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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1 - C2
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Administrative Committee

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Elected Administrative Committee

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C4
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2035 - 2038
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  • Flexible over-moded resonators based on P(VDF-TrFE) thin films with very high temperature coefficient

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2039 - 2043
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (769 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents for the first time a flexible over-moded resonator (OMR) based on P(VDF-TrFE) thin films. The devices were manufactured on commercially available elastic substrate with inkjet-printed electrodes. The sensing copolymer films used in the devices were polarized by the corona method after electrode deposition. The main performance parameters of the component were then determined. The manufactured OMRs on P(VDF-TrFE) exhibited a linear variation of frequency versus temperature and a very large value of temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF > 1600 ppm/°C). These properties suggest a great potential for using such components as low-cost and high-precision temperature sensors. The electromechanical coupling coefficient and the quality factor of the resonator were also characterized versus temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Processing and properties of textured potassium strontium niobate (KSr2Nb5O15) ceramic fibers-effect of texture on the electrical properties

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2044 - 2052
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    Textured ceramic fibers were fabricated from the tungsten-bronze-type piezoelectric (KSr2Nb5O15) . Development of crystallographic texture was evaluated through rocking curve analysis and a texture with Lotgering factor of 0.97 was achieved. 1-3 piezocomposites were prepared from the textured fibers and their electrical properties were evaluated. Highly enhanced properties that are 2 to 3 times higher than the random case were observed with increasing texture fraction with Pr and d33 reaching 20 μC/cm2 and 75 pC/N, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elasticity imaging of the uterine cervix with an intracavity array: a simulation study

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2053 - 2064
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    The uterine cervix softens, shortens, and dilates throughout pregnancy in response to progressive disorganization of its layered collagen microstructure. This process is an essential part of normal pregnancy, but premature changes are associated with preterm birth. Clinically, there are no reliable noninvasive methods to objectively measure cervical softening or assess cervical microstructure. The goal of these preliminary studies was to evaluate the feasibility of using an intracavity ultrasound array to generate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) excitations in the uterine cervix through simulation, and to optimize the acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation for shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) of the tissue stiffness. The cervix is a unique soft tissue target for SWEI because it has significantly greater acoustic attenuation (α = 1.3 to 2.0 dB·cm-1·MHz-1) than other soft tissues, and the pathology being studied tends to lead to an increase in tissue compliance, with healthy cervix being relatively stiff compared with other soft tissues (E ≈ 25 kPa). Additionally, the cervix can only be accessed in vivo using a transvaginal or catheter-based array, which places additional constraints on the excitation focal characteristics that can be used during SWEI. Finite element method (FEM) models of SWEI show that larger-aperture, catheter-based arrays can utilize excitation frequencies up to 7 MHz to generate adequate focal gain up to focal depths 10 to 15 mm deep, with higher frequencies suffering from excessive amounts of near-field acoustic attenuation. Using full-aperture excitations can yield ~40% increases in ARFI-induced displacements, but also restricts the depth of field of the excitation to ~0.5 mm, compared with 2 to 6 mm, which limits the range that can be used for shear wave characterization of the tissue. The center-frequency content of the shear wave particle velocity profiles ranges from 1.5 - o 2.5 kHz, depending on the focal configuration and the stiffness of the material being imaged. Overall, SWEI is possible using catheter-based imaging arrays to generate adequate displacements in cervical tissue for shear wave imaging, although specific considerations must be made when optimizing these arrays for this shear wave imaging application. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasound contrast imaging: influence of scatterer motion in multi-pulse techniques

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2065 - 2078
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    In ultrasound contrast imaging, many techniques based on multiple transmissions have been proposed to increase the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR). They are generally based on the response of static scatterers inside the imaged region. However, scatterer motion, for example in blood vessels, has an inevitable influence on multi-pulse techniques, which can either enhance or degrade the technique involved. This paper investigates the response of static nonlinear media insonated by multi-pulses with various phase shifts, and the influence of scatterer motion on multi-pulse techniques. Simulations and experimental results from a single bubble and clouds of bubbles show that the phase shift of the echoes backscattered from bubbles is dependent on the transmissions' phase shift, and that the bubble motion influences the efficiency of multi-pulse techniques: fundamental and second-harmonic amplitudes of the processed signal change periodically, exhibiting maximum or minimum values, according to scatterer motion. Furthermore, experimental results based on the second-harmonic inversion (SHI) technique reveal that bubble motion can be taken into account to regulate the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). With the optimal PRF, the CTR of SHI images can be improved by about 12 dB compared with second-harmonic images. View full abstract»

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  • Finding the peak velocity in a flow from its doppler spectrum

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2079 - 2088
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The signal backscattered by blood cells crossing a sample volume produces a Doppler power spectrum determined by the scatterers' velocity distribution. Because of intrinsic spectral broadening, the peak Doppler frequency observed does not correspond to the peak velocity in the flow. Several methods have been proposed for estimating the maximum velocity component-an important clinical parameter-but these methods are approximate, based on heuristic thresholds that can be inaccurate and strongly affected by noise. Reported here is a method of modeling the Doppler power spectrum of a flow, and from that model, determining what Doppler frequency on the descending slope of the power spectrum corresponds to the peak velocity in the insonated flow. It is shown that, for a fully insonated flow with a parabolic velocity distribution, the peak velocity corresponds to the Doppler frequency at the half-power point on that slope. The method is demonstrated to be robust with regard to the effects of noise and valid for a wide range of acquisition parameters. Experimental maximum velocity measurements on steady flows with rates between 100 and 300 mL/min (peak velocity range 6.6 cm/s to 19.9 cm/s) show a mean bias error that is smaller than 1%. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based compressive sensing for damage localization in lamb wave inspection

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2089 - 2097
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compressive sensing (CS) has emerged as a potentially viable technique for the efficient compression and analysis of high-resolution signals that have a sparse representation in a fixed basis. In this work, we have developed a CS approach for ultrasonic signal decomposition suitable to achieve high performance in Lamb-wave-based defect detection procedures. In the proposed approach, a CS algorithm based on an alternating minimization (AM) procedure is adopted to extract the information about both the system impulse response and the reflectivity function. The implemented tool exploits the dispersion compensation properties of the warped frequency transform as a means to generate the sparsifying basis for the signal representation. The effectiveness of the decomposition task is demonstrated on synthetic signals and successfully tested on experimental Lamb waves propagating in an aluminum plate. Compared with available strategies, the proposed approach provides an improvement in the accuracy of wave propagation path length estimation, a fundamental step in defect localization procedures. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric rotational mixer based on a first bending vibration mode

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2098 - 2104
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (883 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a miniature piezoelectric mixer that can rotate a liquid inside a hole of several millimeters diameter. The mixer has dimensions 14 × 14 × 10 mm with a through-hole (7 mm), and piezoelectric elements bonded to its four identical sides. When the first bending vibration mode of the mixer is excited by ac voltages, rotational flow of liquid is generated by the rotation of an acoustic field (acoustic streaming) in the through-hole. This technology is useful in automating mixing processes such as the mixing by hand of a few drops of blood in medical testing. In this paper, we verify the driving principle experimentally and examine the characteristics of a prototype mixer, including the induced flow velocity, under changes of the amplitude and frequency of the applied voltages. A plastic test tube, used to prevent contamination, is inserted to the through-hole, and the liquid inside the tube is mixed by rotation of the acoustic field. View full abstract»

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  • Moderately reverberant learning ultrasonic pinch panel

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2105 - 2120
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tactile sensing is widely used in human-computer interfaces. However, mechanical integration of touch technologies is often perceived as difficult by engineers because it often limits the freedom of style or form factor requested by designers. Recent work in active ultrasonic touch technologies has made it possible to transform thin glass plates, metallic sheets, or plastic shells into interactive surfaces. The method is based on a learning process of touch-induced, amplitude-disturbed diffraction patterns. This paper proposes, first, an evolution in the design with multiple dipole transducers that improves touch sensitivity or maximum panel size by a factor of ten, and improves robustness and usability in moderately reverberant panels, and second, defines a set of acoustic variables in the signal processing for the evaluation of sensitivity and radiating features. For proof of concept purposes, the design and process are applied to 3.2- and 6-mm-thick glass plates with variable damping conditions. Transducers are bonded to only one short side of the rectangular substrates. Measurements show that the highly sensitive free lateral sides are perfectly adapted for pinch-touch and pinch-slide interactions. The advantage of relative versus absolute touch disturbance measurement is discussed, together with tolerance to abutting contaminants. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced acoustoelectric coupling in acoustic energy harvester using dual helmholtz resonators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2121 - 2128
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    In this paper, enhanced acoustoelectric transduction in an acoustic energy harvester using dual Helmholtz resonators has been reported. The harvester uses a pair of cavities mechanically coupled with a compliant perforated plate to enhance the acoustic coupling between the cavity and the plate. The experimental results show that the volume optimization of the second cavity can significantly increase the generated electric voltage up to 400% and raise the output power to 16 times as large as that of a harvester using a single Helmholtz resonator at resonant frequencies primarily related to the plate. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable filters using wideband elastic resonators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2129 - 2136
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Currently, an ultra-wideband resonator is greatly needed to realize a tunable filter with a wide tunable range, because mobile phones with multiple bands and cognitive radio systems require such tunable filters to simplify their circuits. Although tunable filters have been studied using SAW resonators, their tunable range was insufficient for the filters even when wideband SAW resonators with a bandwidth of 17% were used. Therefore, the fabrication of wider-bandwidth resonators has been attempted with the goal of realizing tunable filters with wide tunable ranges. In this study, an SH0- mode plate wave resonator in a 27.5°YX-LiNbO3 plate with an ultra-wide bandwidth of 29.1%, a high impedance ratio of 98 dB, and a high Q (Qr = 700 and Qa = 720) was realized. Two types of tunable filters were constructed using such SH0-mode resonators and capacitors. As a result, tunable ranges (bands) of 13% to 19% were obtained. The possibility of applying the SH0-mode resonator in the high-frequency gigahertz range is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A numerical method to derive accurate temperature coefficients of material constants from high-temperature SAW measurements: application to langasite

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2137 - 2141
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design of wireless SAW sensors for hightemperature applications requires accurate knowledge of the constitutive materials' physical properties in the desired temperature range. In particular, it is crucial to use reliable temperature coefficients of the stiffness, piezoelectric, dielectric, and expansion constants of the propagation medium to achieve correct simulations of the considered devices. Currently, the best-suited piezoelectric material for high-temperature SAW applications is langasite (LGS). Unfortunately, the available coefficients do not allow for precise prediction of the temperature dependence of LGS-based SAW devices above 300°C. A novel method, based on a simulated annealing algorithm coupled with a Rayleigh wave simulation program, was developed to find optimal LGS temperature coefficients. This approach has proven to yield accurate results up to at least 800°C. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric fiber-composite-based cantilever sensor for electric-field-induced strain measurement in soft electroactive polymer

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2142 - 2153
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1554 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Polymeric materials have been widely used in electronic and electromechanical transducer applications. Because of their low elastic modulus, it is quite challenging to accurately characterize the electric-field-induced strain and elastic modulus by conventional contact methods. In this paper, a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber-composite- based cantilever strain sensor has been investigated to accurately characterize the electric-field-induced strain response in the out-of-plane direction of soft electroactive polymer samples. By choosing appropriate substrate material and the thickness ratio of the fiber composite to the substrate, this strain sensor can be optimized to provide high sensitivity and high flexibility simultaneously. The high voltage sensitivity can be attributed to partial decoupling of the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric responses, the improved piezoelectric coefficient and small dielectric permittivity. The high flexibility is due to the reduced flexural spring constant of the composite-based cantilever device. Both theoretical modeling of the PZT fiber-composite-based cantilever device and experimental verification are performed in this work. The results indicate that the piezoelectric PZT fiber-composite-based cantilever strain sensor can accurately characterize the electric-field-induced small strain in electroactive soft polymers with high reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a piezoelectric power harvester with adjustable frequency by precise electric field method

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2154 - 2161
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (695 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A power harvester with adjustable frequency, which consists of a hinged¿hinged piezoelectric bimorph and a concentrated mass, is studied by the precise electric field method (PEFM), taking into account a distribution of the electric field over the thickness. Usually, using the equivalent electric field method (EEFM), the electric field is approximated as a constant value in the piezoelectric layer. Charge on the upper electrode (UEC) of the bimorph is often assumed as output charge. However, different output charge can be obtained by integrating on electric displacement over the electrode with different thickness coordinates. Therefore, an average charge (AC) on thickness is often assumed as the output value. This method is denoted EEFM AC. The flexural vibration of the bimorph is calculated by the three methods and their results are compared. Numerical results illustrate that EEFM UEC overestimates resonant frequency, output power, and efficiency. EEFM AC can accurately calculate the output power and efficiency, but underestimates resonant frequency. The performance of the harvester, which depends on concentrated mass weight, position, and circuit load, is analyzed using PEFM. The resonant frequency can be modulated 924 Hz by moving the concentrated mass along the bimorph. This feature suggests that the natural frequency of the harvester can be adjusted conveniently to adapt to frequency fluctuation of the ambient vibration. View full abstract»

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  • Interdigitated-electrode-based mems-scale piezoelectric energy harvester modeling and optimization using finite element method

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2162 - 2174
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel optimization method for interdigitated electrode (IDE)-based, cantilever-type piezoelectric energy harvesters at microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scale. A new two-stage approach based on the finite element method is proposed to examine the performance of such devices. First, detailed electrostatic poling simulations are presented. The results of these poling orientation simulations are used while calculating electrical energy and conversion efficiency in response to a constant external force. The proposed approach is used to find the optimum piezoelectric material thickness and IDE geometry for a cantilever beam which is constructed on top of a 4-μm Si structural layer and a 1-μm SiO2 isolation layer. Cantilever and IDE lengths are fixed at 320 μm and 240 μm, respectively, whereas the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thickness, IDE finger widths, and number of finger pairs are varied. Maximum output energy of 0.37 pJ for a 15-μN force is obtained at a PZT thickness of 0.6 μm and an IDE consisting of 12 finger pairs. This energy is reduced to 1.5 fJ for 5 μm PZT thickness with 2 electrode finger pairs, which shows that device geometry has a significant impact on device performance. The proposed method presents an accurate framework for the rapid design and performance prediction of novel piezoelectric energy harvester structures. View full abstract»

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  • Thickness design, fabrication, and evaluation of 100-MHz polyurea ultrasonic transducer

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2175 - 2188
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1773 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a polyurea transducer that works at 100 MHz under water. The transducer was designed using an equivalent circuit model so that an aluminum (top)-polyurea-aluminum (bottom)-polyimide layer had a resonant frequency of 100 MHz and output sound pressure became maximum at that frequency. The thicknesses of the top aluminum electrode, polyurea, and bottom aluminum electrode were determined to be 3.3, 3.5, and 1.7 μm, respectively. A 100-MHz polyurea transducer with the designed thickness was fabricated using deposition equipment. To evaluate the performance of the designed and fabricated polyurea transducer, transmission-reception experiments with pulsed and burst waves were carried out. The results show that transmitting and receiving ultrasounds at a frequency of 100 MHz are possible as expected with the thickness design. To evaluate actual use, B-mode imaging of an onion was also performed using the transducer, which was formed into a line-focused shape. The result shows that the outer layer of the onion, of 0.1 to 0.2 mm thickness, was successfully imaged. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation of SH waves in functionally gradient electromagnetoelastic half-space

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2189 - 2195
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (611 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The propagation of shear-horizontal (SH) waves is studied for a functionally gradient magnetoelectric (ME) material. The material properties of the ME half-space are normal to the free surface. The ME open conditions are applied to the free surface. Dispersion relations are obtained in explicit form for different forms of the nonhomogeneities. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic characteristics of an axially polarized multilayer piezoelectric/elastic composite cylindrical transducer

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2196 - 2203
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An analytical model of the dynamic characteristics of an axially polarized multilayer piezoelectric/elastic composite cylindrical transducer is proposed in this paper. Based on the plane stress assumption, the dynamic analytical solution of the transducer under an external harmonic voltage load is obtained, and the electric admittance is also derived analytically. Inherent properties of the transducer, such as resonance and anti-resonance frequencies, are presented and discussed. In addition, comparisons with other related investigations are also given, and good agreement is found. The present investigation is very helpful for the design of axially polarized multilayer piezoelectric/elastic composite cylindrical transducers, which can be used in applications related to ultrasonic and underwater sound waves. View full abstract»

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  • Sensing properties of the anisimkin Jr. acoustic modes in uncoated ST-quartz plates

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2204 - 2207
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Anisimkin Jr. (AN) acoustic plate modes having quasi-longitudinal (QL), quasi-shear-vertical (QSV) and quasi-shear-horizontal (QSH) polarizations are studied experimentally in uncoated ST,X-quartz plates with normalized plate thicknesses h/λ = 1.485 and 1.67 (where h is thickness and λ is wavelength). The sensitivities of the modes toward mass loading (water vapor) are measured at different temperatures in the range 10.6°C to 23°C and compared with that of the Rayleigh SAW. The sensitivity of the same modes toward temperature is measured from 15°C to 85°C and compared with those of the bulk waves propagating in the same direction. Acoustic plate modes with dominant responses toward humidity or temperature are found. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling nonlinear wave propagation on nonuniform grids using a mapped k-space pseudospectral method

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2208 - 2213
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Simulating the propagation of nonlinear ultrasound waves is computationally difficult because of the dense grids needed to capture high-frequency harmonics. Here, a mapped k-space pseudospectral method is presented which allows the use of nonuniform grid spacings. This enables grid points to be clustered around steep regions of the wave field. Compared with using a uniform grid, this significantly reduces the total number of grid points needed for accurate simulations. Two methods for selecting a suitable nonuniform grid mapping are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A piezoelectric energy harvester with increased bandwidth based on beam flexural vibrations in perpendicular directions

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2214 - 2218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new structure for piezoelectric energy harvesters. It consists of an elastic beam with two pairs of piezoelectric films operating with the fundamental flexural modes in perpendicular directions. A one-dimensional model is developed and used to analyze the proposed structure. The output power density is calculated and examined. Results show that, with simultaneous flexural motions in two perpendicular directions, the output power has two peaks close to each other resulting from the two fundamental flexural resonances. The distance between the two peaks can be adjusted through design to make the two peaks merge into one wide peak. Hence, the frequency bandwidth through which energy can be harvested is roughly doubled when compared with conventional beam bimorph energy harvesters operating with flexural motion in one direction and one resonance only. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk