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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • Improvements in the millimeter-wave subsystem for Josephson junction array voltage standard systems

    Page(s): 2353 - 2358
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)  

    Improvements in the millimeter-wave subsystem have been accomplished to provide higher millimeter-wave power to a Josephson junction array chip. The 94-GHz oscillator output power has been increased to 90 mW by incorporating an InP Gunn diode. The frequency stability of the InP Gunn oscillator is maintained at 10-10 of the center frequency. A low-loss dielectric waveguide has been installed in liquid helium to reduce the insertion losses of the millimeter waves to 3 dB/2.5 m. The improved millimeter-wave system has been confirmed to operate well in a Josephson junction array voltage standard system for voltage calibration at the 1-V level with the specified accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Huber optimization of circuits: a robust approach

    Page(s): 2279 - 2287
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    The authors introduce an approach to robust circuit optimization using Huber functions, both two-sided and one-sided. They compare Huber optimization with l1, l2, and minimax methods in the presence of faults, large and small measurement errors, bad starting points, and statistical uncertainties. They demonstrate FET statistical modeling, multiplexer optimization, analog fault location, and data fitting. They extend the Huber concept by introducing a one-sided Huber function for large-scale optimization. For large-scale problems, the designer often attempts, by intuition, a preliminary optimization by selecting a small number of dominant variables. It is demonstrated, through multiplexer optimization, that the one-sided Huber function can be more effective and efficient than minimax in overcoming a bad starting point View full abstract»

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  • Novel staggered resonator array superconducting 2.3-GHz bandpass filter

    Page(s): 2345 - 2352
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    A stripline bandpass filter structure is presented which consists of a parallel array of equally spaced half-wavelength resonators. Couplings are controlled by introducing a small amount of stagger in the positions of the resonators. A very compact narrowband superconducting filter of this type was fabricated with excellent results. Attention is given to the electrical design and to the packaging and interface designs View full abstract»

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  • The wave-equation FD-TD method for the efficient eigenvalue analysis and S-matrix computation of waveguide structures

    Page(s): 2109 - 2115
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    A modified finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) formulation based on the direct discretization of the vector wave-equation is applied to the efficient analysis of hybrid-mode waveguiding structures. For both 3-D and 2-D waveguide eigenvalue problems, the formulation requires only one grid, and just the solution of three coupled equations is necessary. Numerical examples concerning the resonant frequencies for an inhomogeneously filled waveguide resonator as well as the fundamental- and higher-order-mode propagation factors for insulated image guides, shielded coupled dielectric guides, and lateral open dielectric ridge guides demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The theory is verified by comparison with results obtained by other methods View full abstract»

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  • A W-band integrated power module using MMIC MESFET power amplifiers and varactor doublers

    Page(s): 2288 - 2294
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    A high-performance integrated power module using U-band MMIC MESFET power amplifiers in conjunction with W-band MMIC high efficiency varactor doublers has been developed for millimeter-wave system applications. The authors present the design, fabrication, and performance of this W-band integrated power module. Measurement results show an output power of 90 mW with an overall associated gain of 29.5 dB at 94 GHz. A saturated power of over 95 mW was also achieved. These results represent the highest reported power and gain at W-band using MESFET and varactor frequency-doubling technologies. This integrated power module is suitable for future 94-GHz missile seeker applications View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and measurement of NRD-guide leaky wave coupler in Ka-band

    Page(s): 2126 - 2132
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    A new structure for a nonradiative dielectric (NRD) waveguide directional coupler has been developed. The structure combines two NRD guides and a dielectric slab guide in order to utilize a leakage mechanism for coupling. The coupling depends on this leaky mechanism, but not on field interactions as in a conventional proximity coupler. A theoretical formula for calculation of the decay constant is derived. The field along the NRD guide and the decay constant are measured at Ka band (35 GHz) and compared with the theoretical data. Reasonable agreement between the measured and theoretical data is found View full abstract»

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  • Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators

    Page(s): 2383 - 2391
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    An investigation study of microwave-optical mixing in different configurations of LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulators is presented. In each case, models that describe mixer performance are developed and are shown to be in good agreement with measurements. For antenna remoting applications, a technique to down-convert RF signals is demonstrated by cascading in series a pair of Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulators. In general, it is shown that by virtue of their truly broadband characteristics, interferometric modulators can also by employed as microwave mixers at frequencies up to 40 GHz View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous analysis of mixed transmission line interconnects using the frequency-domain TLM method

    Page(s): 2248 - 2255
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    A rigorous analysis of mixed transmission line interconnects is presented using an improved version of the frequency-domain TLM method. Direct via hole through connections and indirect coupling effects between layered microstrip and coplanar waveguides are investigated as well as the effect of bonding wire transitions between MMIC modules and the microstrip substrate carrier. This investigation is extended to include the abrupt transition from a GaAs-based microstrip line to a rib-type microstrip line, which has not been analyzed before. In the context of this work new developments of the frequency-domain TLM method are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the transmission line nodes used in the FDTLM can be obtained either by modifying the existing time-domain TLM nodes or directly in the frequency domain. The latter approach leads to a faster algorithm View full abstract»

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  • Resonant modes in shielded uniaxial-anisotropic dielectric rod resonators

    Page(s): 2198 - 2205
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    Rigorous field analysis by the mode-matching method is presented for dielectric rod resonators, including such uniaxial dielectrics as sapphire, which are placed between two parallel conducting plates or in a conducting cavity. The wave equations for EZ and HZ in a uniaxial anisotropic dielectric medium are derived in a cylindrical coordinate system. Based on these wave equations, the characteristic equations for the two resonator structures are derived and can be used to calculate the resonant frequencies of any resonant mode. Cutoff conditions of the resonant modes are discussed for parallel-plate-type resonators. Resonant frequencies of some lower order modes are calculated for both types of resonator. Mode charts useful for designing the resonators are presented. It is verified that the mode-matching method used commonly for the analysis of isotropic-dielectric resonators can be applied successfully to uniaxial-dielectric resonators View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided design of microwave frequency doublers using a new circuit structure

    Page(s): 2264 - 2268
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    A circuit structure for microwave frequency doublers is presented. It has been used in the design of a MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) doubler. Its major advantages are effective suppression of the unwanted odd-order harmonics and conversion gain to the desired second harmonic. These advantages have been demonstrated by computer simulation and further verified by measured results for the MMIC circuit. The circuit can be used in both balanced and unbalanced output configurations, without requiring baluns or transformers. The fundamental frequency suppression was found to be over 50 dB, while better than 3 dB conversion gain was achieved View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic GaAs HBT p-i-n diode variable gain amplifiers, attenuators, and switches

    Page(s): 2295 - 2302
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB)  

    The authors report on monolithic circuits integrating HBTs and p-i-n diode using a common HBT MBE structure. An HBT variable gain amplifier using p-i-n diode as a variable resistor achieved a gain of 14.6 dB, a bandwidth out to 9 GHz, a gain control range of >15 dB, and an IP3 of 28 dBm. A two-stage HBT p-i-n diode attenuator from 1-10 GHz and an X-band one-pole two-throw HBT p-i-n diode switch were also demonstrated. The two-stage p-i-n attenuator has over 50 dB dynamic range at 2 GHz and a maximum IP3 of 9 dBm. The minimum insertion loss is 1.7 dB per stage and has a flat response to 10 GHz. The X-band switch has an insertion loss of 0.82 dB and an off-isolation of 25 dB. The bandwidth is greater than 35% and the IP3 is greater than 34.5 dBm. These circuits consist of p-i-n diodes constructed from the base-collector MBE layers of a baseline HBT process. This is the first monolithic integration of p-i-n diode switch, variable gain control, and attenuation functions in an HBT technology without additional processing steps or MBE material growth View full abstract»

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  • Full-wave analysis of superconducting microstrip lines on anisotropic substrates using equivalent surface impedance

    Page(s): 2359 - 2367
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    A computationally efficient full-wave technique is developed to analyze superconducting microstrip lines on M-plane sapphire in which the optical axis is in the plane of the substrate at an arbitrary angle with respect to the propagation direction. To increase the efficiency of the method, the superconducting strip is replaced by an equivalent surface impedance which accounts for the loss and kinetic inductance of the superconductor. The complex propagation constant and characteristic impedance are calculated. The calculated results show good agreement with previously published data and with the results of the more rigorous volume-integral-equation method View full abstract»

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  • An MMIC-compatible tightly coupled line structure using embedded microstrip

