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Power Electronics, IET

Issue 8 • Date September 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Space vector-based three-level discontinuous pulse-width modulation algorithm

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1475 - 1482
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1343 KB)  

    Discontinuous pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques result in reduced power loss in voltage source inverters. This study presents the space vector approach to the three-level discontinuous PWM technique. The switching sequences for four basic types of discontinuous PWM and the implementation are presented. An improved discontinuous PWM algorithm is presented for low modulation index region. All these algorithms are verified experimentally and the results are presented. The performance of discontinuous PWM algorithms is compared with that of conventional space vector-based PWM algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-input DC/DC converter topology for hybrid energy system

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1483 - 1501
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2347 KB)  

    In this study, a multiple-input non-isolated DC/DC converter topology is presented. The proposed multiple-input DC/DC converter is proficient for energy diversification from renewable and storage energy sources individually or simultaneously. It can be operated in buck, boost and buck-boost modes of operation with the capability of bidirectional power flow to achieve desired voltage level on either side. The development of small-signal modelling based on state-space averaging has been discussed. In addition, a power management control scheme for the proposed converter has also been presented. The proposed concept has been investigated through simulation using the MATLAB/Simulink environment and validated experimentally on a laboratory prototype using dSPACE 1103 real time digital controller. View full abstract»

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  • High-power-factor light-emitting diode lamp power supply without electrolytic capacitors for high-pressure-sodium lamp retrofit applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1502 - 1515
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1519 KB)  

    A long-life high-power-factor integrated converter able to supply light-emitting diode (LED) lamps in high-pressure-sodium lamp retrofitting applications is presented. The proposed converter is the integration of a buck-boost converter with a buck converter, thus providing the necessary high input power factor and voltage transformation ratio to supply the low-voltage LED array from the mains. The analysis of the converter is carried out, and a design procedure is proposed. The design is also performed so that low capacitances are needed at the output of each semi-stage. This allows for the use of long-life film capacitors, thus matching the converter lifetime to that of the LED lamp. A laboratory prototype supplied from 230 Vrms/50 Hz mains used to drive two LED arrays in series with a total output power of 100 W is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Thirteen-level cascaded H-bridge inverter operated by generic phase shifted pulse-width modulation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1516 - 1529
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1492 KB)  

    The study proposes a new Generic phase shifted (PS) pulse-width modulation (PWM) approach. Four Generic PS PWM algorithms are proposed. The important advantage of the proposed approach is that it can be easily implemented with multilevel inverters of any topology. The first method produces the 13-level PS PWM signal from six 3-level phase disposition (PD) PWM signals whose carrier signals are PS from each other by the time interval of 1/(6fcarrier). The second method produces the 13-level PWM signal also from six 3-level PD PWM signals, whereas their modulation and the carrier signals are both PS by the time interval of Tmodulation/(6 × 5), where Tmodulation is the modulation cycle time interval. The third method produces the 13-level PWM signal from three 5-level PD PWM signals, whereas their carrier signals are PS from each other by the time interval of 1/(3fcarrier). The fourth method produces the 13-level PS PWM signal from three 5-level PD PWM signals, whereas their modulation and carrier signals are both PS by the time interval of Tmodulation/(3 × 5). The proposed methods are analysed and compared one to the other and to the conventional PD PWM method. The analysis is validated by extensive simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative study of multilevel inverters under unbalanced voltage in a single DC link

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1530 - 1543
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2008 KB)  

    This study explores the feasibility of an AC/DC/AC drive with near unity power factor front-end rectifier and five-level rear-end multilevel inverter topology with a focus on achieving lower voltage total harmonic distortion and higher energy efficiency. The unity PF front-end rectifier in this AC/DC/AC drive may cause unbalanced voltage in the DC bus capacitors leading to high voltage distortion on the output AC voltage of a rear-end multilevel inverter. Based on the analysis, modelling and experimental results, rear-end multilevel flying-capacitor inverter with unity PF front-end rectifier in an AC/DC/AC power drive is proposed which is able to provide better DC voltage balancing when compared to diode-clamped topology. Having no diode components being used in this multilevel inverter, the flying-capacitor topology produces lesser commutation losses. Furthermore, rear-end multilevel flying-capacitor topology offers better efficiency and good quality output voltage without any bulky and expensive LC filter and even without any additional DC voltage balancing circuitry. The analytical performance of the drive is verified on a 1.3 kW laboratory prototype. View full abstract»

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  • High-efficiency two-switch tri-state buck-boost power factor correction converter with fast dynamic response and low-inductor current ripple

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1544 - 1554
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1596 KB)  

    Two-switch tri-state buck-boost power factor correction (PFC) converter operating in pseudo-continuous conduction mode is proposed and analysed in this study. Different from tri-state boost PFC converter, the proposed two-switch tri-state buck-boost PFC converter does not need additional power switch to provide the additional degree of control freedom. Therefore it does not increase the complexity and affect the power conversion efficiency of the PFC converter as in the case of tri-state boost PFC converter. For the proposed two-switch tri-state buck-boost PFC converter, the current control loop and voltage control loop are decoupled, a simple voltage control loop with faster dynamic response can be designed to realise output voltage regulation and the additional degree of control freedom introduced by inductor current freewheeling stage helps to achieve unity power factor control. The operation principle, the input current, the inductor current ripple, the switch component stress and the small-signal characteristics of the proposed two-switch tri-state buck-boost PFC converter are analysed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed two-switch tri-state buck-boost PFC converter benefits with fast dynamic response, high-efficiency and low-inductor current ripple over single-switch buck-boost PFC converter or two-switch buck-boost PFC converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. View full abstract»

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  • TABLE-BASED direct power control for three-level neutral point-clamped pulse-width modulated rectifier

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1555 - 1562
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (794 KB)  

    This study presents a new control strategy for three-level neutral point-clamped pulse-width modulated (PWM) rectifier. The relationship between instantaneous power and voltage vectors is derived mathematically from the model of three-phase three-level voltage source PWM rectifier, and a direct power control (DPC) scheme for three-level PWM rectifier is presented. An optimal switching table is established, from which appropriate voltage vectors can be selected to control active and reactive power directly. Principle for vector switching to avoid excessive ΔV in phase and line-to-line voltages and balance strategy for the neutral point potential are also discussed. A digital-signal-processor-based experimental system is developed to implement a series of experiments. The obtained results have verified the theoretical approach, and the three-level PWM rectifier with proposed DPC exhibits advantages of simple algorithm and good dynamic performance, compared with conventional voltage-oriented control. View full abstract»

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  • Trend towards the design of embedded DC-DC converters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1563 - 1574
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    These days, embedded DC-DC converters are paying a remarkable attention to the research and consumer domain. The concept is basically conceived into the need of miniaturised, lightweight, highly power dense solution. This study surveys the DC-DC converters aiming towards the trend of design of embedded converters. Starting from the conventional inductor-based converters to the present trend of design of embedded DC-DC converters are discussed here. Here, all the issues which may play important role during the design of above converters are elaborated and possible remedies to mitigate the issues to achieve the better performance are also illustrated. A brief idea towards the possible future research direction on embedded converters is also discussed here. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of sensorless control of induction machines using only fundamental PWM waveforms of a two-level converter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1575 - 1582
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)  

    This study reports the implementation of a sensorless control scheme for AC machines that requires neither a fundamental model observer nor a test-signal. The model is based on saliency detection through the use of fundamental PWM excitation and the measurement of the derivatives of the line currents induced by the PWM voltage vectors. Derivation of the rotor position is possible at low and zero speeds without separate test signals and also at higher speed without the knowledge of the machine's fundamental model. Experimental results showing fully sensorless induction motor control at low and higher speeds validate the principle of this method. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a low cost, high yield dielectric barrier discharge ozone generator based on the single switch resonant converter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1583 - 1591
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB)  

    This work proposes a low cost ozone generator which is capable of producing high ozone yield. Its dielectric barrier discharge planar-shaped chamber is constructed using common materials; the electrodes are made of aluminium mesh and copper plate, whereas muscovite mica is used as the dielectric. The availability of thin mica sheet ( <; 1 mm) allows for the lowering of the initiation voltage without the use of discharge gas. The chamber is fed by a high-voltage power supply that utilises the single switch resonant converter topology with ferrite transformer. To validate the idea, an experimental prototype ozone generator is designed and constructed. The generator is fed by a low-voltage DC power supply (8-17 V) and does not require water or air-cooling for its chamber. Despite its small footprint, the maximum achievable ozone yield is 120 g/kWh at 2.0 l/min, with measured efficiency of 75%. Finally, the performance of the proposed generator is critically evaluated in comparison with several important works in the same area. View full abstract»

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  • Low computational burden grid voltage sensorless current controller

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1592 - 1599
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB)  

    This study proposes a grid voltage sensorless reduced order generalised integrator-based current controller. The proposal takes advantage of the controller structure to avoid the grid voltage measurement, avoiding the need of additional states and requiring only a few multiply and add operations for its computation. This allows one to keep the controller's computational burden to a minimum, making it ideal for low cost digital signal processor implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Volt-second-based control method for discontinuous conduction mode flyback micro-inverters to improve total harmonic distortion

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1600 - 1607
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB)  

    Flyback-type micro-inverter is an attractive solution for photovoltaic ac-module applications because of several advantages; such as simple current control, working without ac current sensor and potentially low cost. However, it suffers from the dc-link voltage ripple that causes it to merge with the third and fifth harmonics on the output current. For this reason, a very smooth dc-link voltage is essential in order to keep total harmonic distortion (THD) at a low level. However, the voltage ripple is inevitable in practise for single-phase inverters because of pulsating instantaneous power. This study presents a new volt-second-based current control method for flyback micro-inverters which improves THD caused by the voltage ripple. The proposed method works effectively up to approximately 20% of the dc-link voltage ripple. In addition, the volt-second-based control method is able to allow reduction of the power decoupling capacitor value. Experimental results validating the proposed method are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive variable-structure system control of unity power factor rectifiers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1608 - 1617
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1069 KB)  

    This study presents the design of a current control loop and the selection of switching logic for pulse-width modulation (PWM) of three-phase switching converters. This approach is based on a deliberate introduction of the predictive sliding mode motion within a control system. It shows that the selection of the PWM pattern is a direct result of sliding mode existence within the current control closed-loop system. The design specifications are robustness to load electrical parameters, fast dynamic response, reduced switching frequency and simple hardware implementation. To meet previous specifications, a sliding mode controller has been developed, designed as a finite state machine, and implemented within a field programmable gate array device. The switching strategy implemented within the state transition diagram provides for a minimum number of switch state changes by the three-phase converter that is confirmed through simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Instant voltage compensator based on a three-leg converter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1618 - 1625
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1257 KB)  

    This study proposes an instant voltage compensator (IVC)-based on a three-leg converter. It provides single ac-ac power conversion without large energy storage elements, so the size and cost are reduced. It operates as a boost converter when the line voltage is lower than the rated output voltage and as a buck converter when the line voltage is higher than the rated output voltage. Only one leg among the three legs is switched at a high frequency, whereas the other legs are switched at the line frequency. Therefore the power conversion efficiency is higher than that of a conventional IVC where all of the legs are controlled by a high switching frequency. The output voltage is regulated faster using a weighted-error proportional and integral controller. Experimental results are obtained with a 3 kW prototype to verify that the proposed IVC quickly compensates for the voltage sag and swell of the line voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Switching regulator using a high step-up voltage converter for fuel-cell modules

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1626 - 1633
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (711 KB)  

    A typical fuel-cell stack produces a low DC voltage with wide variations; therefore a DC-DC switching converter is required to step up and regulate the output voltage. In this work, a model based on electrical variables is developed for a fuel-cell stack. This model is later combined with the model of a high step-up voltage converter to obtain a combined model that incorporates the behaviour of fuel-cell stack. The resulting model is then used to design an average-current mode controller for a switching regulator. To test the proposed regulator, a power module with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is used as an input source. This module delivers an output voltage between 26 and 42 V depending on the current being drawn. Experimental results exhibit the robustness of the switching regulator to step changes in the output load and the output voltage of the fuel-cell stack. View full abstract»

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  • Micro-scale inductorless maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1634 - 1639
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB)  

    In this study, the authors propose a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) DC-DC converter amenable for micro-scale photovoltaic applications. The solution avoids the use of inductors and exploits a charge pump as a voltage boost element. To take into account the temperature dependence of the MPP voltage, a passive temperature compensation circuit is also included. To validate the idea a prototype was realised with commercial off-the-shelf components. A system efficiency better than 83% for output power above 90 mW is obtained. The results show the viability of the proposed approach which could be further improved through a full custom integrated-circuit design. View full abstract»

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  • Hysteresis current controller for a general η-level inverter fed drive with online current error boundary computation and nearly constant switching frequency

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1640 - 1649
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1303 KB)  

    A space vector-based hysteresis current controller for any general n-level three phase inverter fed induction motor drive is proposed in this study. It offers fast dynamics, inherent overload protection and low harmonic distortion for the phase voltages and currents. The controller performs online current error boundary calculations and a nearly constant switching frequency is obtained throughout the linear modulation range. The proposed scheme uses only the adjacent voltage vectors of the present sector, similar to space vector pulse-width modulation and exhibits fast dynamic behaviour under different transient conditions. The steps involved in the boundary calculation include the estimation of phase voltages from the current ripple, computation of switching time and voltage error vectors. Experimental results are given to show the performance of the drive at various speeds, effect of sudden change of the load, acceleration, speed reversal and validate the proposed advantages. View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous operation of ac-dc microgrids with minimised interlinking energy flow

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1650 - 1657
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (789 KB)  

    Modern distributed sources can either be ac or dc. It is thus possible to form hybrid microgrids with both ac and dc sub-grids inter-tied by power converters. The resulting hybrid architecture allows loads to be flexibly placed, hence reducing the amount of power conversion needed. Hybrid microgrids can therefore be more efficient if controlled appropriately. For that, a droop scheme is now proposed for coordinating energy flows within the hybrid microgrids. The scheme operates autonomously and efficiently without demanding for fast communication links. The overall energy flow tuning and hybrid microgrids have already been tested in experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Active anti-islanding detection based on pulse current injection for distributed generation systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1658 - 1667
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB)  

    This study proposes an active anti-islanding detection using an adjustable pulse current for distributed generation systems. The pulse current injection is utilised to find out difference voltage response between utility systems and islanding operation systems within 2.8 ms, which is faster than conventional current injection methods. Furthermore, the power line communication is utilised to keep islanding detection system with accuracy. Finally, the performances of the proposed scheme are validated by simulation and test results. View full abstract»

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  • Reciprocal effects of the distorted wind turbine source and the shunt active power filter: full compensation of unbalance and harmonics under 'capacitive non-linear load' condition

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1668 - 1682
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2445 KB)  

    Available compensating algorithms for shunt active power filters (SAPFs) and unified power quality conditioner perform somehow improperly in practice under certain circumstances. Typical examples could be any distorted `non-linear loads' showing low impedances at certain frequencies; also, there are technological limitations for the SAPF in modulating switching frequencies, including microcontroller processing speed, the employed control and modulation techniques, delays and so on. This study proposes an advanced universal power quality conditioning system (AUPQS) to fine tune the available solutions for generating purely sinusoidal wind turbine-end currents under both distorted-unbalanced load-terminal voltages and non-linear load conditions (capacitive loads leave much worse consequences than those of the inductive). It is shown that both series and SAPF are capable of full compensation of microgrid by the SAPF using the advanced generalised theory of instantaneous power. Meanwhile, the resultant source currents could be somehow non-sinusoidal. However, the proposed AUPQS will be able to fully eliminate the consequence of voltage asymmetry and unbalanced waveforms on the SAPF, generated because of the wind turbine operation by performing certain corrections on these solutions. Moreover, an independent single-phase rectifier is proposed at the load-end to regulate DC-link voltage. Effectiveness of the proposed AUPQS is confirmed by Simulink simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced fault ride through performance of self-excited induction generator-based wind park during unbalanced grid operation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1683 - 1695
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1436 KB)  

    This study presents novel control design for improving the performance of large-scale wind park (LSWP) based on self-excited induction generator under unbalanced voltage conditions. A dual controller for static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) employing controller by employing positive- and negative-sequence synchronous frames is implemented and analysed in response to severely unbalanced voltage conditions. The test system simulated represents a wind park rated at 100 MW connected to a weak electrical grid. The potential of the dual STATCOM controller is evaluated and analysed for severely unbalanced voltage conditions at the grid interface of LSWP. The dual controller with STATCOM overloading capability is tested and compared with the performance of the positive-sequence controller in response to different types of asymmetrical grid faults at low short-circuit ratios. The simulations performed using PSCAD/EMTDC demonstrate superior performance of dual STATCOM control strategy for improving unbalanced operation, fault ride through capability and transient stability margin in response to severely unbalanced voltage conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Novel three-phase asymmetrical cascaded multilevel voltage source inverter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1696 - 1706
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB)  

    Series connection of power cells in asymmetrical cascaded configurations helps to cancel redundant output levels and maximise the number of different levels generated by the inverter. A new configuration of three-phase multilevel asymmetrical cascaded voltage source inverter is presented. This structure consists of series-connected sub-multilevel inverters blocks. The number of utilised switches, insulated gate driver circuits, voltage standing on switches, installation area and cost are considerably reduced. Cascaded-cell DC voltages in each inverter leg form an arithmetic sequence with common difference of E. With the selected inverter DC sources, high-frequency pulse-width modulation (PWM) control methods can be effectively applied without loss of modularity. Low-frequency and sinusoidal PWM techniques were successfully applied. Hence, high flexibility in the modulation of the proposed inverter is demonstrated. The prototype of the suggested inverter was manufactured and the obtained simulation and hardware results ensured the feasibility of the configuration, and the compatibility of both modulation techniques was accurately noted. Lastly, the semiconductor losses in the converter were calculated using simulation models. Based on the analysis of the total power losses, the proposed inverter provided high efficiency at different operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling and industrial application of series hybrid active power filter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1707 - 1714
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    In the series hybrid active power filter (SHAPF) based on fundamental magnetic flux compensation (FMFC), the harmonic voltage across the magnetising inductance of the series transformer will disturb the inverter output current and worsen the filtering effect of the SHAPF. However, this influence caused by harmonic voltage was ignored in the previous research. Therefore there is blindness and casualness in the parameter selection of the SHAPF based on FMFC. Taking a 10 kV, 1 MVA industrial application of the SHAPF in a manufacture factory in Guangdong Province as an example, this study establishes the accurate global mathematical model of the SHAPF. Furthermore, based on the proposed global mathematical model, the series transformer parameters are analysed in detail to show its influence on the filtering performance of the SHAPF. This mathematical model can be used as foundations of the parameter selection of the SHAPF. Finally, an engineering prototype is manufactured and applied. The practical experimental results verify the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Active closed-loop gate voltage control method to mitigate metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor turn-off voltage overshoot and ring

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1715 - 1722
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    Voltage overshoot and ring will occur during metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) turn-off, when it is embedded in circuits with inductive load and operates in pulse width modulation mode. The voltage overshoot and ring not only increase the system voltage stress, but also produce radiated and conducted electromagnetic interference. Based on the analysis of the influence of the gate voltage on the MOSFET turn-off behaviour, this study presents an active closed-loop gate voltage control method to mitigate the voltage overshoot and ring. The proposed method senses the instant when the MOSFET drain current starts to fall by comparing the drain voltage with the bus voltage. Once the instant has been detected, a turn-off assistance voltage with proper amplitude and adjustable duration is generated and applied to the gate to mitigate the overshoot and ring. The delay of the gate control loop, including the delay of the comparator, can be compensated by proper choice of the components. Both simulations and experiments results indicate that the MOSFET turn-off voltage overshoot is largely reduced and the ring is almost completely eliminated. At the same time, the turn-off loss and EMI are also minimised. View full abstract»

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  • A novel approach of space vector modulation for cycloinverter using genetic algorithm

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1723 - 1731
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (974 KB)  

    A novel approach has been made to calculate the switching angles for space vector modulation (SVM) technique, which is applied in a cycloinverter to generate high-frequency power output. The turn-on and turn-off times of SVM pattern are evaluated in such a way that the total harmonic distortion (THD) is minimised and the output voltage of cycloinverter approaches as close as possible to desired sinusoidal waveform. To accomplish this optimisation task, genetic algorithms (GAs) is used and THD is adopted in the proposed objective function. The lowest fitness value of this objective function decides the correct value of the switching angles. The switching strategy for the cycloinverter is presented on MATLAB-based time-domain simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed approach with GAs, is superior to the conventional SVM. The output waveforms and their spectrum are presented to show effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Simulated results are also validated with the experimental results. View full abstract»

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