By Topic

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1915

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • A. I. E. E. third Midwinter Convention, February 17–19, 1915

    Page(s): 29 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Cleveland meeting, March 18–19, 1915

    Page(s): 31 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Increase of membership

    Page(s): 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Plants of National joint committee on line construction

    Page(s): 33 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Directors' meeting, New York, January 8, 1915

    Page(s): 34 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Past section and past branch meetings

    Page(s): 35 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Personal

    Page(s): 38 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Membership

    Page(s): 39 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1154 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Employment department

    Page(s): 48 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (454 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Library accessions

    Page(s): 49 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Officers and Board of Directors, 1914–1916

    Page(s): 52 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Comparison of calculated and measured corona loss curves

    Page(s): 169 - 176
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (938 KB)  

    Corona loss curves made on a number of experimental and practical lines by different investigators have been corrected and plotted. The loss has been calculated by the quadratic law for each case under the same conditions as to spacing, conductor diameter, altitude, etc. and plotted for comparison. It is of interest to note that the measured values were made at various parts of the country. The time period covers a number of years and the altitude varies from sea level to 10,000 ft. An exact check of calculated and measured losses cannot be expected, as the exact conditions are not always known as to conductor surface, wave shape, etc. Such losses are also difficult to measure, especially on practical lines where the voltage range is quite small and there are a large number of corrections to make. The check is as close as the accuracy of the measurements permit. The variations from the calculated values are in most cases due to the fact that practical measurements have been made on the unstable part of the curve below the visual critical voltage value. The losses at this part of the curve are fully discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Distortion of alternating current wave caused by cyclic variation in resistance

    Page(s): 177 - 186
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1029 KB)  

    An alternating current flowing through an unvarying non-inductive resistance has a wave-form that is undistorted and is identical with the wave-form of electromotive force. If the resistance varies during each cycle, on account of changing current and temperature or other causes, the current wave-form will be distorted and will contain a third harmonic that will flatten the current wave when the temperature coefficient is positive and will peak the current wave when the temperature coefficient is negative. If there is no temperature lag in the resistance (that is, if the maxima and minima of temperature and resistance coincide with the maxima and minima of current), the maximum of the third harmonic in the current wave will coincide with the maximum of the fundamental, so as to flatten or peak the wave as stated. A temperature lag in the resistance, however, causes the third harmonic of the current to be retarded in phase, and likewise causes a slight shifting of the fundamental of current with respect to the electromotive force. Due to this distortion of current wave-form, power factor becomes less than unity and a vector diagram in more than two dimensions is required to show the true relations between current, electromotive force and power factor. These conclusions, reached theoretically, conform with the experimental facts so far as known. In practical cases cyclic change of resistance is so small that the distortion due to it is insignificant. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The characteristics of electric motors involved in their application

    Page(s): 187 - 193
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB)  

    Industrial power work in the electrical field consists primarily in applying electric motors to the driving of various kinds of machinery. The machines to be driven possess characteristics of different kinds and are run on duty cycles which are often peculiar to the classes of industry involved. Generally the characteristics of the machine to be driven are fixed and the class of motor suitable for this work must be selected with regarded to these features. Motors themselves are adapted to the work of driving machines largely through various forms of controllers. A study of the characteristics of various classes of electric motors in the light of their adaptability to the requirements of the work to be done and a review of certain limitations and mechanical considerations is the object of the paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Searchlights

    Page(s): 195 - 208
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4201 KB)  

    Searchlights have remained practically the same for the past 25 years, although there is great necessity of an improved searchlight on account of the increased range of torpedoes and increased speed of torpedo boats. The constituent parts of a searchlight are given in the paper and some of the essential and desirable features of the various parts are shown. Methods of testing searchlight mirrors are given, with illustrative figures. The results of tests conducted on Navy standard 36-in. and 60-in. searchlights and Beck 44-in. searchlight show the latter type to be much more efficient in illuminating distant objects. Relative results are shown in the figures. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 100,000-volt portable substation

    Page(s): 209 - 220
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6538 KB)  