    Page(s): 2303 - 2310
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    The authors present a highly manufacturable coupled line structure for MMICs (monolithic microwave integrated circuits) which uses embedded microstrip to achieve tight coupling and only uses the process steps necessary to make MIM (metal-insulator-metal) capacitors. Passive circuits demonstrated using this technique include a single-section 5-21-GHz broadband 3-dB coupler and a 6-15-GHz 90° Schiffman section. The coupler and the Schiffman section use tight (2-dB) to extremely tight (0.7-dB) coupling factors, respectively. This is the first time that a coupler has achieved such a wide bandwidth on a 125-μm-thick GaAs substrate View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of cylindrical dielectric resonators in rectangular waveguides and cavities

    Page(s): 2174 - 2181
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    The mode matching method is used to accurately model a generalized cylindrical dielectric resonator structure in a rectangular waveguide or cavity. The field distributions of different modes in cavities are given. The resonant frequencies of the cavities are calculated and compared to the measured data, showing very good agreement. The resonator structure can be a dielectric disk resonator, a ring resonator, a dielectric resonator with support, etc. This structure can be used in filter design as the basic element, providing very good mechanical stability. The slot coupling between cavities is also analyzed, showing some interesting results View full abstract»

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  • Noise design of active feedback resonator BEF

    Page(s): 2133 - 2138
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    It is shown that, in a filter design system which introduces noise temperature into the active feedback resonator (AFR), the AFR band elimination filter (BEF) can be designed using techniques for the conventional passive BEF. In this system, the passive BEF circuit used for electrical design is also useful for the noise analysis of the AFR BEF. This analysis reveals that the noise figure (NF) value of the AFR BEF can be calculated from the noise temperatures of AFRs. The optimum NF value is obtained by minimizing these noise temperatures. The noise design of a three-pole AFR BEF is discussed. It is found that the observed NF of the three-pole AFR BEF agrees well with the theoretical values deduced from the designed S-parameters and the observed noise temperatures of the AFRs View full abstract»

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  • 12 GHz low-noise MMIC amplifier designed with a noise model that scales with MODFET size and bias

    Page(s): 2311 - 2316
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    A scalable, bias-dependent FET noise model developed for monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) design is discussed. A three-stage, 12-GHz, MMIC low-noise amplifier (LNA) designed with the model is described. The LNA has a 1.6-dB noise figure and 25.6-dB gain. Lumped elements were used to design an LNA that was significantly smaller per stage (0.31 mm2) than previous MMIC LNAs View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous analysis and design of a high-performance 94 GHz MMIC doubler

    Page(s): 2317 - 2322
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)  

    A 94-GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency doubler with 25% efficiency and 65-mW output power is discussed. Variations in the Schottky-barrier varactor diode's performance as a doubler with its geometry and doping profile are analyzed for optimum efficiency and output power. Optimum doubler performance is obtained by use of the optimized diode parameters resulting from this analysis. Measured diode parameters as well as doubler responses show excellent agreement with the analysis View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of electrooptic sampling by volume-integral method

    Page(s): 2392 - 2399
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)  

    A rigorous treatment of the influence of an inhomogeneous electric field on the differential polarization of an optical field and the corresponding change in transmission of retarder setup is presented. The method yields sensitivity coefficients employed directly in a volume integral. In the case of an external electrooptic probe tip a layered structure with a space-harmonic potential and a Gaussian sampling beam is investigated, and results on sensitivity and spatial resolution are presented. The probing of inhomogeneous longitudinal and transverse fields with the same setup is demonstrated for a microstrip transmission line View full abstract»

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  • A physically based small-signal circuit model for heterostructure acoustic charge transport devices

    Page(s): 2218 - 2226
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)  

    A physically based small-signal circuit model for GaAs-AlGaAs Schottky gate heterostructure acoustic charge transport (HACT) devices is presented. Analytical expressions for the instantaneous and average channel current as a function of gate voltage are obtained from physical device parameters. The charge injection model is based on subthreshold current models for GaAs MESFETs. It is shown that the shape of the sampling aperture of the charge injection operation is approximately Gaussian. Good agreement is obtained between the measured DC channel current versus gate voltage and that predicted by the model. Equivalent circuits for the transfer and output sensing operations and expressions for noise sources due to the physical processes that occur within the device are developed. Thermal, shot, and transfer noise are treated. The form of the analytic expressions for frequency response and noise figure allows easy implementation on commercially available CAE software. Simulations of both gain and noise figure performed on Libra show good agreement with measured data View full abstract»

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  • Feedforward linearization of analog modulated laser diodes-theoretical analysis and experimental verification

    Page(s): 2376 - 2382
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    Feedforward linearization of directly modulated laser diodes for AM CATV (cable television) lightwave transmission systems is discussed. Theoretical simulation and experimental results are presented showing a distortion cancellation of better than 20 dB over an 850-MHz bandwidth. An investigation regarding tolerance and a possible dispersion penalty in the system is performed. These results indicate that feedforward linearization is a promising technique for high-capacity CATV systems View full abstract»

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  • Frequency selective limiters for high dynamic range microwave receivers

    Page(s): 2227 - 2231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    A broadband frequency selective limiter (FSL) which provides over 14 dB of limiting across more than an octave bandwidth is described. The limiter is fabricated with epitaxially grown YIG (yttrium iron garnet) films in a stripline configuration and has a threshold power level of below 0 dBm. Individual limiter strips limit microwave signals in the 1-100-mW range across more than an octave of bandwidth. Multiple FSLs have been cascaded with amplifiers to allow compression of microwave signals with a power range of 60 dB into a range of less than 5 dB View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic image-rejection optoelectronic up-converters that employ the MMIC process

    Page(s): 2323 - 2329
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    The authors present very small 30-GHz-band monolithic image-rejection optoelectronic up-converters that employ the HEMT MMIC process for the first time. MMIC HEMT optoelectronic mixers are characterized by their direct photodetection and nonlinear characteristics. It is shown that common-source configurations have higher response than common-drain configurations, and up-converter applications are preferable to down-converter applications based on the HEMT direct photodetection characteristics. These characteristics are used to realize 30-GHz-band monolithic image-rejection optoelectronic up-converters. An in-phase divider and a branch-line hybrid with two HEMT optoelectronic mixers are successfully integrated in an MMIC chip with an area of 1.5 mm×1.1 mm. Fundamental performance is demonstrated and excellent wideband performance, which comes from the well-balanced operation of monolithic integrated circuits, is confirmed. These monolithic optoelectronic mixers can be used to realize compact and cost-effective one-chip optical receivers, for fiber optic links which support millimeter waves View full abstract»

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  • A general method to simulate noise in oscillators based on frequency domain techniques

    Page(s): 2256 - 2263
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    An approach using perturbation theory to simulate the noise behavior of free-running microwave oscillators based on a piecewise harmonic balance technique is outlined and applied to a planar integrated microwave oscillator at 14 GHz. A single-sideband phase noise of -90 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 100 kHz was measured. Simulated and measured single-sideband phase noise values agree within the accuracy of measurements View full abstract»

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  • V-band high-efficiency high-power AlInAs/GaInAs/InP HEMT's

    Page(s): 2206 - 2210
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    The authors report on the state-of-the-art power performance of InP-based HEMTs (high electron mobility transistors) at 59 GHz. Using a 448-μm-wide HEMT with a gate length of 0.15 μm, an output power of 155 mW with a 4.9-dB gain and a power-added efficiency of 30.1% were obtained. By power-combining two of these HEMTs, an output power of 288 mW with 3.6-dB gain and a power-added efficiency of 20.4% were achieved. This is the highest output power reported with such a high efficiency for InP-based HEMTs, and is comparable to the best results reported for AlGaAs/InGaAs on GaAs pseudomorphic HEMTs at this frequency View full abstract»

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  • Yield-driven electromagnetic optimization via multilevel multidimensional models

    Page(s): 2269 - 2278
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    The authors present the foundation of a sophisticated hierarchical multidimensional response surface modeling system for efficient yield-driven design. The scheme dynamically integrates models and database updating in real optimization time. The method facilitates a seamless, smart, optimization-ready interface. It has been specially designed to handle circuits containing complex subcircuits or components whose simulation requires significant computational effort. This approach makes it possible, for the first time, to perform direct gradient-based yield optimization of circuits with components or subcircuits simulated by an electromagnetic simulator. The efficiency and accuracy of the technique are demonstrated by yield optimization of a three-stage microstrip transformer and a small-signal microwave amplifier. The authors also perform yield sensitivity analysis for the three-stage microstrip transformer View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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