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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 1916

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Pacific-Coast Convention

    Page(s): 193 - 194
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Past section meetings

    Page(s): 194
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Personal

    Page(s): 194
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Application for election

    Page(s): 194 - 195
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Employment department

    Page(s): 195 - 196
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Accessions to library

    Page(s): 197
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Officers and board of directors, 1916–1917

    Page(s): 198 - 200
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  • Characteristics of admittance type of wave form standard

    Page(s): 1171 - 1186
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    It is generally agreed that a sine wave of electromotive force at generator terminals and on transmission lines is best. A sine wave is now specified as standard by the Standardization Rules of the Institute, but the present methods for prescribing allowable limits and for determining how near an actual wave is to a true sine wave are very unsatisfactory. The Standards Committee, through a sub-committee, is studying the subject in order to ascertain whether a standard can be specified that will be more suitable in its characteristics and more practical in its application. As a contribution to this study, the characteristics of a certain type of standard are here set forth. It is hoped that various points of view and much information may be brought out in discussion, which may be on the general subject and not limited to the particular phase discussed in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • The high-voltage potentiometer

    Page(s): 1187 - 1192
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    The author describes a high voltage potentiometer which may be made at reasonable expense consisting of a water resistance potential distributor and a sparking probe potential difference detector. The water resistance consists of a column of water moving slowly through an ample length of garden hose, and tapping in points through which to connect the probe are provided by breaking the hose at regular intervals and connecting it with any of the plain metal connectors found on the market as “hose menders.” The results of an integrity trial are charted in Fig. 2. The device is intended for investigations in which the results are not required to be known within 2 or 3 per cent of their actual value. View full abstract»

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  • Underground distribution systems

    Page(s): 1193 - 1208
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    The object of this paper is to show the importance of properly designing an underground distribution system for the district it serves and the particular service it is to supply. Simply placing the wires underground does not constitute an efficient system. Underground distribution is the ultimate solution of the distribution problem that confronts every Electric Light and Power company operating in progressive towns and cities. The excessive cost of this class of construction, as compared with aerial construction, and the permanent nature of the system, warrant a careful study of the conditions and justifies a reasonable expense in the development of suitable plans for the system. The financial success of an electrical undertaking depends on supplying efficient and reliable service in an economical manner, and in order to secure this result the distribution system must be carefully designed and properly installed. The automatic substation, when perfected and adopted, will not only permit a great reduction in the number of ducts required and a lower first cost, but will provide more reliable service and bring underground distribution within the reach of many small companies where the cost of this class of service would not be warranted under the former conditions. The suggestions offered in this paper are based on many years experience and are made with a sincere desire to aid those interested in this class of work, particularly in the design and installation of the first system in the smaller cities. View full abstract»

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  • Some features of domestic electric cooking and heating

    Page(s): 1209 - 1219
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    Although electric cooking and heating has always been considered possible, it has only recently become popular; hence the engineer is found unprepared with information on the characteristics of the load. From tests made on a number of domestic cooking and heating installations, it would appear that electric cooking has a better load factor than a lighting load and that this load factor improves as the number of ranges increases. The errors incident to these tests are discussed. The demand factors on being plotted against number of ranges appear to follow a logarithmic curve which may be accounted for by the fact that a modification of the law of probability would no doubt determine the probable coincident demand of a number of ranges and that this law is a logarithmic function. Suggestions are made for the checking of these results by others. In the heating field, the effect of water heaters superimposed on range loads is discussed in relation to their effect on the central station loads and income. View full abstract»

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  • Testing for defective insulators on high tension transmission lines

    Page(s): 1221 - 1235
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    This paper discusses the importance and necessity of field tests on high-tension insulators and three methods of making such tests, viz.; with the oscillator, the megger, and the telephone receiver. The latter is described in detail, and some data given on its development and use on a 60,000-volt line in western Washington, covering a period of 2.5 years. Laboratory checks on 13 of the defective insulators located, are given, and an approximate relation established between the telephone receiver test and the break-down value at 60 cycles. Success of test is shown in note on its effect on operation. Figures from regular routine tests show percentage defect on various lines, and cost of locating and replacing defective units is given at $1.13 each (labor only), and cost of testing only was 2.3 cents per insulator on the line. A method of studying the rate of depreciation is outlined and some data given in illustration. View full abstract»

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  • Insulator failures under transient voltages