    Expanding needs of the Southern Power system, paralleled many miles by railroads, required a flexible-connection transformer relay of large capacity, easily portable, and self-contained on a single car. The equipment in operation is of 4000 kv-a. actual capacity, and provided with high- and low-tension switch gear, instruments, panel, wiring and cables, oil-insulated, self-cooled transformers with motor-driven blower for forced air draft, special means of establishing the high-tension delta with 100,000-volt clearances, after transformer terminals and high-tension switches have been raised by a portable derrick, from receptacles where all fragile parts are protected from malicious tampering. Besides meeting standard freight car requirements for transportation, substantial, specially braced trussed superstructure is provided for supporting cabs and switch gear, which latter, as well as transformer terminals, must be lowered, during transit, to meet railroad clearances. Unusual flexibility of voltage connections is secured, contributing largely to the successful operation. Current for lights, instruments and blower motor is obtained from auxiliary transformer windings incorporated with the main units. Low-tension arrangements allow operation at various voltages with minimum switching. The entire equipment is designed for simplicity and dispatch in disassembly for transit, and reassembly in new location. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dimmers for tungsten lamps

    Page(s): 221 - 228
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2406 KB)  

    The advent of tungsten lamps for theatre lighting made necessary a complete re-design of the dimming apparatus. Dimmers designed for the control of carbon filament lamps do not give smooth and flickerless regulation when used with equal loads of tungsten lamps. This is due to the temperature coefficient of resistance of the lamp filaments, that of the carbon filaments being negative, and that of the tungsten filaments positive. Curves are shown to indicate the change in lamp resistance and candle power for various watt inputs. Curves for both carbon and tungsten filament lamps are shown in order to bring out the contrast, and a method described for determining the resistance per step and number of steps in the dimmer designed for control of tungsten lights. Following is a brief indication of commercial requirements in dimmer design. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electrical precipitation: Theory of the removal of suspended matter from fluids

    Page(s): 229 - 236
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (915 KB)  

    The frictional resistance of a small particle moving through a fluid is given by the law of Stokes. Knowing the density and size of the particles and the coefficient of viscosity of the medium, the amount of energy required to remove suspended matter from fluids can be calculated. From the formulas the relative efficiences of the different methods used to remove suspended matter from gases can be obtained. From these formulas the electrical method is shown to be especially adapted to fine suspended particles or to a mixture of gases that can be selectively ionized. In a practical case of electrical precipitation of smoke it is shown that approximately 4 per cent of the energy of the corona discharge is actually expended in the process of precipitation. The manner of the distribution of the energy of the corona discharge is discussed. The nature of the corona ionization and the “corona” rays is also briefly described. The application of the theory of electrical precipitation is given so that it is possible to determine the best working conditions for precipitating a given kind of suspended matter from a given fluid. The theory also indicates the limits of usefulness of the method of electrical precipitation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Magnetic and other properties of electrolytic iron melted in vacuo

    Page(s): 237 - 261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (11978 KB)  

    Electrolytic iron of a purity of 99.97 to 99.98 per cent was melted in fused magnesia crucibles in a modified Arsem furnace, forged into rods, machined, and annealed in an electric furnace according to various heat cycles. The magnetic properties were obtained by the Burrows double bar method. Determinations were also made of the electrical resistance, chemical composition, and physical properties, including microstructure and critical temperatures as well as tensile tests. A few commercial iron and steel samples were tested for comparison. The following valuable results were obtained: 1. Pure iron melted in an atmosphere of carbon monoxide under atmospheric pressure will absorb both carbon and oxygen with the result that the iron thus produced is of an inferior magnetic quality. 2. Low carbon iron melted in vacuo will lose 50 to 90 per cent of its original carbon content. 3. The magnetic quality of electrolytic iron melted in vacuo is decidedly superior to any grade of iron thus far produced, the maximum permeability obtained being 19,000 at a flux density of 9500 gausses. The average hysteresis loss obtained is less than 50 per cent of that found in the best grade of commercial transformer steel, due to the fact that the coercive force is very much lower than for silicon steel, although the retentivity is higher. 4. The specific electrical resistance of pure iron melted in vacuo is 9.96 microhms per centimeter cube. 5. Swedish charcoal iron melted in vacuo has a magnetic quality approximating that of electrolytic iron melted in vacuo, chiefly due to the reduction of the carbon content. The author suggests that the high electrical conductivity and hence large eddy current losses in this material may possibly be greatly reduced by the addition of silicon or aluminum without very materially affecting the magnetic quality. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Effect of moisture in the earth on temperature of underground cables

    Page(s): 263 - 270
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1118 KB)  

    The author describes a permanent installation which was made for supplying moisture to the earth in the neighborhood of underground cables with the object of reducing their temperature. The approximate temperature of the cables is found by taking with a resistance thermometer the temperature of a duct adjacent to the cable which is the source of heat. In uncovering the conduits and exposing them to air, as a remedy for hot spots in the cable, it was found that the adjacent earth was hot and dry so that it crumbled to powder. This suggested opening a ditch in the ground above the conduit and directing a stream of water through it. This was found to lower the temperature immediately several degrees. Where an open conduit was not practical, water was discharged in to a vacant cable duct by means of a hose and this was found to be more effective than the open ditch method. These experiments led to the installation of a line of porous tile duct in the earth above the conduit, surrounded with clean sand. The leakage of water through the pores of this duct has been found very effective in reducing the temperature of the cables. Whenever the temperature of the cables is found by exploring with a resistance thermometer to approach the danger point, water is turned into the porous drain tile, and the temperature is taken on successive days to see whether the desired reduction has been obtained. In this way one or two men, with resistance thermometers attached to long leads, can keep track of and control the temperature of the cables in a large system. No breakdowns of insulation of cables have occurred due to high temperature since the adoption of this method. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Oil circuit breakers: Notes on arc phenomena and tendencies in design

    Page(s): 271 - 283
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2643 KB)  

    The purpose of the paper is to present a brief explanatory discussion of some of the arc phenomena in oil circuit breakers and to describe the present tendencies in oil breaker construction and practise. A proposed method for rating breakers and specifying is included. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Discussion on “engineering data relating to high-tension transmission systems” (sub-committee report: Thomas), Detroit, Mich., June 25, 1914. (see proceedings for October, 1914)

    Page(s): 284 - 299
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1958 KB)  

    John B. Fisken: On page 1457 it is stated for the Washington Waterpower Company, “We have noted no deterioration in conductors.” That, as far as I know, was true up to within the past few weeks. Since I left home I have been advised that a very serious deterioration has been noticed in some of the conductors. I have a small sample of wire here which was sent to me at Detroit, which I will give to the chairman; it shows the deterioration to which I refer. I do not know what the cause is, and I cannot account for it, unless it is a corona effect. It appears to be a very serious matter. This line has been in operation about eleven years. The first eighteen months it was operated at about 45,000 volts, and since then at 60,000 volts. The triangle is 42 inches. The insulators are carried on iron pins and wooden poles, and until about two years ago the pins were not grounded. At that time we did ground the pins and that has had some effect on the wire, possibly. I merely call your attention to this to show that we at any rate have found deterioration in the conductors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Discussion on “specification for insulator testing — Covering inspection and tests of high-tension line insulators of porcelain, for over 25,000 volts” (engineering data sub-committee), Detroit, Mich., June 25, 1914. (see proceedings for October, 1914)

    Page(s): 300 - 312
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1842 KB)  

    Percy H. Thomas: Last year, the High-Tension Transmission Committee presented a “sample” or “model” or “skeleton” specification, as it might be called, for the testing and inspection of high-tension porcelain insulators. This has been quite extensively remodeled during the present year, without greatly changing the fundamental ideas of the specifications. Presumably this discussion will be the last chance for any effective criticism. I wish to open the subject by giving a few words of explanation in answer to a number of the suggestions which have been made. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Discussion on “report by the joint committee on inductive interference”, Spokane, Wash., September 11, 1914. (see proceedings for September, 1914)

    Page(s): 313 - 335
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2988 KB)  

    P. N. Nunn: The paper just presented is one of signal interest and significance. It is of unusual moment in this, that it reports both an elaborate scientific study of great technical value and also a legal adjudication of conflicting interests between two public utilities of vast economic importance. Briefly stated, the paper reproduces a certain report to the Railway Commission of the State of California, by a committee authorized by it to investigate the subject of electrical interference by other electrical circuits with “communication” service, including telephone, telegraph and railway signal. The investigation, occupying several years, assumed the character of a research into the intricate phenomena of distant electromagnetic induction, its remote origin in the characteristics and manipulation of power apparatus and its acoustic effects upon telephone service. To present the details of the various tests, methods and apparatus employed has involved the production of fifty special reports now summarized in this general report which draws a series of conclusions and submits and discusses a proposed code of rules for the prevention of the interference in question. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

This Magazine ceased publication in 1919. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope