturbances

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2212 - 2223
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, performance analysis of generalized extended state observer (ESO) in handling fast-varying sinusoidal disturbances is presented. It is shown that the higher order ESO offers improvement in the tracking of fast-varying sinusoidal disturbances, if the ESO bandwidth is chosen significantly larger than the frequency of the disturbance and ensuring that it is sufficiently smaller than unmodeled high frequency dynamics. The frequency and time-domain analysis results are presented, and the findings are verified through numerical simulations and experimentation on Quanser's motion control module. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Computation Particle Filters on GPU Architectures for Real-Time Control Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2224 - 2238
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1575 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the design, analysis, and real-time implementation of a distributed computation particle filter on a graphic processing unit (GPU) architecture that is especially suited for fast real-time control applications. The proposed filter architecture is composed of a number of local subfilters that can share limited information among each other via an arbitrarily chosen abstract connected communication topology. We develop a detailed implementation procedure for GPU architectures focusing on distributed resampling as a crucial step in our approach, and describe alternative methods in the literature. We analyze the role of the most important parameters such as the number of exchanged particles and the effect of the particle exchange topology. The significant speedup and increase in performance obtained with our framework with respect to both available GPU solutions and standard sequential CPU methods enable particle filter implementations in fast real-time feedback control systems. This is illustrated via experimental and simulation results using a real-time visual servoing problem of a robotic arm capable of running in closed loop with an update rate of 100 Hz, while performing particle filter calculations that involve over one million particles. View full abstract»

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  • Observer-Based Estimation of Air-Fractions for a Diesel Engine Coupled With Aftertreatment Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2239 - 2250
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a control-oriented air-fraction dynamic model for a complete diesel engine and aftertreatment system, as well as an observer to estimate the air-fractions in the integrated diesel engine and aftertreatment system. To reduce engine-out emissions and further improve engine efficiency, advanced combustion modes including low temperature combustion, premixed charge compression ignition, and homogenous charge compression ignition, are under intensive investigations. With the popular configuration of dual-loop exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems including a high-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation and a low-pressure loop EGR (LP-EGR), alternative combustion modes can be potentially accomplished. In addition, aftertreatment systems including diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), diesel particulate filters (DPFs), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, are becoming necessary to satisfy stringent emission standards. With the increasing complexity of modern diesel engines and aftertreatment systems, air-path loop control for the diesel engine systems becomes further challenging partially because LP-EGR couples the aftertreatment systems with the diesel engine air-path system. Most of the current air-fraction dynamic models and observers only consider the air-fractions through the diesel engines and air-fraction dynamics through aftertreatment systems are ignored, which, however, will introduce significant modeling errors in the situations when active DPF regenerations and post-fuel injections are implemented. The purpose of this paper is to develop a control-oriented air-fraction dynamic model for a complete diesel engine and aftertreatment system. Based on the developed model, a Luenberger-like observer is proposed and analyzed using a Lyapunov method as well as the physical meaning of system parameters. Experimental results show that the developed air-fraction model is highly accurate and the designed observer is able to make the estimate- air fractions converge to the corresponding true values quickly in both steady-state and transient operations. View full abstract»

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  • Attitude Stabilization of Spacecrafts Under Actuator Saturation and Partial Loss of Control Effectiveness

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2251 - 2263
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A practical solution is presented to the problem of fault tolerant attitude stabilization for a rigid spacecraft by using feedback from attitude orientation only. The attitude system, represented by modified Rodriguez parameters, is considered in the presence of external disturbances, uncertain inertia parameters, and actuator saturation. A low-cost control scheme is developed to compensate for the partial loss of actuator effectiveness fault. The derived controller not only has the capability to protect the control effort from actuator saturation but also guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Another feature of the approach is that the implementation of the controller does not require any rate sensor to measure angular velocity. An example is included to verify those highly desirable features in comparison with the conventional velocity-free control strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Control of a Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Turbine Using Radial-Basis Function Neural Network

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2264 - 2272
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to be economically competitive, various control systems are used in large scale wind turbines. These systems enable the wind turbine to work efficiently and produce the maximum power output at varying wind speed. In this paper, an adaptive control based on radial-basis-function neural network (NN) is proposed for different operation modes of variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbines including torque control at speeds lower than rated wind speeds, pitch control at higher wind speeds and smooth transition between these two modes The adaptive NN control approximates the nonlinear dynamics of the wind turbine based on input/output measurements and ensures smooth tracking of the optimal tip-speed-ratio at different wind speeds. The robust NN weight updating rules are obtained using Lyapunov stability analysis. The proposed control algorithm is first tested with a simplified mathematical model of a wind turbine, and then the validity of results is verified by simulation studies on a 5 MW wind turbine simulator. View full abstract»

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  • On-Board Calibration of Spark Timing by Extremum Seeking for Flex-Fuel Engines

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2273 - 2279
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1585 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An extremum-seeking controller is developed to cope with the calibration complexity for modern internal combustion engines capable of operating with different blends of ethanol and gasoline. The optimization scheme adapts the spark timing such that the fuel efficiency, estimated from in-cylinder pressure data, is maximized on-board a vehicle when driving with small load variations. Experiments, performed in a four-cylinder 2 L engine, demonstrate that the developed controller successfully manages to operate the engine close to the maximum fuel efficiency for different fuel blends, even under mild transient load conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Provably Safe Conflict Resolution With Bounded Turn Rate for Air Traffic Control

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2280 - 2289
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief presents a decoupled conflict resolution procedure (CRP) for en route air traffic control. The key concept is to split the main routes into multiple paths, which results in larger spacing between aircraft for enabling conflict-free intersections. These paths are then merged back into the original route to avoid additional conflicts in the region beyond the local space needed for the CRP. The main contribution of this brief is the development of CRPs that bound the heading change (turn) rate to account for limitations arising from aircraft turn dynamics. The proposed decoupled CRPs satisfy conditions for guaranteed safety (i.e., are provably safe) and do not lead to flow-capacity loss in either of the intersecting routes. Moreover, the impact of including the bounded turn-rate limitation is studied, and issues in the applicability of the proposed CRP are illustrated. View full abstract»

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Editor-in-Chief
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