    Page(s): 1237 - 1244
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    The operation of a high-voltage transmission line involves changes in energy distribution that are very conducive to high-frequency disturbances and transients of very steep front. These are often superposed on the normal frequency voltage of the line in such a way as to impose great stresses on the insulators. The mechanism of failure of an insulator is of great importance to those designing and operating transmission lines. This paper presents the results of recent investigations on the failure of insulators under impact and combined impact and normal-frequency voltages. Microphotographs of the resulting failures are included. The breakdown of a dielectric involves energy which is a time function and the importance of the duration of the stress in determining the magnitude of the voltage necessary to puncture an insulator is discussed. Due to the short duration of transients, insulators are often punctured repeatedly by them, the procelain in the puncture solidifying again on account of the small energy involved. These sealed punctures however weaken the insulator, lowering its dielectric strength materially. The importance of the elimination of air holes and defects in the porcelain is shown. Some essential features of a successful line insulator are stated. View full abstract»

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  • An artificial transmission line with adjustable line constants

    Page(s): 1245 - 1257
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    A description is given of an artificial transmission line which can be readily adjusted to represent 200 miles (321.86 km.) of commercial transmission lines of any spacing up to a maximum of 120 in. (3 m.) and any size wire up to 4/0 copper. It can also be made to correspond to aerial or cable telephone lines and to power cables. The use of this type of line in laboratory courses on transmission line phenomena is illustrated by a number of typical experiments. It is shown that quantitative data, sufficiently accurate for instructional purposes, may be obtained by using portable voltmeters and ammeters and by the oscillograph. View full abstract»

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  • Steel conductors for transmission lines

    Page(s): 1258 - 1272
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    The electrical tests of some steel conductors of moderately large size have been published, and they indicate that there is an opening for the profitable use of steel cables on the branch lines of power systems of all voltages, in the same way that small steel conductors have already been used on branch lines at low voltages. Mechanical weakness or corona loss prohibits the use of small copper or aluminum conductors in many cases, and so steel becomes preferable. Steel cables will not generally be economical on main transmission lines, except for long spans, and for high altitudes where corona is excessive. They may be advisable as bare conductors for direct-current railway feeders. They deteriorate more rapidly than copper conductors. Steel cables for alternating current should be finely stranded and the different groups of wires should be spiraled in opposite directions. Fortunately, medium-priced grades of steel give better results with alternating current than some more expensive grades. The characteristic increase of resistance and reactance with increase of current or frequency may be valuable for limiting lightning and switching surges and short circuit currents. As there are large differences in electrical characteristics between different grades of steel, it is desirable that tests of medium priced steel cables manufactured in America be made and published, so that the data can be used in the designing of transmission lines. View full abstract»

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  • A distribution system for domestic power service from commercial and engineering standpoints

    Page(s): 1273 - 1280
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    The adoption of electric heating and cooking has begun to reach' such large proportions that the average distribution system is unable to take care of the increased load. As the domestic power load in all probability will increase until every house is electrically equipped, this paper has endeavored to lay out a distribution sysem to take care of this class of business and to estimate the revenue to be derived from it. Units of load, consumption and revenue were taken from tests conducted in different parts of the city and applied to a definite section of the city thought to be representative, as it contained every class of house, with schools, churches, etc. In view of the results obtained, it would seem that this business would be profitable at a still lower rate, and that it would be advisable for the central station man to make provision for this increased load when rebuilding any lines in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature rise of insulated lead-covered cables

    Page(s): 1281 - 1306
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    After a brief historical note the factors that determine the rating of a cable are considered. The thermal conductivity of a cable is expressed in terms of the volume thermal conductivity of the insulation, the surface thermal conductivity of the lead sheath, and the dimensions of the cable. The values of the thermal conductivities as given by various observers including the author are compared. A diagram is shown for readily obtaining the thermal conductivities of one-conductor cables, and tables are given of the carrying capacity of one-conductor cables for various duct temperatures and thicknesses of insulation. Factors are added so that the carrying capacity of multiple-conductor cables may be taken from these tables. Sometimes the lead sheath of a cable carries considerable stray current. A formula is given for calculating the increased temperature due to such current. The carrying capacity of a cable is largely determined by the thermal properties of the duct line in which it is installed. This feature is discussed briefly. The overload or intermittent rating is calculated from a formula involving the thermal capacity of the cable multiplied by a factor. Experimental values of this factor for several types of cables are given. A formula is given to take account of variable air temperature. Various formulas given in the paper are developed in three appendixes. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on high-voltage D-C. railway practise (Renshaw), New York, April 14, 1916 (see proceedings for April, 1916)

    Page(s): 1307 - 1337
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    Frank J. Sprague: Mr. Renshaw's interesting paper offers a gratifying opportunity for reflection to one who has been identified with the development of electric railway advancement since its commercial inception, and who may fairly claim to have played a not inconsequential part in that development. It offers a luminous example of what is known in law as a plea of “confession and avoidance,” and illustrates, somewhat tardily, the old adage that it isn't always safe to prophesy. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Magazine ceased publication in 1919. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope