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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 3 • Date May-June 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0000901
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0001001
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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0100302
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  • Introduction to the Issue on Nanobiophotonics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0200304
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  • Optimization of Plasmonic Nanodipole Antenna Arrays for Sensing Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4600308
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    Nanoantennas are key optical components for several applications including biosensing. This paper presents the optimization of plasmonic nanodipole antenna arrays, operating with short-range surface plasmon polaritons, to maximize bulk sensitivity. The array is integrated on a substrate (silicon or glass) and covered by water. Using modal analysis, a full study was carried out on the dimensions of the nanodipoles at three optical wavelengths of interest, 850, 1310, and 1550 nm, and some of the results were validated using full 3D FDTD modeling. We show that nanodipoles on a glass substrate produce a greater bulk sensitivity than on a silicon substrate. The largest bulk sensitivities are produced at the longest wavelength (1550 nm) as 1000 nm/RIU on glass and 500 nm/RIU on silicon. Good performance over a wide range of nanodipole dimensions was observed, making the arrays tolerant to imperfections. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Trapping of Nanoparticles and Quantum Dots

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4800112
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    Optical manipulation of nanostructures offers new exciting possibilities for building new nano-architectures and for exploring the fundamental interactions between light and nanoparticles. The optical properties of nanostructures differ substantially from those of similar bulk material and exhibit an exquisite sensitivity on nanoparticle shape and composition. The plethora of particles available today expands the possibilities of optical manipulation to include control over particle temperature, luminescence, orientation, and even over the rotational optical momentum transferred to the nanoparticle. Here, we summarize recent experimental advances within optical manipulation of individual nanoparticles and quantum dots with a focus on resonant versus non-resonant trapping, optically induced heating, spherical aberration, and orientation control. Also, we present novel quantitative data on the photonic interaction between gold nanoshells and a focused laser beam. Lastly, promising applications of the biophotonical properties of nanoparticles within nanoscience and biophysics are pointed out. View full abstract»

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  • Organic Biophotonic Nanoparticles: Porphysomes and Beyond

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4800208
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    Biophotonic nanoparticles have been of increasing interest for their ability to both image and treat disease. The majority of biophotonic nanoparticles developed have been inorganic in nature. Only recently has there been an increase in the number of organic nanoparticles being engineered for biophotonic applications. Porphysomes were the first organic biophotonic nanoparticle to be reported with properties characteristic of both traditional inorganic and organic nanoparticles. Here, we discuss their discovery, multifunctional capabilities, and other organic biophotonic nanoparticles that have been developed since their advent. View full abstract»

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  • On-Chip Biological and Chemical Sensing With Reversed Fano Lineshape Enabled by Embedded Microring Resonators

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 5200110
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    High- Q microresonators play an important role in developing fully integrated, highly sensitive, and cost-effective bio/chemical sensors. The Fano effect in doubly resonant physical systems may be used to improve sensing performance. In this paper, we show that coupled optical resonators (sometimes termed photonic molecules) in an embedded configuration can significantly enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) of on-chip sensors by producing a reversed Fano effect. Improvement of one order in sensitivity, as compared to a sensor based on conventional Fano effect, can be achieved using embedded high- Q resonators on a CMOS-compatible platform. We estimate the LOD by taking into account thermal drift, optical losses (material absorption, scattering, substrate leakage and bending loss), laser intensity noise, linewidth and frequency jitter, and link and detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The overall LOD is found to be as low as 3.24 × 10-8 RIU. Moreover, in the proposed sensor based on embedded rings, intensity SNR is no longer the limiting factor of the LOD, which could be further lowered with better thermal control and laser frequency stability. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances on the Synthesis of Metal Quantum Nanoclusters and Their Application for Bioimaging

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6801312
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    Metal (gold, silver, copper, platinum) quantum nano-clusters are an emerging family of fluorescent markers exhibiting unique photophysical properties with tunable electronic structure. This paper will give first an overview on the recent progress to produce stable and highly luminescent metal nanoclusters. In the second part, we will highlight the potential of such probes for bioimaging through in vitro /in vivo studies. View full abstract»

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  • Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Nanoprobes for Imaging

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6801410
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    Despite the advantages of bioluminescence (BL) over fluorescence, its potential use for in vivo imaging has been hindered because BL signals emitted at short wavelengths are strongly attenuated by light scattering and absorption under in vivo conditions. To tackle this issue, BL resonance energy transfer (BRET) nanoprobes have been developed by using different bioluminescent proteins and fluorescent counterparts including nanoparticles. Here, we review the recent advances in BL nanoprobes and their applications in in vivo imaging and/or the diagnosis of target molecules. With the aim of furthering research and development, we suggest that BRET nanoprobes with improved stability, reduced toxicity, and near infrared-emitting properties will have great potential for in vivo applications in fundamental biology and nanomedicine. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Ultrasound-Switchable Fluorescence Imaging Contrast Agents Based on Thermosensitive Polymers and Nanoparticles

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6801214
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    In this paper, we first introduced a recently developed high-resolution, deep-tissue imaging technique, ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF). The imaging principles based on two types of USF contrast agents were reviewed. To improve USF imaging techniques further, excellent USF contrast agents were developed based on high-performance thermoresponsive polymers and environment-sensitive fluorophores. Herein, such contrast agents were synthesized and characterized with five key parameters: 1) peak excitation and emission wavelengths (λex and λem); 2) the fluorescence intensity ratio between on- and off-states (IOn/IOff); 3) the fluorescence lifetime ratio between on- and off-states (τOnOff); 4) the temperature threshold to switch on fluorophores (Tth); and 5) the temperature transition bandwidth (TBW). We mainly investigated fluorescence intensity and lifetime changes of four environment-sensitive dyes [7-(2-Aminoethylamino)-N,N-dimethyl-4-benzofurazansulfonamide (DBD-ED), St633, Sq660, and St700] as a function of temperature, while the dye was attached to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) linear polymers or encapsulated in nanoparticles. Six fluorescence resonance energy transfer systems were invented in which both the donor (DBD-ED or ST425) and the acceptor (Sq660) were adopted. Our results indicate that three Förster resonance energy transfer systems, where both IOn/IOff and τOnOff are larger than 2.5, are promising for application in future surface tissue bioimaging by the USF technique. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnosis of Human Bladder Cancer Cells at Different Stages Using Multispectral Imaging Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800808
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    Bladder cancer presents a spectrum of different diatheses. A precise assessment for individualized treatment depends on the accuracy of the initial diagnosis. Detection relies on comprehensive and accurate white light cystoscopy. White light cystoscopy has limitations in addition to its invasive nature and the potential risks related to the method. These limitations include difficulties in flat lesion detection, precise tumor delineation to enable complete resection, inflammation and malignancy differentiation, and grade and stage determination. The resolution of these problems depends on the surgeon's ability and experience with available technology for visualization and resection. In this study, we used multispectral imaging technology combined with phase contrast microscopy to analyze bladder cancer cells (BCCs) at various stages using a single-cell array chip. We found from the spectral characteristics of single cell that the cell spectra at the different cancer stages demonstrate a change in the cell's composition. We cultured 419 normal and diseased bladder cells. We used principal component analysis and a principal component score map to distinguish the different cancer stages. Diagnosis sensitivity and specificity of this method were 85.7% and 90.2% in 119 stage 0 (normal) cells, 84.3% and 90.8% in 79 stage 2 cancer cells, 87.6% and 92.4% in 151 stage 3 BCCs, and 85.3% and 91.2% in 70 stage 4 BCCs, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Clear Microfluidics Imaging Through Flowing Blood by Digital Holography

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6801507
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Achieving a clear vision through turbid fluids is a highly desirable goal in microfluidics. In particular, observing particles dipped inside blood shows fascinating perspectives in all fields of bio-medical research. White-light microscopy cannot provide clear imaging due to the strong scattering of light by red blood cells. Here we solve the problem by Digital Holography microscopy. We show that, in cases where the blood flows along a microfluidic channel at sufficient speed, the hologram acts as a selective filter. This occurs due to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons hitting the red blood cells, discarding the unwanted scattering. In cases where the blood flow is not quick enough to take advantage of the Doppler shift, multiple holograms can be processed to produce a clear image of the object. We show that the correlation coefficients between multiple acquisitions at different fluid speeds can be adopted to study the visibility of the fringes due to the moving colloidal particles in the medium. Hence, we estimate the threshold velocity required to completely discard all the scattered photons. In this way the object is seen as dipped in a transparent liquid thus completely eliminating the negative effect of turbidity on the imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Spatially Selective Plasmonic Sensing Using Metallic Nanoslit Arrays

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900306
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Label-free biosensing based on extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through metallic nanoaperture arrays is a highly promising application of nanoplasmonics. The optical properties of these nanostructures, however, are complex due to the coupling between propagating and localized plasmon resonances, and some important features of the sensing mechanism have not been fully exploited. In this paper, in contrast to most previous studies that focused on the optimization of sensor response to bulk refractive index changes, we investigate the sensor response upon biomolecule bindings at different sensor positions inside or outside the nanoapertures. By properly tuning the geometric parameters of a gold nanoslit array, we show that the enhanced optical field in this EOT-based sensor can be spatially tailored to increase its interaction volume with the binding target biomolecules and improve the sensor performance. The results presented deepen the current understanding of the EOT-based sensor properties and open up new opportunities to further optimize their sensing performance. View full abstract»

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  • Manipulation and Optical Detection of Colloidal Functional Plasmonic Nanostructures in Microfluidic Systems

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900613
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    The very strong optical resonances of plasmonic nanostructures can be harnessed for sensitive detection of chemical and biomolecular analytes in small volumes. Here we describe an approach towards optical biosensing in microfluidic systems using plasmonic structures (functionalized gold nanoparticles) in colloidal suspension. The plasmonic nanoparticles provide the optical signal, in the form of resonant light scattering or absorption, and the microfluidic environment provides means for selectively manipulating the nanoparticles through fluid dynamics and electric fields. In the first part we discuss recent literature on functionalized colloidal particles and the methods for handling them in microfluidic systems. Then we experimentally address aspects of nanoparticle functionalization, detection through plasmonic resonant light scattering under dark-field illumination and the electrokinetic behavior of the particles under the action of an alternating electric field. View full abstract»

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  • Peptide-Functionalized Quantum Dot Biosensors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900512
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    Quantum dot (QD) nanomaterials have a number of electro-optical properties that make them ideal for biosensing applications. QDs combined with peptides have been used for both targeting and sensing applications, however this review will focus specifically on peptide-functionalized QD biosensors, whose signal transduction occurs through active modulation of the QD photoluminescent properties. View full abstract»

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  • Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Sensors From Nanobiosilica With Self-Assembled Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900806
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    We present an innovative surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor based on a biological-plasmonic hybrid nanostructure by self-assembling silver (Ag) nanoparticles into diatom frustules. The photonic-crystal-like diatom frustules provide a spatially confined electric field with enhanced intensity that can form hybrid photonic-plasmonic modes through the optical coupling with Ag nanoparticles. The experimental results demonstrate 4-6× and 9-12× improvement of sensitivities to detect the Raman dye for resonance and nonresonance SERS sensing, respectively. Such low-cost and high-sensitivity SERS sensors have significant potentials for label-free biosensing. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring of TiO _{\bf 2} and ZnO Nanoparticle Penetration Into Enamel and Dentine of Human Tooth IN VITRO and Assessment of Their Photocatalytic Ability

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300108
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    Penetration of nanoparticles into tooth enamel and dentine is of significant interest upon solving problems related to reduction of tooth sensitivity, enamel strengthening, disinfection, restoration as well as cosmetic bleaching. This paper aims at studying the process of nanoparticle penetration into tooth enamel and dentine samples using nonlinear optical microscopy and at investigating the influence of the same nanoparticles on the generation of free radicals using the electronic paramagnetic resonance technique. We presented in vitro measurements demonstrating that nonlinear optical microscopy, namely, two-photon-excited autofluorescence, second harmonic generation, and hyper-Rayleigh scattering-based microscopy can be used for monitoring and imaging TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticle penetration into tooth tissues. The results indicate that ZnO nanoparticles penetrated into the human tooth enamel and dentine up to a depth of 12 and 45 μm, respectively, and TiO2 nanoparticles penetrated into dentine to a depth of 5 μm. The penetration mainly occurs along either enamel rods or dentinal tubules. Permeability of the dentine was found to be higher than that of enamel (for ZnO particles) by one order of magnitude and the diffusion rate was affected by the particle size being higher for smaller, submicron particles (ZnO) than for micron-sized aggregates (TiO2). Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles generate more radicals in the UV-VIS spectral range in comparison to pristine TiO2 (anatase) and ZnO nanoparticles, therefore, they can potentially be used for disinfection purposes of superficial tooth areas (up to 5-μm deep). View full abstract»

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  • Enhancement of Quantum Dot Förster Resonance Energy Transfer within Paper Matrices and Application to Proteolytic Assays

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300211
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    Brightly luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) continue to play an increasing role in biophotonic research and applications such as bioassays. Here, we present methods for the immobilization of QDs on the cellulose fibers of paper substrates for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assays of proteolytic activity. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence characterization of FRET between immobilized QDs and self-assembled dye-labeled peptides within the paper matrix revealed a substantial enhancement in energy transfer efficiency. Compared to bulk solution, the rate of energy transfer increased approximately fourfold resulting in a concomitant sevenfold increase in the ratio of FRET-sensitized acceptor dye emission and quenched QD emission. Spots of immobilized QDs with different amounts of dye-labeled peptide had bright luminescence under UV/violet illumination and the net QD and Alexa Fluor 555 (A555) dye emission was visible by eye as different colors. Tryptic digestion of the peptides linking the QD donor and the acceptor dyes resulted in loss of FRET. Changes in the dye/QD photoluminescence (PL) ratio permitted the tracking of proteolytic activity, including the effect of increasing amounts of aprotinin, a potent inhibitor of trypsin. The combination of QDs, a paper substrate, and enhanced FRET has strong potential for developing bioassays. View full abstract»

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  • Plasmonics for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: Nanoantennas for Single Molecules

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300311
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    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is undergoing a renaissance, spurred largely by developments in the burgeoning field of plasmonics. This paper reviews the current status and future directions in plasmonic nanostructures for SERS. We show that engineered plasmonic nanostructures enable exciting new functionalities, including beamed Raman scattering and highly reproducible chips for single molecule SERS. We furthermore show that silicon photonics enables SERS to be performed using optically trapped Ag nanoparticle clusters. View full abstract»

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  • Nano-Theranostics With Plasmonic Nanobubbles

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300412
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    The multifunctionality of uniting diagnosis and treatment in one cell level theranostic procedure is the major promise and challenge of nanoparticle medicine. The efficacy, functionality, safety and precision of a nanoparticle medicine may be radically increased by replacing materials with preset stationary properties by non-stationary on-demand nanoevents with dynamically tunable diagnostic and therapeutic functions. This review describes such events, plasmonic nanobubbles, which are vapor nanobubbles threshold-activated around metal nanoparticles by a short laser pulse. Their transient nature delivers unprecedented multi-functionality and unites the diagnosis and therapy at cell level. Plasmonic nanobubble theranostics presents an entirely new platform for future medicine that brings established diagnostics and therapeutics to cell level. View full abstract»

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  • Doped QDs Based Photoelectrochemical Sensors for Detection of H _{2} O _{2} and Glucose

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300709
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    In this paper, a novel photoelectrochemical sensor based on doped quantum dots (QDs) without enzymes was designed for direct detection of H2O2 and indirect detection of glucose. First, the fabrication processes of doped QDs based sensors were described. Second, doped QDs based sensors were tested under different applied potentials and light sources to optimize the measurement conditions. Third, the sensing properties of doped QDs on H2O2 were given, which have been compared with the results from other QDs. Cu doped QDs showed better sensing properties. Finally, detection of glucose was achieved by doped QDs based photoelectrochemical sensors. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the doped QDs based sensors designed by us can be used to detect H2O2 and glucose. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Grating-Nanoslot Probe Tip for Near-Field Subwavelength Light Confinement and Fluorescent Sensing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300911
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    We demonstrate a near-field sub-wavelength light confinement probe tip comprised of compact embedded metallic focus grating (CEMFG) coupler and photonic crystal (PhC) based λ/4 nano-slot tip, in terms of its far-field radiation directivity and near-field sub-wavelength light enhancement. The embedded metallic grating coupler increases the free space coupling at tilted coupling angle of 25° with over 280 times light intensity enhancement for 10 μm coupler size. Further, 20 nm air slot embedded in single line defect PhC waveguide are designed, using the impedance matching concept of the λ/4 “air rod”, to form the TE mode light wave resonance right at the probe tip aperture opening. This leads to the light beam spot size reduction down to λ/20. The near-field center peak intensity is enhanced by 4.2 times from that of the rectangular waveguide input, with the total enhancement factor of 1185 from free space laser source intensity. The near-field fluorescence excitation and detection also demonstrate its single molecular enhanced fluorescence measurement capability. View full abstract»

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  • Inkjet-Printed Fluidic Paper Devices for Chemical and Biological Analytics Using Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300510
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    The fabrication of substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by printing plasmonic structures on paper has emerged as a potential low-cost replacement for conventional nanofabricated SERS devices. Not only are the paper devices low in cost to produce, the inherent flexibility and fluidic transport capabilities of paper provide advantages in sample collection and processing, as well as analyte concentration. In this study, we review the recent progress in paper or membrane SERS devices fabricated through inkjet printing and other deposition methods. We then report a new potential diagnostics application for paper SERS devices that leverages the fluidic transport and chromatographic capabilities of paper to enable SERS-based detection following PCR. The use of paper SERS creates the potential for a simple yet densely multiplexed PCR assay that is not possible with conventional fluorescence-based transduction. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Size and Volume of Nanoparticles Within Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7300608
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    We investigate the effect of volume and size of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of rhodamine 6G (R6G) within hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The HC-PCF enhanced the Raman signal of R6G by a factor ~90 via photonic band gap. In addition, the optimal size and volume of AgNP enhanced the Raman signal of R6G by a factor of ~43, resulting in a total enhancement of ~4223 in HC-PCF. A comparison of AgNP enhancement factors in HC-PCF and bulk sample (cuvette) is presented at their optimal size and volume with respect to R6G. The SERS based HC-PCF sensing platform as optimized for R6G as a test molecule, was further utilized for monitoring adenosine for clinical application. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John Cartledge
Queen's University